Vine @ one of the most important products of Palestine. The first mention of it is in the history of Noah Genesis:9:20). It is afterwards frequently noticed both in the Old and New Testaments, and in the ruins of terraced vineyards there are evidences that it was extensively cultivated by the Jews. It was cultivated in Palestine before the Israelites took possession of it. The men sent out by Moses brought with them from the Valley of Eshcol a cluster of grapes so large that "they bare it between two upon a staff" Numbers:13:23). The vineyards of En-gedi (Cant. 1:14), Heshbon, Sibmah, Jazer, Elealeh Isaiah:16:8-10; Jeremiah:48:32-34), and Helbon Ezekiel:27:18), as well as of Eshcol, were celebrated. The Church is compared to a vine Psalms:80:8), and Christ says of himself, "I am the vine" John:15:1). In one of his parables also Matthew:21:33) our Lord compares his Church to a vineyard which "a certain householder planted, and hedged round about," etc. Hosea:10:1 is rendered in the Revised Version, "Israel is a luxuriant vine, which putteth forth his fruit," instead of "Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself," of the Authorized Version.
Vine of Sodom @ referred to only in Deuteronomy:32:32. Among the many conjectures as to this tree, the most probable is that it is the 'osher of the Arabs, which abounds in the region of the Dead Sea. Its fruit are the so-called "apples of Sodom," which, though beautiful to the eye, are exceedingly bitter to the taste. (See EN-GEDI
Vinegar @ Heb. hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Psalms:69:21, a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion Matthew:27:34). This was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from compassion, to assuage his thirst. Proverbs:10:26 shows that there was also a stronger vinegar, which was not fit for drinking. The comparison, "vinegar upon nitre," probably means "vinegar upon soda" (as in the marg. of the R.V.), which then effervesces.
VINE @ - the well-known valuable plant (vitis vinifera) very frequently referred to in the Old and New Testaments, and cultivated from the earliest times. The first mention of this plant occurs in Genesis:9:20-21) That it was abundantly cultivated in Egypt is evident from the frequent representations on the monuments, as well as from the scriptural allusions. Genesis:40:9-11; Psalms:78:47) The vines of Palestine were celebrated both for luxuriant growth and for the immense clusters of grapes which they produced, which were sometimes carried on a staff between two men, as in the case of the spies, Numbers:13:23) and as has been done in some instances in modern times. Special mention is made in the Bible of the vines of Eshcol, Numbers:13:24Numbers:32:9) of Sibmah, Heshbon and Elealeh Isaiah:16:8-9-10; Jeremiah:48:32) and of Engedi. (Solomon 1:14) From the abundance and excellence of the vines, it may readily be understood how frequently this plant is the subject of metaphor in the Holy Scriptures. To dwell under the vine and tree is an emblem of domestic happiness and peace, (Kings:4:25; Psalms:128:3; Micah:4:4) the rebellious people of Israel are compared to "wild grapes," "an empty vine," "the degenerate plant of a strange vine," etc. Isaiah:6:2-4; Jeremiah:2:21; Hosea:10:1) It is a vine which our Lord selects to show the spiritual union which subsists between himself and his members. John:15:1-6) The ancient Hebrews probably allowed the vine to go trailing on the ground or upon supports. This latter mode of cultivation appears to be alluded to by Ezekiel. Ezekiel:19:11-12) The vintage, which formerly was a season of general festivity, began in September. The towns were deserted; the people lived among the vineyards in the lodges and tents. Comp. Judges:8:27; Isaiah:16:10; Jeremiah:25:30) The grapes were gathered with shouts of joy by the "grape gatherers," Jeremiah:25:30) and put into baskets. See Jeremiah:6:9) They were then carried on the head and shoulders, or slung upon a yoke, to the "wine-press." Those intended for eating were perhaps put into flat open baskets of wickerwork, as was the custom in Egypt. In Palestine, at present, the finest grapes, says Dr. Robinson, are dried as raisins, and the juice of the remainder, after having been trodden and pressed, "is boiled down to a sirup, which, under the name of dibs , is much used by all classes, wherever vineyards are found, as a condiment with their food." The vineyard, which was generally on a hill, Isaiah:5:1; Jeremiah:31:5; Amos:9:13) was surrounded by a wall or hedge in order to keep out the wild boars, Psalms:80:13) jackals and foxes. Numbers:22:24; Nehemiah:4:3; Solomon 2:15; Ezekiel:13:4-5; Matthew:21:33) Within the vineyard was one or more towers of stone in which the vine-dressers lived. Isaiah:1:8Isaiah:5:2; Matthew:21:33) The vat, which was dug, Matthew:21:33) or hewn out of the rocky soil, and the press, were part of the vineyard furniture. Isaiah:5:2)
VINE OF SODOM @ - occurs only in (32:32) It is generally supposed that this passage alludes to the celebrated apples of Sodom, of which Josephus speaks, "which indeed resemble edible fruit in color, but, on being plucked by the hand, are dissolved into smoke and ashes." It has been variously identified. Dr. Robinson pronounced in favor of the ’osher fruit, the Asclepias (Calotropis) procera of botanists. He says, "The fruit greatly resembles externally a large smooth apple or orange, hanging in clusters of three or four together, and when ripe is of a yellow color. It is now fair and delicious to the eye and soft to the touch but, on being pressed or struck, it explodes with a puff: like a bladder or puff-hall, leaving in the hand only the shreds of the thin rind and a few fibres. It is indeed filled chiefly with air, which gives it the round form." Dr. Hooker writes," The vine of Sodom always thought might refer to Cucumis calocynthis , which is bitter end powders inside; the term vine would scarcely be given to any but a trailing or other plant of the habit of a vine." His remark that the term vine must refer to some plant of the habit of a vine is conclusive against the claims of all the plants hitherto identified with the vine of Sodom.
VINEGAR @ - The Hebrew word translated "vinegar" was applied to a beverage consisting generally of wine or strong drink turned sour, but sometimes artificially made by an admixture of barley and wine, and thus liable to fermentation. It was acid even to a proverb, Proverbs:10:26) and by itself formed an unpleasant draught, Psalms:49:21) but was used by laborers. Ruth:2:14) Similar was the acetum of the Romans --a thin, sour wine, consumed by soldiers. This was the beverage of which the Saviour partook in his dying moments. Matthew:27:48; Mark:15:36; John:19:29-30)
VINEYARDS, PLAIN OF THE @ - This place, mentioned only in Judges:11:33) lay east of the Jordan, beyond Aroer.