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Test Chrono of Harveys AD

Chronology of the Early Church by Harvey


Authors original format has been adapted for comparitive use on pBiblx2 Field Wise systems

Please view this information as being an educated speculation from a highly critical view point with a great deal of information from sources other than the Bible. It is included here because of it's scholarly historical and chronological efforts.1ce-199ce Last revision 15Feb94 Paul Harvey (1ce first year in Christian calendar, (a.d. = anno Domini), (see 525)

6 Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus of Rome; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, cap. Caesarea
6-? Quirinius* Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Iudaea
6-9 Coponius* Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
6-15 Ananus ben Seth* High Priest of Jerusalem Temple, appointed by Quirinius
6 Zealot's tax revolt* Judah of Gamala & Saddok the Pharisee (JA18.4,JW2.118)
7-26 brief period of peace, free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea & Galilee
9 Hillel the Elder from Babylonia, b.30bce, "greatest Torah sage of Second Temple period", founder of Bet Hillel Torah school; at the request of a student to teach the entire Torah "while standing on one foot" he replied* "What is hateful to you, do not unto your neighbor. This is the entire Torah, all the rest is commentary," i.e., "Go and study it."; "He who magnifies his name destroys it; he who does not increase his knowledge decreases it, and he who does not study deserves to die; and he who makes worldly use of the crown of Torah shall waste away." (Encyclopedia Judaica)
9-12? M. Ambivius* Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
12?-15 Annius Rufus* Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
14-37 Tiberius* Roman emperor, b. 42bce
15-26 Valerius Gratus* Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
17 Livy, (Titus Livius), b.59bce, Roman historian* "Ab Urbe Condita"; Loeb:14
17? Ovid, b.43bce, Roman poet* Amores, Ars Amatoria, Metamorphoses; Loeb* 6v.
18-36 Joseph Caiaphas* High Priest of Jerusalem Temple, appointed by V.Gratus
19 Tiberius expels Septuagint missionaries from Rome, but they soon returned
22-220 Later (Eastern) Han dynasty in China
24? Strabo, b.63bce?, Greek geographer, wrote* "Geography"; Loeb Classics 8v.
25? Assumption (Testament) of Moses, original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)
26-36 Pontius Pilate* Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
27-29? John the Baptist begins ministry kjv@Luke:3:1-2 15th year of Tiberius
27-34? Jesus bathed in Jordan to remove sins by John the Baptist (kjv@Mark1:4-11)
30 Marcus Manilius, b.10bce?, Roman poet, wrote* Astronomica; (Loeb Classics)
30? Shammai the Elder, founder of Bet Shammai Torah school; "Make your study of the Torah a matter of established regularity, say little and do much, and receive all men with a friendly countenance." (Encyc. Judaica* Avot,1,15)
33-34? John the Baptist arrested/killed by Herod Antipas kjv@Luke:3:19-20 ,Josephus
33-36? Jesus' ministry, foundation years of Christianity, {But after John was handed over to the authorities, Jesus went to Galilee, proclaiming the good word of God and saying, "The time has come & the kingdom of God is approach- ing. Repent & trust in the good word."}-kjv@Mark:1:14-15(Gaus) kjv@Matthew:4:12-17, kjv@Luke:4:14-15, cf. kjv@John:4:1-3, kjv@John:4:43-46; {& he goes up the mountain & calls the ones he want- ed to him, & they went to him. And he settled on twelve of them to be with him, and to be sent out by him to spread the word, and to have authority to throw out demons. And he gave Simon the name "Rock" <1>"Peter") Aramaic* bar-Yonah Johnson kjv@Matthew:16:17, kjv@John:1:42; also called Satan! kjv@Mark:8:33 kjv@Matthew:16:23 and he gave <2>James the son of Zebedee & his brother <3>John the name of Boanerges b'nai-Rogez? angry sons?> which means "the Thunder Brothers"; plus <4>Andrew , <5>Philip , <6>Bartholomew , <7>Matthew kjv@Matthew:10:3, Gospel of Matthew?>, <8>Thomas , <9>James son of Alpheus, <10>Thaddeus , <11>Simon the Canaanite , and <12>Judas Iscariot (a devil!) kjv@John:6:70, who betrayed him.} - kjv@Mark:3:13-19(Gaus/Unvarnished NT) kjv@Matthew:10:1-4, kjv@Luke:6:12-16
