Eli @ ascent, the high priest when the ark was at Shiloh ( 1Samuel:1:31Samuel:1:9). He was the first of the line of Ithamar, Aaron's fourth son ( 1Chronicles:24:3; comp. 2Samuel:8:17), who held that office. The office remained in his family till the time of Abiathar (kjvKings:2:26-27), whom Solomon deposed, and appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (35). He acted also as a civil judge in Israel after the death of Samson ( 1Samuel:4:18), and judged Israel for forty years. His sons Hophni and Phinehas grossly misconducted themselves, to the great disgust of the people ( 1Samuel:2:27-36). They were licentious reprobates. He failed to reprove them so sternly as he ought to have done, and so brought upon his house the judgment of God (2:22-33; 3:18). The Israelites proclaimed war against the Philistines, whose army was encamped at Aphek. The battle, fought a short way beyond Mizpeh, ended in the total defeat of Israel. Four thousand of them fell in "battle array". They now sought safety in having the "ark of the covenant of the Lord" among them. They fetched it from Shiloh, and Hophni and Phinehas accompanied it. This was the first time since the settlement of Israel in Canaan that the ark had been removed from the sanctuary. The Philistines put themselves again in array against Israel, and in the battle which ensued "Israel was smitten, and there was a very great slaughter." The tidings of this great disaster were speedily conveyed to Shiloh, about 20 miles distant, by a messenger, a Benjamite from the army. There Eli sat outside the gate of the sanctuary by the wayside, anxiously waiting for tidings from the battle-field. The full extent of the national calamity was speedily made known to him: "Israel is fled before the Philistines, there has also been a great slaughter among the people, thy two sons Hophni and Phinehas are dead, and the ark of God is taken" ( 1Samuel:4:12-18). When the old man, whose eyes were "stiffened" (i.e., fixed, as of a blind eye unaffected by the light) with age, heard this sad story of woe, he fell backward from off his seat and died, being ninety and eight years old. (See ITHAMAR Eli, Heb. eli, "my God", Matthew:27:46), an exclamation used by Christ on the cross. Mark (15:34), as usual, gives the original Aramaic form of the word, Eloi.
Eliada @ whom God cares for. (1.) One of David's sons born after his establishment in Jerusalem ( 2Samuel:5:16). (2.) A mighty man of war, a Benjamite ( 2Chronicals:17:17). (3.) An Aramite of Zobah, captain of a marauding band that troubled Solomon (kjvKings:11:23).
Eliakim @ whom God will raise up. (1.) The son of Melea Luke:3:30), and probably grandson of Nathan. (2.) The son of Abiud, of the posterity of Zerubbabel Matthew:1:13). (3.) The son of Hilkiah, who was sent to receive the message of the invading Assyrians and report it to Isaiah ( 2Kings:18:182Kings:19:2; Isaiah:36:3Isaiah:37:2). In his office as governor of the palace of Hezekiah he succeeded Shebna Isaiah:22:15-25). He was a good man Isaiah:22:20; 2Kings:18:37), and had a splendid and honourable career. (4.) The original name of Jehoiakim, king of Judah ( 2Kings:23:34). He was the son of Josiah.
Eliam @ God's people. (1.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah ( 2Samuel:11:3). In 1Chronicles:3:5 his name is Ammiel. (2.) This name also occurs as that of a Gilonite, the son of Ahithophel, and one of David's thirty warriors ( 2Samuel:23:34). perhaps these two were the same person.
Elias @ the Greek form of Elijah Matthew:11:14Matthew:16:14, etc.), which the Revised Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament. (See ELIJAH.)
Eliashib @ whom God will restore. (1.) A priest, head of one of the courses of the priests of the time of David ( 1Chronicles:24:12). (2.) A high priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah Nehemiah:12:22-23). He rebuilt the eastern city wall (3:1), his own mansion being in that quarter, on the ridge Ophel (3:20-21). His indulgence of Tobiah the Ammonite provoked the indignation of Nehemiah (13:4,7).
Eliathah @ to whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite Heman, and musician of the temple in the time of David ( 1Chronicles:25:4).
Elidad @ whom God has loved, son of Chislon, and chief of the tribe of Benjamin; one of those who were appointed to divide the Promised Land among the tribes Numbers:34:21).
