Artaxerxes @ the Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple Ezra:4:7). He was probably the Smerdis of profane history. (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra:7:1, in the seventh year (B.C. 458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years (B.C. 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.