Bread @ among the Jews was generally made of wheat Exodus:29:2; Judges:6:19), though also sometimes of other grains Genesis:14:18; Judges:7:13). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any other preparation Ruth:2:14). Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs" Genesis:18:6; Exodus:12:34; Jeremiah:7:18). The dough was mixed with leaven and made into thin cakes, round or oval, and then baked. The bread eaten at the Passover was always unleavened Exodus:12:15-20; Deuteronomy:16:3). In the towns there were public ovens, which were much made use of for baking bread; there were also bakers by trade Hosea:7:4; Jeremiah:37:21). Their ovens were not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was baked by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a fire, and by covering it with the embers (kjvKings:19:6). This was probably the mode in which Sarah prepared bread on the occasion referred to in Genesis:18:6. In Leviticus:2 there is an account of the different kinds of bread and cakes used by the Jews. (See BAKE.) The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened bread prepared and presented hot on the golden table every Sabbath. They were square or oblong, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel. The old loaves were removed every Sabbath, and were to be eaten only by the priests in the court of the sanctuary Exodus:25:30; Leviticus:24:8; 1Samuel:21:1-6; Matthew:12:4). The word bread is used figuratively in such expressions as "bread of sorrows" Psalms:127:2), "bread of tears" (80:5), i.e., sorrow and tears are like one's daily bread, they form so great a part in life. The bread of "wickedness" Proverbs:4:17) and "of deceit" (20:17) denote in like manner that wickedness and deceit are a part of the daily life.
BREAD @ - The preparation of bread as an article of food dates from a very early period. Genesis:18:6) The corn or grain employed was of various sorts. The best bread was made of wheat, but "barley" and spelt were also used. John:6:9John:6:13Isaiah:28:25) The process of making bread was as follows: the flour was first mixed with water or milk; it was then kneaded with the hands (in Egypt with the feet also) in a small wooden bowl or "kneading-trough" until it became dough. Exodus:12:34Exodus:12:39 2 Samuel 13:3; Jeremiah:7:18) When the kneading was completed, leaven was generally added [LEAVEN]; but when the time for preparation was short, it was omitted, and unleavened cakes, hastily baked, were eaten as is still the prevalent custom among the Bedouins. ( Genesis:18:6Genesis:19:3; Exodus:12:39; Judges:6:19; 1Samuel:28:24) The leavened mass was allowed to stand for some time, Matthew:13:33; Luke:13:21) the dough was then divided into round cakes, Exodus:29:23; Judges:7:13Judges:8:5; 1Samuel:10:3; Proverbs:6:26) not unlike flat stones in shape and appearance, Matthew:7:9) comp. Matthew:4:8 About a span in diameter and a finger’s breadth in thickness. In the towns where professional bakers resided, there were no doubt fixed ovens, in shape and size resembling those in use among ourselves; but more usually each household poured a portable oven, consisting of a stone or metal jar, about three feet high which was heated inwardly with wood, (Kings:17:12; Isaiah:44:15; Jeremiah:7:18) or dried grass and flower-stalks. Matthew:6:30)