Gilead @ hill of testimony, Genesis:31:21), a mountainous region east of Jordan. From its mountainous character it is called "the mount of Gilead" Genesis:31:25). It is called also "the land of Gilead" Numbers:32:1), and sometimes simply "Gilead" Psalms:60:7; Genesis:37:25). It comprised the possessions of the tribes of Gad and Reuben and the south part of Manasseh Deuteronomy:3:13; Numbers:32:40). It was bounded on the north by Bashan, and on the south by Moab and Ammon Genesis:31:21; Deuteronomy:3:12-17). "Half Gilead" was possessed by Sihon, and the other half, separated from it by the river Jabbok, by Og, king of Bashan. The deep ravine of the river Hieromax (the modern Sheriat el-Mandhur) separated Bashan from Gilead, which was about 60 miles in length and 20 in breadth, extending from near the south end of the Lake of Gennesaret to the north end of the Dead Sea. Abarim, Pisgah, Nebo, and Peor are its mountains mentioned in Scripture.
Gilead, Balm of @ The region of Gilead abounded in spices and aromatic gums, which were exported to Egypt and Tyre Genesis:37:25; Jeremiah:8:22Jeremiah:46:11; Ezekiel:27:17). The word "balm" is a contracted form of "balsam," a word derived from the Greek _balsamon_, which was adopted as the representative of the Hebrew words _baal shemen_, meaning "lord" or "chief of oils." The Hebrew name of this balm was _tsori_. The tree yielding this medicinal oil was probably the Balsamodendron opobalsamum of botanists, and the Amyris opobalsamum of Linnaeus. It is an evergreen, rising to the height of about 14 feet. The oil or resin, exuding through an orifice made in its bark in very small quantities, is esteemed of great value for its supposed medicinal qualities. (See BALM.) It may be noted that Coverdale's version reads in Jeremiah:8:22, "There is no triacle in Galaad." The word "triacle" = "treacle" is used in the sense of ointment.