Eliel @ to whom God is might. (1.) A chief of Manasseh, on the east of Jordan ( 1Chronicles:5:24). (2.) A Gadite who joined David in the hold at Ziklag ( 1Chronicles:12:11). (3.) One of the overseers of the offerings in the reign of Hezekiah ( 2Chronicals:31:13).
Eliezer @ God his help. (1.) "Of Damascus," the "steward" (R.V., "possessor") of Abraham's house Genesis:15:2-3). It was probably he who headed the embassy sent by Abraham to the old home of his family in Padan-aram to seek a wife for his son Isaac. The account of this embassy is given at length in Genesis:24. (2.) The son of Becher, and grandson of Benjamin ( 1Chronicles:7:8). (3.) One of the two sons of Moses, born during his sojourn in Midian Exodus:18:4; 1Chronicles:23:15-17). He remained with his mother and brother Gershom with Jethro when Moses returned to Egypt. Exodus:18:4). They were restored to Moses when Jethro heard of his departure out of Egypt. (4.) One of the priests who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was brought to Jerusalem ( 1Chronicles:15:24). (5.) Son of Zichri, and chief of the Reubenites under David ( 1Chronicles:27:16). (6.) A prophet in the time of Jehoshaphat ( 2Chronicals:20:37). Others of this name are mentioned Luke:3:29; Ezra:8:16Ezra:10:18Ezra:10:23, 31.
Elihu @ whose God is he. (1.) "The son of Barachel, a Buzite" Job:32:2), one of Job's friends. When the debate between Job and his friends is brought to a close, Elihu for the first time makes his appearance, and delivers his opinion on the points at issue Job:32-37). (2.) The son of Tohu, and grandfather of Elkanah ( 1Samuel:1:1). He is called also Eliel ( 1Chronicles:6:34) and Eliab (6:27). (3.) One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag ( 1Chronicles:12:20). (4.) One of the family of Obed-edom, who were appointed porters of the temple under David ( 1Chronicles:26:7).
Elijah @ whose God is Jehovah. (1.) "The Tishbite," the "Elias" of the New Testament, is suddenly introduced to our notice in kjvKings:17:1 as delivering a message from the Lord to Ahab. There is mention made of a town called Thisbe, south of Kadesh, but it is impossible to say whether this was the place referred to in the name given to the prophet. Having delivered his message to Ahab, he retired at the command of God to a hiding-place by the brook Cherith, beyond Jordan, where he was fed by ravens. When the brook dried up God sent him to the widow of Zarephath, a city of Zidon, from whose scanty store he was supported for the space of two years. During this period the widow's son died, and was restored to life by Elijah (kjvKings:17: 2-24). During all these two years a famine prevailed in the land. At the close of this period of retirement and of preparation for his work (comp. Galatians:1:17-18) Elijah met Obadiah, one of Ahab's officers, whom he had sent out to seek for pasturage for the cattle, and bade him go and tell his master that Elijah was there. The king came and met Elijah, and reproached him as the troubler of Israel. It was then proposed that sacrifices should be publicly offered, for the purpose of determining whether Baal or Jehovah were the true God. This was done on Carmel, with the result that the people fell on their faces, crying, "The Lord, he is the God." Thus was accomplished the great work of Elijah's ministry. The prophets of Baal were then put to death by the order of Elijah. Not one of them escaped. Then immediately followed rain, according to the word of Elijah, and in answer to his prayer James:5:18). Jezebel, enraged at the fate that had befallen her priests of Baal, threatened to put Elijah to death (kjvKings:19:1-13). He therefore fled in alarm to Beersheba, and thence went alone a day's journey into the wilderness, and sat down in despondency under a juniper tree. As he slept an angel touched him, and said unto him, "Arise and eat; because the journey is too great for thee." He arose and found a cake and a cruse of water. Having partaken of the provision thus miraculously supplied, he went forward on his solitary way for forty days and forty nights to Horeb, the mount of God, where he took up his abode in a cave. Here the Lord appeared unto him and said, "What dost thou here, Elijah?" In answer to his despondent words God manifests to him his glory, and then directs him to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael king over Syria, and Jehu king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room (kjvKings:19:13-21; comp. 2Kings:8:7-152Kings:9:1-10). Some six years after this he warned Ahab and Jezebel of the violent deaths they would die (kjvKings:21:19-24; 22:38). He also, four years afterwards, warned Ahaziah (q.v.), who had succeeded his father Ahab, of his approaching death ( 2Kings:1:1-16). (See NABOTH.) During these intervals he probably withdrew to some quiet retirement, no one knew where. His interview with Ahaziah's messengers on the way to Ekron, and the account of the destruction of his captains with their fifties, suggest the idea that he may have been in retirement at this time on Mount Carmel. The time now drew near when he was to be taken up into heaven ( 2Kings:2:1-12). He had a presentiment of what was awaiting him. He went down to Gilgal, where was a school of the prophets, and where his successor Elisha, whom he had anointed some years before, resided. Elisha was solemnized by the thought of his master's leaving him, and refused to be parted from him. "They two went on," and came to Bethel and Jericho, and crossed the Jordan, the waters of which were "divided hither and thither" when smitten with Elijah's mantle. Arrived at the borders of Gilead, which Elijah had left many years before, it "came to pass as they still went on and talked" they were suddenly separated by a chariot and horses of fire; and "Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven, "Elisha receiving his mantle, which fell from him as he ascended. No one of the old prophets is so frequently referred to in the New Testament. The priests and Levites said to the Baptist John:1:25), "Why baptizest thou, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias?" Paul Romans:11:2) refers to an incident in his history to illustrate his argument that God had not cast away his people. James (5:17) finds in him an illustration of the power of prayer. (See also Luke:4:25Luke:9:54.) He was a type of John the Baptist in the sternness and power of his reproofs Luke:9:8). He was the Elijah that "must first come" Matthew:11:11Matthew:11:14), the forerunner of our Lord announced by Malachi. Even outwardly the Baptist corresponded so closely to the earlier prophet that he might be styled a second Elijah. In him we see "the same connection with a wild and wilderness country; the same long retirement in the desert; the same sudden, startling entrance on his work (kjvKings:17:1; Luke:3:2); even the same dress, a hairy garment, and a leathern girdle about the loins ( 2Kings:1:8; Matthew:3:4)." How deep the impression was which Elijah made "on the mind of the nation may be judged from the fixed belief, which rested on the words of Malachi (4:5-6), which many centuries after prevailed that he would again appear for the relief and restoration of the country. Each remarkable person as he arrives on the scene, be his habits and characteristics what they may, the stern John equally with his gentle Successor, is proclaimed to be Elijah Matthew:11:13-14Matthew:16:14Matthew:17:10 ; Mark:9:11Mark:15:35; Luke:9:7-8; John:1:21). His appearance in glory on the mount of transfiguration does not seem to have startled the disciples. They were 'sore afraid,' but not apparently surprised." (2.) The Elijah spoken of in 2Chronicals:21:12-15 is by some supposed to be a different person from the foregoing. He lived in the time of Jehoram, to whom he sent a letter of warning (comp. 1Chronicles:28:19; Jeremiah:36), and acted as a prophet in Judah; while the Tishbite was a prophet of the northern kingdom. But there does not seem any necessity for concluding that the writer of this letter was some other Elijah than the Tishbite. It may be supposed either that Elijah anticipated the character of Jehoram, and so wrote the warning message, which was preserved in the schools of the prophets till Jehoram ascended the throne after the Tishbite's translation, or that the translation did not actually take place till after the accession of Jehoram to the throne ( 2Chronicals:21:12; 2Kings:8:16). The events of 2Kings:2 may not be recorded in chronological order, and thus there may be room for the opinion that Elijah was still alive in the beginning of Jehoram's reign.
Elika @ God is his rejector, one of David's thirty-seven distinguished heros ( 2Samuel:23:25).
Elim @ trees, Exodus:15:27; Numbers:33:9), the name of the second station where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. It had "twelve wells of water and threescore and ten palm trees." It has been identified with the Wady Ghurundel, the most noted of the four wadies which descend from the range of et-Tih towards the sea. Here they probably remained some considerable time. The form of expression in Exodus:16:1 seems to imply that the people proceeded in detachments or companies from Elim, and only for the first time were assembled as a complete host when they reached the wilderness of Sin (q.v.).
