Music @ Jubal was the inventor of musical instruments Genesis:4:21). The Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of Laban's interview with Jacob Genesis:31:27). After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang their song of deliverance Exodus:15). But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of training in the schools of the prophets ( 1Samuel:10:51Samuel:19:19-24; 2Kings:3:15; 1Chronicles:25:6). There now arose also a class of professional singers ( 2Samuel:19:35; Ecclesiastes:2:8). The temple, however, was the great school of music. In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed ( 2Samuel:6:5; 1Chronicles:15; 16; 23;5; 25:1-6). In private life also music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews Ecclesiastes:2:8; Amos:6:4-6; Isaiah:5:11-12Isaiah:24:8-9; Psalms:137; Jeremiah:48:33; Luke:15:25).
Music, Instrumental @ Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor, the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.) The gittith, occurring in the title of Psalms:8; 8; 84. (5.) Minnim Psalms:150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Psalms:45:8, in the form _minni_, probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened) plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the Revised Version "stringed instruments." (6.) Machalath, in the titles of Psalms:53 and 88; supposed to be a kind of lute or guitar. Of wind instruments mention is made of, (1.) The 'ugab Genesis:4:21; Job:21:12Job:30:31), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or syrinx. (2.) The qeren or "horn" Joshua:6:5; 1Chronicles:25:5). (3.) The shophar, rendered "trumpet" Joshua:6:4-6, 8). The word means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear, shrill sound it emitted. It was often used Exodus:19:13; Numbers:10:10; Judges:7:16-18; 1Samuel:13:3). (4.) The hatsotserah, or straight trumpet Psalms:98:6; Numbers:10:1-10). This name is supposed by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara. Some have identified it with the modern trombone. (5.) The halil, i.e, "bored through," a flute or pipe ( 1Samuel:10:5; kjvKings:1:40; Isaiah:5:12; Jeremiah:48:36) which is still used in Palestine. (6.) The sumponyah, rendered "dulcimer" Daniel:3:5), probably a sort of bagpipe. (7.) The maskrokith'a Daniel:3:5), rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown. Of instruments of percussion mention is made of, (1.) The toph, an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" Exodus:15:20; Job:21:12; Psalms:68:25); also "tabret" Genesis:31:27; Isaiah:24:8; 1Samuel:10:5). (2.) The paamon, the "bells" on the robe of the high priest Exodus:28:33Exodus:39:25). (3.) The tseltselim, "cymbals" ( 2Samuel:6:5; Psalms:150:5), which are struck together and produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth, "bells" on horses and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim, "cymbals" ( 1Chronicles:13:8; Ezra:3:10, etc.). These words are all derived from the same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle." (4.) The menaan'im, used only in 2Samuel:6:5, rendered "cornets" (R.V., "castanets"); in the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation. (5.) The shalishim, mentioned only in 1Samuel:18:6, rendered "instruments of music" (marg. of R.V., "triangles or three-stringed instruments"). The words in Ecclesiastes:2:8, "musical instruments, and that of all sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version "concubines very many."
Musician, Chief @ (Heb. menatstseah), the precentor of the Levitical choir or orchestra in the temple, mentioned in the titles of fifty-five psalms, and in Habakkuk:3:19, Revised Version. The first who held this office was Jeduthun ( 1Chronicles:16:41), and the office appears to have been hereditary. Heman and Asaph were his two colleagues ( 2Chronicals:35:15).