Ed @ witness, a word not found in the original Hebrew, nor in the LXX. and Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized Version, also in the Revised Version, of Joshua:22:34. The words are literally rendered: "And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad named the altar. It is a witness between us that Jehovah is God." This great altar stood probably on the east side of the Jordan, in the land of Gilead, "over against the land of Canaan." After the division of the Promised Land, the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh, on returning to their own settlements on the east of Jordan Joshua:22:1-6), erected a great altar, which they affirmed, in answer to the challenge of the other tribes, was not for sacrifice, but only as a witness ('Ed) or testimony to future generations that they still retained the same interest in the nation as the other tribes.
Edar @ tower of the flock, a tower between Bethlehem and Hebron, near which Jacob first halted after leaving Bethlehem Genesis:35:21). In Micah:4:8 the word is rendered "tower of the flock" (marg., "Edar"), and is used as a designation of Bethlehem, which figuratively represents the royal line of David as sprung from Bethlehem.
Eden @ delight. (1.) The garden in which our first parents dewlt Genesis:2:8-17). No geographical question has been so much discussed as that bearing on its site. It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia. The site must undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the Tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in "the land of Shinar" or Babylonia. The region from about lat. 33 degrees 30' to lat. 31 degrees, which is a very rich and fertile tract, has been by the most competent authorities agreed on as the probable site of Eden. "It is a region where streams abound, where they divide and re-unite, where alone in the Mesopotamian tract can be found the phenomenon of a single river parting into four arms, each of which is or has been a river of consequence." Among almost all nations there are traditions of the primitive innocence of our race in the garden of Eden. This was the "golden age" to which the Greeks looked back. Men then lived a "life free from care, and without labour and sorrow. Old age was unknown; the body never lost its vigour; existence was a perpetual feast without a taint of evil. The earth brought forth spontaneously all things that were good in profuse abundance." (2.) One of the markets whence the merchants of Tyre obtained richly embroidered stuffs Ezekiel:27:23); the same, probably, as that mentioned in 2Kings:19:12, and Isaiah:37:12, as the name of a region conquered by the Assyrians. (3.) Son of Joah, and one of the Levites who assisted in reforming the public worship of the sanctuary in the time of Hezekiah ( 2Chronicals:29:12).
Edom @ (1.) The name of Esau (q.v.), Genesis:25:30, "Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage [Heb. haadom, haadom, i.e., 'the red pottage, the red pottage'] ...Therefore was his name called Edom", i.e., Red. (2.) Idumea Isaiah:34:5-6; Ezekiel:35:15). "The field of Edom" Genesis:32:3), "the land of Edom" Genesis:36:16), was mountainous Obadiah:1:8-9, 19, 21). It was called the land, or "the mountain of Seir," the rough hills on the east side of the Arabah. It extended from the head of the Gulf of Akabah, the Elanitic gulf, to the foot of the Dead Sea (kjvKings:9:26), and contained, among other cities, the rock-hewn Sela (q.v.), generally known by the Greek name Petra ( 2Kings:14:7). It is a wild and rugged region, traversed by fruitful valleys. Its old capital was Bozrah Isaiah:63:1). The early inhabitants of the land were Horites. They were destroyed by the Edomites Deuteronomy:2:12), between whom and the kings of Israel and Judah there was frequent war ( 2Kings:8:20; 2Chronicals:28:17). At the time of the Exodus they churlishly refused permission to the Israelites to pass through their land Numbers:20:14-21), and ever afterwards maintained an attitude of hostility toward them. They were conquered by David ( 2Samuel:8:14; comp. kjvKings:9:26), and afterwards by Amaziah ( 2Chronicals:25:11-12). But they regained again their independence, and in later years, during the decline of the Jewish kingdom ( 2Kings:16:6; R.V. marg., "Edomites"), made war against Israel. They took part with the Chaldeans when Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and afterwards they invaded and held possession of the south of Palestine as far as Hebron. At length, however, Edom fell under the growing Chaldean power Jeremiah:27:3Jeremiah:27:6). There are many prophecies concerning Edom Isaiah:34:5-6; Jeremiah:49:7-18; Ezekiel:25:13Ezekiel:35:1-15; Joel:3:19; Amos:1:11; Obad.; Malachi:1:3-4) which have been remarkably fulfilled. The present desolate condition of that land is a standing testimony to the inspiration of these prophecies. After an existence as a people for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever. In Petra, "where kings kept their court, and where nobles assembled, there no man dwells; it is given by lot to birds, and beasts, and reptiles." The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in language to the Israelites. They dispossessed the Horites of Mount Seir; though it is clear, from Genesis:36, that they afterwards intermarried with the conquered population. Edomite tribes settled also in the south of Judah, like the Kenizzites Genesis:36:11), to whom Caleb and Othniel belonged Joshua:15:17). The southern part of Edom was known as Teman.
Edrei @ mighty; strength. (1.) One of the chief towns of the kingdom of Bashan Joshua:12:4-5). Here Og was defeated by the Israelites, and the strength of the Amorites broken Numbers:21:33-35). It subsequently belonged to Manasseh, for a short time apparently, and afterwards became the abode of banditti and outlaws Joshua:13:31). It has been identified with the modern Edr'a, which stands on a rocky promontory on the south-west edge of the Lejah (the Argob of the Hebrews, and Trachonitis of the Greeks). The ruins of Edr'a are the most extensive in the Hauran. They are 3 miles in circumference. A number of the ancient houses still remain; the walls, roofs, and doors being all of stone. The wild region of which Edrei was the capital is thus described in its modern aspect: "Elevated about 20 feet above the plain, it is a labyrinth of clefts and crevasses in the rock, formed by volcanic action; and owing to its impenetrable condition, it has become a refuge for outlaws and turbulent characters, who make it a sort of Cave of Adullam...It is, in fact, an impregnable natural fortress, about 20 miles in length and 15 in breadth" (Porter's Syria, etc.). Beneath this wonderful city there is also a subterranean city, hollowed out probably as a refuge for the population of the upper city in times of danger. (See BASHAN (2.) A town of Naphtali Joshua:19:37).