So @ (Nubian, Sabako), an Ethiopian king who brought Egypt under his sway. He was bribed by Hoshea to help him against the Assyrian monarch Shalmaneser ( 2Kings:17:4). This was a return to the policy that had been successful in the reign of Jeroboam I.
Soap @ Jeremiah:2:22; Malachi:3:2; Heb. borith), properly a vegetable alkali, obtained from the ashes of certain plants, particularly the salsola kali (saltwort), which abounds on the shores of the Dead Sea and of the Mediterranean. It does not appear that the Hebrews were acquainted with what is now called "soap," which is a compound of alkaline carbonates with oleaginous matter. The word "purely" in Isaiah:1:25 (R.V., "throughly;" marg., "as with lye") is lit. "as with _bor_." This word means "clearness," and hence also that which makes clear, or pure, alkali. "The ancients made use of alkali mingled with oil, instead of soap Job:9:30), and also in smelting metals, to make them melt and flow more readily and purely" (Gesenius).
Socho @ a fence; hedge, ( 1Chronicles:4:18; R.V., Soco)=So'choh (kjvKings:4:10; R.V., Socoh), Sho'choh ( 1Samuel:17:1; R.V., Socoh), Sho'co ( 2Chronicals:11:7; R.V., Soco), Sho'cho ( 2Chronicals:28:18; R.V., Soco), a city in the plain or lowland of Judah, where the Philistines encamped when they invaded Judah after their defeat at Michmash. It lay on the northern side of the valley of Elah (Wady es-Sunt). It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Shuweikeh, about 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem. In this campaign Goliath was slain, and the Philistines were completely routed.
Sodom @ burning; the walled, a city in the vale of Siddim Genesis:13:10Genesis:14:1-16). The wickedness of its inhabitants brought down upon it fire from heaven, by which it was destroyed (18:16-33; 19:1-29; Deuteronomy:23:17). This city and its awful destruction are frequently alluded to in Scripture Deuteronomy:29:23Deuteronomy:32:32; Isaiah:1:9-10Isaiah:3:9Isaiah:13:19 ; Jeremiah:23:14; Ezekiel:16:46-56; Zephaniah:2:9; Matthew:10:15; Romans:9:29; 2Peter:2:6, etc.). No trace of it or of the other cities of the plain has been discovered, so complete was their destruction. Just opposite the site of Zoar, on the south-west coast of the Dead Sea, is a range of low hills, forming a mass of mineral salt called Jebel Usdum, "the hill of Sodom." It has been concluded, from this and from other considerations, that the cities of the plain stood at the southern end of the Dead Sea. Others, however, with much greater probability, contend that they stood at the northern end of the sea. [in 1897].
Sodoma @ Romans:9:29; R.V., "Sodom"), the Greek form for Sodom.
Solemn meeting @ Isaiah:1:13), the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles Leviticus:23:36; Numbers:29:35, R.V., "solemn assembly;" marg., "closing festival"). It is the name given also to the convocation held on the seventh day of the Passover Deuteronomy:16:8).
Solomon @ peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the first after their legal marriage ( 2Samuel:12). He was probably born about B.C. 1035 ( 1Chronicles:22:51Chronicles:29:1). He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i.e., "beloved of the Lord" ( 2Samuel:12:24-25). He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple." His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me." His history is recorded in kjvKings:1-11 and 2Chronicals:1-9. His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (kjvKings:1:5-40). During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour. This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (kjvKings:11:1-8; 14:21-31). Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son (kjvKings:2:1-9; 1Chronicles:22:7-16; 28). As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (kjvKings:3:1), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded. He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings. (See HIRAM For some years before his death David was engaged in the active work of collecting materials ( 1Chronicles:29:6-9; 2Chronicals:2:3-7) for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the ark of the covenant. He was not permitted to build the house of God ( 1Chronicles:22:8); that honour was reserved to his son Solomon. (See TEMPLE.) After the completion of the temple, Solomon engaged in the erection of many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and in other parts of his kingdom. For the long space of thirteen years he was engaged in the erection of a royal palace on Ophel (kjvKings:7:1-12). It was 100 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high. Its lofty roof was supported by forty-five cedar pillars, so that the hall was like a forest of cedar wood, and hence probably it received the name of "The House of the Forest of Lebanon." In front of this "house" was another building, which was called the Porch of Pillars, and in front of this again was the "Hall of Judgment," or Throne-room (kjvKings:7:7; 10:18-20; 2Chronicals:9:17-19), "the King's Gate," where he administered justice and gave audience to his people. This palace was a building of great magnificence and beauty. A portion of it was set apart as the residence of the queen consort, the daughter of Pharaoh. From the palace there was a private staircase of red and scented sandal wood which led up to the temple. Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a plentiful supply of water for the city Ecclesiastes:2:4-6). He then built Millo (LXX., "Acra") for the defence of the city, completing a line of ramparts around it (kjvKings:9:15,24; 11:27). He erected also many other fortifications for the defence of his kingdom at various points where it was exposed to the assault of enemies (kjvKings:9:15-19; 2Chronicals:8:2-6). Among his great undertakings must also be mentioned the building of Tadmor (q.v.) in the wilderness as a commercial depot, as well as a military outpost. During his reign Palestine enjoyed great commercial prosperity. Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia, and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of Africa, by which Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the produce of all nations (kjvKings:9:26-28; 10:11-12; 2Chronicals:8:17-182Chronicals:9:21). This was the "golden age" of Israel. The royal magnificence and splendour of Solomon's court were unrivalled. He had seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines, an evidence at once of his pride, his wealth, and his sensuality. The maintenance of his household involved immense expenditure. The provision required for one day was "thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl" (kjvKings:4:22-23). Solomon's reign was not only a period of great material prosperity, but was equally remarkable for its intellectual activity. He was the leader of his people also in this uprising amongst them of new intellectual life. "He spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes" (kjvKings:4:32-33). His fame was spread abroad through all lands, and men came from far and near "to hear the wisdom of Solomon." Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south" Matthew:12:42), the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix. "Deep, indeed, must have been her yearning, and great his fame, which induced a secluded Arabian queen to break through the immemorial custom of her dreamy land, and to put forth the energy required for braving the burdens and perils of so long a journey across a wilderness. Yet this she undertook, and carried it out with safety." (kjvKings:10:1-13; 2Chronicals:9:1-12.) She was filled with amazement by all she saw and heard: "there was no more spirit in her." After an interchange of presents she returned to her native land. But that golden age of Jewish history passed away. The bright day of Solomon's glory ended in clouds and darkness. His decline and fall from his high estate is a sad record. Chief among the causes of his decline were his polygamy and his great wealth. "As he grew older he spent more of his time among his favourites. The idle king living among these idle women, for 1,000 women, with all their idle and mischievous attendants, filled the palaces and pleasure-houses which he had built (kjvKings:11:3), learned first to tolerate and then to imitate their heathenish ways. He did not, indeed, cease to believe in the God of Israel with his mind. He did not cease to offer the usual sacrifices in the temple at the great feasts. But his heart was not right with God; his worship became merely formal; his soul, left empty by the dying out of true religious fervour, sought to be filled with any religious excitement which offered itself. Now for the first time a worship was publicly set up amongst the people of the Lord which was not simply irregular or forbidden, like that of Gideon Judges:8:27), or the Danites Judges:18:30-31), but was downright idolatrous." (kjvKings:11:7; 2Kings:23:13.) This brought upon him the divine displeasure. His enemies prevailed against him (kjvKings:11:14-22, 23-25, 26-40), and one judgment after another fell upon the land. And now the end of all came, and he died, after a reign of forty years, and was buried in the city of David, and "with him was buried the short-lived glory and unity of Israel." "He leaves behind him but one weak and worthless son, to dismember his kingdom and disgrace his name." "The kingdom of Solomon," says Rawlinson, "is one of the most striking facts in the Biblical history. A petty nation, which for hundreds of years has with difficulty maintained a separate existence in the midst of warlike tribes, each of which has in turn exercised dominion over it and oppressed it, is suddenly raised by the genius of a soldier-monarch to glory and greatness. An empire is established which extends from the Euphrates to the borders of Egypt, a distance of 450 miles; and this empire, rapidly constructed, enters almost immediately on a period of peace which lasts for half a century. Wealth, grandeur, architectural magnificence, artistic excellence, commercial enterprise, a position of dignity among the great nations of the earth, are enjoyed during this space, at the end of which there is a sudden collapse. The ruling nation is split in twain, the subject-races fall off, the pre-eminence lately gained being wholly lost, the scene of struggle, strife, oppression, recovery, inglorious submission, and desperate effort, re-commences.", Historical Illustrations.
Solomon's Porch @ John:10:23; Acts:3:11Acts:5:12), a colonnade, or cloister probably, on the eastern side of the temple. It is not mentioned in connection with the first temple, but Josephus mentions a porch, so called, in Herod's temple (q.v.).
