Wine @ The common Hebrew word for wine is _yayin_, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is _oinos_, and the Latin _vinun_. But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus rendered. (1.) Ashishah ( 2Samuel:6:19; 1Chronicles:16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hosea:3:1), which, however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes, or, as in the Revised Version, a cake of raisins. (2.) 'Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the same year (Cant. 8:2; Isaiah:49:26; Joel:1:5Joel:3:18; Amos:9:13), from a root meaning "to tread," hence juice trodden out or pressed out, thus referring to the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of intoxication is ascribed to it. (3.) Hometz. See VINEGAR. (4.) Hemer, Deuteronomy:32:14 (rendered "blood of the grape") Isaiah:27:2 ("red wine"), Ezra:6:9Ezra:7:22; Daniel:5:1-2, 4. This word conveys the idea of "foaming," as in the process of fermentation, or when poured out. It is derived from the root _hamar_, meaning "to boil up," and also "to be red," from the idea of boiling or becoming inflamed. (5.) 'Enabh, a grape Deuteronomy:32:14). The last clause of this verse should be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the blood of the grape ['enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hosea:3:1 the phrase in Authorized Version, "flagons of wine," is in the Revised Version correctly "cakes of raisins." (Comp. Genesis:49:11; Numbers:6:3; Deuteronomy:23:24, etc., where this Hebrew word is rendered in the plural "grapes.") (6.) Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices that increase its stimulating properties Isaiah:5:22). Psalms:75:8, "The wine [yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Proverbs:23:30, "mixed wine;" Isaiah:65:11, "drink offering" (R.V., "mingled wine"). (7.) Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" Deuteronomy:28:51); "new wine" Proverbs:3:10); "sweet wine" Micah:6:15; R.V., "vintage"). This Hebrew word has been traced to a root meaning "to take possession of" and hence it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in intoxicating it takes possession of the brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau Genesis:27:28) mention is made of "plenty of corn and tirosh." Palestine is called "a land of corn and tirosh" Deuteronomy:33:28; comp. Isaiah:36:17). See also Deuteronomy:28:51; 2Chronicals:32:28; Joel:2:19; Hosea:4:11, ("wine [yayin] and new wine [tirosh] take away the heart"). (8.) Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess," "to suck up," "absorb"), found only in Isaiah:1:22, Hosea:4:18 ("their drink;" Gesen. and marg. of R.V., "their carouse"), and Nahum:1:10 ("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked according to their drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink", i.e., according to their sobhe). (9.) Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a root meaning "to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Numbers:28:7, "strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink"). It is sometimes distinguished from wine, c.g., Leviticus:10:9, "Do not drink wine [yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Numbers:6:3; Judges:13:4Judges:13:7Isaiah:28:7 (in all these places rendered "strong drink"). Translated "strong drink" also in Isaiah:5:11Isaiah:24:9Isaiah:29:9 ; 56:12; Proverbs:20:1Proverbs:31:6; Micah:2:11. (10.) Yekebh Deuteronomy:16:13, but in R.V. correctly "wine-press"), a vat into which the new wine flowed from the press. Joel:2:24, "their vats;" 3:13, "the fats;" Proverbs:3:10, "Thy presses shall burst out with new wine [tirosh];" Haggai:2:16; Jeremiah:48:33, "wine-presses;" 2Kings:6:27; Job:24:11. (11.) Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In Isaiah:25:6 it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine that has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine. (12.) Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength, or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken Psalms:75:8; Proverbs:23:30). In Acts:2:13 the word _gleukos_, rendered "new wine," denotes properly "sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating. In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they called _debash_, which was obtained by boiling down must to one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In Genesis:43:11 this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash), Exodus:3:8Exodus:3:17Exodus:13:5Exodus:33:3 ; Leviticus:20:24; Numbers:13:27. (See HONEY.) Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee John:2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine Jeremiah:35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period of their vow Numbers:6:1-4); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were perpetually to abstain from it Judges:13:4-5; Luke:1:15Luke:7:33). The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong drink when engaged in their sacred functions Leviticus:10:1Leviticus:10:9-11). "Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the Bible. A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice Exodus:29:40-41), and also with the offering of the first-fruits Leviticus:23:13), and with various other sacrifices Numbers:15:5-7, 10). Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood. Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine Luke:21:34; Romans:13:13; Ephesians:5:18; 1Timothy:3:8; Titus:1:7).
Wine-press @ Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised Isaiah:16:10; Lamentations:1:15; Joel:3:13); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath Nehemiah:13:15; Job:24:11; Isaiah:63:2-3; Haggai:2:16; Joel:2:24). Wine-presses are found in almost every part of Palestine. They are "the only sure relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity. Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in Galilee." The "treading of the wine-press" is emblematic of divine judgment Isaiah:63:2; Lamentations:1:15; Revelation:14:19-20).