Elimelech @ God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the days of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with his wife Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of Moab. There he and his sons died Ruth:1:2-3Ruth:2:1-3Ruth:4:3 ,9). Naomi afterwards returned to Palestine with her daughter Ruth.
Eliphaz @ God his strength. (1.) One of Job's "three friends" who visited him in his affliction (4:1). He was a "Temanite", i.e., a native of Teman, in Idumea. He first enters into debate with Job. His language is uniformly more delicate and gentle than that of the other two, although he imputes to Job special sins as the cause of his present sufferings. He states with remarkable force of language the infinite purity and majesty of God (4:12-21; 15:12-16). (2.) The son of Esau by his wife Adah, and father of several Edomitish tribes Genesis:36:4Genesis:36:10, 11, 16).
Elipheleh @ God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark to the city of David ( 1Chronicles:15:181Chronicles:15:21).
Elisabeth @ God her oath, the mother of John the Baptist Luke:1:5). She was a descendant of Aaron. She and her husband Zacharias (q.v.) "were both righteous before God" Luke:1:5Luke:1:13). Mary's visit to Elisabeth is described in 1:39-63.
Elisha @ God his salvation, the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah, who became the attendant and disciple of Elijah (kjvKings:19:16-19). His name first occurs in the command given to Elijah to anoint him as his successor (kjvKings:19:16). This was the only one of the three commands then given to Elijah which he accomplished. On his way from Sinai to Damascus he found Elisha at his native place engaged in the labours of the field, ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen. He went over to him, threw over his shoulders his rough mantle, and at once adopted him as a son, and invested him with the prophetical office (comp. Luke:9:61-62). Elisha accepted the call thus given (about four years before the death of Ahab), and for some seven or eight years became the close attendant on Elijah till he was parted from him and taken up into heaven. During all these years we hear nothing of Elisha except in connection with the closing scenes of Elijah's life. After Elijah, Elisha was accepted as the leader of the sons of the prophets, and became noted in Israel. He possessed, according to his own request, "a double portion" of Elijah's spirit ( 2Kings:2:9); and for the long period of about sixty years (B.C. 892-832) held the office of "prophet in Israel" ( 2Kings:5:8). After Elijah's departure, Elisha returned to Jericho, and there healed the spring of water by casting salt into it ( 2Kings:2:21). We next find him at Bethel (2:23), where, with the sternness of his master, he cursed the youths who came out and scoffed at him as a prophet of God: "Go up, thou bald head." The judgment at once took effect, and God terribly visited the dishonour done to his prophet as dishonour done to himself. We next read of his predicting a fall of rain when the army of Jehoram was faint from thirst ( 2Kings:3:9-20); of the multiplying of the poor widow's cruse of oil (4:1-7); the miracle of restoring to life the son of the woman of Shunem (4:18-37); the multiplication of the twenty loaves of new barley into a sufficient supply for an hundred men (4:42-44); of the cure of Naaman the Syrian of his leprosy (5:1-27); of the punishment of Gehazi for his falsehood and his covetousness; of the recovery of the axe lost in the waters of the Jordan (6:1-7); of the miracle at Dothan, half-way on the road between Samaria and Jezreel; of the siege of Samaria by the king of Syria, and of the terrible sufferings of the people in connection with it, and Elisha's prophecy as to the relief that would come ( 2Kings:6:24-7:2). We then find Elisha at Damascus, to carry out the command given to his master to anoint Hazael king over Syria ( 2Kings:8:7-15); thereafter he directs one of the sons of the prophets to anoint Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, king of Israel, instead of Ahab. Thus the three commands given to Elijah (9:1-10) were at length carried out. We do not again read of him till we find him on his death-bed in his own house ( 2Kings:13:14-19). Joash, the grandson of Jehu, comes to mourn over his approaching departure, and utters the same words as those of Elisha when Elijah was taken away: "My father, my father! the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof." Afterwards when a dead body is laid in Elisha's grave a year after his burial, no sooner does it touch the hallowed remains than the man "revived, and stood up on his feet" ( 2Kings:13:20-21).
Elishah @ the oldest of the four sons of Javan Genesis:10:4), whose descendants peopled Greece. It has been supposed that Elishah's descendants peopled the Peloponnesus, which was known by the name of Elis. This may be meant by "the isles of Elishah" Ezekiel:27:7).