Son of God @ The plural, "sons of God," is used Genesis:6:2-4) to denote the pious descendants of Seth. In Job:1:6Job:38:7 this name is applied to the angels. Hosea uses the phrase (1:10) to designate the gracious relation in which men stand to God. In the New Testament this phrase frequently denotes the relation into which we are brought to God by adoption Romans:8:14Romans:8:192Corinthians:6:18; Galatians:4:5-6; Philippians:2:15; 1John:3:1-2). It occurs thirty-seven times in the New Testament as the distinctive title of our Saviour. He does not bear this title in consequence of his miraculous birth, nor of his incarnation, his resurrection, and exaltation to the Father's right hand. This is a title of nature and not of office. The sonship of Christ denotes his equality with the Father. To call Christ the Son of God is to assert his true and proper divinity. The second Person of the Trinity, because of his eternal relation to the first Person, is the Son of God. He is the Son of God as to his divine nature, while as to his human nature he is the Son of David Romans:1:3-4. Comp. Galatians:4:4; John:1:1-14John:5:18-25John:10:30 -38, which prove that Christ was the Son of God before his incarnation, and that his claim to this title is a claim of equality with God). When used with reference to creatures, whether men or angels, this word is always in the plural. In the singular it is always used of the second Person of the Trinity, with the single exception of Luke:3:38, where it is used of Adam.
Son of man @ (1.) Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their weakness and frailty Job:25:6; Psalms:8:4Psalms:144:3Psalms:146:3 ; Isaiah:51:12, etc.). (2.) It is a title frequently given to the prophet Ezekiel, probably to remind him of his human weakness. (3.) In the New Testament it is used forty-three times as a distinctive title of the Saviour. In the Old Testament it is used only in Psalms:80:17 and Daniel:7:13 with this application. It denotes the true humanity of our Lord. He had a true body Hebrews:2:14; Luke:24:39) and a rational soul. He was perfect man.
Soothsayer @ one who pretends to prognosticate future events. Baalam is so called Joshua:13:22; Heb. kosem, a "diviner," as rendered 1Samuel:6:2; rendered "prudent," Isaiah:3:2). In Isaiah:2:6 and Micah:5:12 (Heb. yonenim, i.e., "diviners of the clouds") the word is used of the Chaldean diviners who studied the clouds. In Daniel:2:27Daniel:5:7 the word is the rendering of the Chaldee gazrin, i.e., "deciders" or "determiners", here applied to Chaldean astrologers, "who, by casting nativities from the place of the stars at one's birth, and by various arts of computing and divining, foretold the fortunes and destinies of individuals.", Gesenius, Lex. Heb. (See SORCERER.)
Sop @ a morsel of bread John:13:26; comp. Ruth:2:14). Our Lord took a piece of unleavened bread, and dipping it into the broth of bitter herbs at the Paschal meal, gave it to Judas. (Comp. Ruth:2:14.)
Sopater @ the father who saves, probably the same as Sosipater, a kinsman of Paul Romans:16:21), a Christian of the city of Berea who accompanied Paul into Asia Acts:20:4-6).
Sorcerer @ from the Latin sortiarius, one who casts lots, or one who tells the lot of others. (See DIVINATION.) In Daniel:2:2 it is the rendering of the Hebrew mekhashphim, i.e., mutterers, men who professed to have power with evil spirits. The practice of sorcery exposed to severest punishment Malachi:3:5; Revelation:21:8Revelation:22:15).
Sorek @ choice vine, the name of a valley, i.e., a torrent-bed, now the Wady Surar, "valley of the fertile spot," which drains the western Judean hills, and flowing by Makkedah and Jabneel, falls into the sea some eight miles south of Joppa. This was the home of Deliah, whom Samson loved Judges:16:4).
Sosipater @ (See SOPATER.)
Sosthenes @ safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews Acts:18:12-17). The motives of this assault against Sosthenes are not recorded, nor is it mentioned whether it was made by Greeks or Romans. Some identify him, but without sufficient grounds, with one whom Paul calls "Sosthenes our brother," a convert to the faith ( 1Corinthians:1:1).
South @ Heb. Negeb, that arid district to the south of Palestine through which lay the caravan route from Central Palestine to Egypt Genesis:12:9Genesis:13:1-3Genesis:46:1 -6). "The Negeb comprised a considerable but irregularly-shaped tract of country, its main portion stretching from the mountains and lowlands of Judah in the north to the mountains of Azazemeh in the south, and from the Dead Sea and southern Ghoron the east to the Mediterranean on the west." In Ezekiel:20:46 (21:1 in Heb.) three different Hebrew words are all rendered "south." (1) "Set thy face toward the south" (Teman, the region on the right, 1Samuel:33:24); (2) "Drop thy word toward the south" (Negeb, the region of dryness, Joshua:15:4); (3) "Prophesy against the forest of the south field" (Darom, the region of brightness, Deuteronomy:33:23). In Job:37:9 the word "south" is literally "chamber," used here in the sense of treasury (comp. 38:22; Psalms:135:7). This verse is rendered in the Revised Version "out of the chamber of the south."