Winefat @ Mark:12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage in Matthew:21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See WINE-PRESS
WINE @ - The manufacture of wine is carried back in the Bible to the age of Noah, Genesis:9:20-21) to whom the discovery of the process is apparently, though not explicitly, attributed. The natural history and culture of the vine are described under a separate head. [VINE] The only other plant whose fruit is noticed as having been converted into wine was the pomegranate. (Solomon 8:2) In Palestine the vintage takes place in September, and is celebrated with great rejoicing. The ripe fruit was gathered in baskets, Jeremiah:6:9) as represented in Egyptian paintings, and was carried to the wine-press. It was then placed in the upper one of the two vats or receptacles of which the winepress was formed, and was subjected to the process of "treading," which has prevailed in all ages in Oriental and south European countries. Nehemiah:13:15; Job:24:11; Isaiah:18:10; Jeremiah:25:30Jeremiah:48:33; Amos:9:13; Revelation:19:15) A certain amount of juice exuded front the ripe fruit from its own pressure before treading commenced. This appears to have been kept separate from the rest of the juice, and to have formed the "sweet wine" noticed in Acts:2:13) [See below] The "treading" was effected by one or more men, according to the size of the vat. They encouraged one another by shouts. Isaiah:16:9-10; Jeremiah:25:30Jeremiah:48:33) Their legs and garments were dyed red with the juice. Genesis:40:11; Isaiah:63:2-3) The expressed juice escaped by an aperture into the lower vat, or was at once collected in vessels. A hand-press was occasionally used in Egypt, but we have no notice of such an instrument in the Bible. As to the subsequent treatment of the wine we have but little information. Sometimes it was preserved in its unfermented state and drunk as must, but more generally it was bottled off after fermentation and if it were designed to be kept for some time a certain amount of lees was added to give it body. Isaiah:25:6) The wine consequently required to be "refined" or strained previous to being brought to table. Isaiah:25:6) To wine, is attributed the "darkly-flashing eye," Genesis:40:12) Authorized Version "red," the unbridled tongue, Proverbs:20:1; Isaiah:28:7) the excitement of the spirit, Proverbs:31:6; Isaiah:5:11; Zechariah:9:15Zechariah:10:7) the enchained affections of its votaries, Hosea:4:11) the perverted judgment, Proverbs:31:5; Isaiah:28:7) the indecent exposure, Habakkuk:2:15-16) and the sickness resulting from the heat (chemah , Authorized Version "bottles") of wine. Hosea:7:5) The allusions to the effects of tirosh are confined to a single passage, but this a most decisive one, viz. Hosea:4:11) "Whoredom and wine (yayin) and new wine (tirosh) take away the heart," where tirosh appears as the climax of engrossing influences, in immediate connection with yayin . It has been disputed whether the Hebrew wine was fermented; but the impression produced on the mind by a general review of the above notices is that the Hebrew words indicating wine refer to fermented, intoxicating wine. The notices of fermentation are not very decisive. A certain amount of fermentation is implied in the distension of the leather bottles when new wine was placed in them, and which was liable to burst old bottles. It is very likely that new wine was preserved in the state of must by placing it in jars or bottles and then burying it in the earth. The mingling that we read of in conjunction with wine may have been designed either to increase or to diminish the strength of the wine, according as spices or water formed the ingredient that was added. The notices chiefly favor the former view; for mingled liquor was prepared for high festivals, Proverbs:9:2Proverbs:9:5) and occasions of excess. Proverbs:23:30; Isaiah:5:22) At the same time strength was not the sole object sought; the wine "mingled with myrrh," given to Jesus, was designed to deaden pain, Mark:15:23) and the spiced pomegranate wine prepared by the bride, (Solomon 8:2) may well have been of a mild character. In the New Testament the character of the "sweet wine," noticed in Acts:2:13) calls for some little remark. It could not be new wine in the proper sense of the term, inasmuch as about eight months must have elapsed between the vintage and the feast of Pentecost. The explanations of the ancient lexicographers rather lead us to infer that its luscious qualities were due, not to its being recently made, but to its being produced from the very purest juice of the grape. There can be little doubt that the wines of palestine varied in quality, and were named after the localities in which they were made. The only wines of which we have special notice belonged to Syria these were the wine of Helbon Ezekiel:27:18) and the wine of Lebanon, famed for its aroma. Hosea:14:7) With regard to the uses of wine in private life there is little to remark. It was produced on occasions of ordinary hospitality, Genesis:14:18) and at festivals, such as marriages. John:2:3) Under the Mosaic law wine formed the usual drink offering that accompanied the daily sacrifice, Exodus:29:40) the presentation of the first-fruits, Leviticus:23:13) and other offerings. Numbers:15:5) Tithe was to be paid of wine, as of other products. The priest was also to receive first-fruits of wine, as of other articles. (18:4) comp. Exodus:22:29) The use of wine at the paschal feast was not enjoined by the law, but had become an established custom, at all events in the post-Babylonian period. The wine was mixed with warm water on these occasions. Hence in the early Christian Church it was usual to mix the sacramental wine with water. (The simple wines of antiquity were incomparably less deadly than the stupefying and ardent beverages of our western nations. The wines of antiquity were more like sirups; many of them were not intoxicant; many more intoxicant in a small degree; and all of them, as a rule, taken only when largely diluted with water. They contained, even undiluted, but 4 or 5 percent of alcohol.--Cannon Farrar.)
WINEPRESS @ - From the scanty notices contained in the Bible we gather that, the wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two receptacles of vats placed at different elevations, in the upper one of which the grapes were trodden, while the lower one received the expressed juice. The two vats are mentioned together only in Joel:3:13) "The press is full: the fats overflow" --the upper vat being full of fruit, the lower one overflowing with the must. [WINE] The two vats were usually hewn out of the solid rock. Isaiah:5:2) margin; Matthew:21:33) Ancient winepresses, so constructed, are still to he seen in Palestine.