36? Jesus betrayed by one of his own Apostles* Judas son of Simon of Iscariot
36? Jesus denied 3 times by his primary Apostle* (Simon) Peter the "Rock"
36? Jesus crucified, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, (Ref* John, Unauthorized Version/Fox) {And at three o'clock, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani," which translates to "My God, my God, why did you desert me?} -kjv@Mark:15:34(Gaus). Last Supper would have been Thursday evening. (7Apr30 & 3Apr33 possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates)
36-37 Marcellus* Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
36?-65? period of oral tradition in Christianity between Jesus and the Gospel of Mark, the era of Paul of Tarsus, recorded in Acts* (Simon) Peter<1> as leader? (first Pope?), John<3>, James<2>, Andrew<4>, Philip<5>, Thomas<8>, Bartholomew<6>, Matthew<7>, James<9> son of Alpheus, Simon<11?> the Revolutionary (or Zealot), Jude son of James, Mary the mother of Jesus, Jesus' brothers and sisters and various other women kjv@Acts:1:13-14; What happened to Thaddeus? only about 120 initial believers? kjv@Acts:1:15, Judas<12> the betrayer commits "suicide" kjv@Acts:1:18-19, Matthias voted in as his replacement kjv@Acts:1:23-26, 3000 new converts in one day??? kjv@Acts:2:41, Peter and John jailed for one night for causing riots, number of converts increases to 5000??? kjv@Act:3, Ananias and Sapphira die under mysterious circumstances after not giving all their possessions to Christianity kjv@Acts:5, Aramaic kjv@Acts:1:19) and Greek kjv@Acts:6:1 in use early on, 7 Greeks added to 12 Apostles* Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, Nicolaus kjv@Acts:6, initially there is only one Christian "church" (Greek ekklesia:G1577 most likely just an assembly rather than a formal church), in Jerusalem, Paul (Saul) of Tarsus, prior to his conversion, has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem "church" destroyed, the original Christians disperse throughout Judea and Samaria kjv@Acts:8:1, Paul of Tarsus converts to "Apostle to the Gentiles" and the main activity of Christianity shifts from the Hellenic-Jewish-Christians of Judea Samaria, and Galilee (Nazarenes "of Nazareth" and Ebionites "poor ones") to the Gentile-Christians led by Paul and centered in the church of Corinth ... Nazarenes (nazoraios:G3480) kjv@Matthew:2:23, kjv@Acts:24:5; The Way (hodos:G3598)kjv@Acts:9:2 kjv@Acts:18:25-26, kjv@Acts:19:9 kjv@Acts:19:23, kjv@Acts:24:14 kjv@Acts:22 Christians (christianos:G5546) kjv@Acts:11:26, kjv@Acts:26:28, kjv@1Peter:4:16
37-41 Gaius Caligula* b.12, emperor of Rome, declared himself god ...
37-41? Marullus* Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
37-40 Herod Agrippa I* king of tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias
37 Paul of Tarsus' conversion, kjv@Acts:9, (a Roman citizen & tentmaker)
37 Seneca the Elder, Roman rhetor, wrote* Controversiae, Suasoriae; Loeb* 2v
38 anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria (Philo* Flaccus 41-54, E-to-G 132-137)
39-40 anti-Jewish riots in Antioch (Malalas Chronographia 10.315)
39 Herod Antipas exiled to Gaul on charges of secret alliance with Parthians
40 Paul goes to Jerusalem to get aquainted (consult?) with Peter kjv@Galatians:1:18-20
40 Caligula adds tetrarchy of Herod Antipas (Galilee) to Herod Agrippa I
40? 4 Maccabees, written in Greek in Alexandria (Septuagint)
41-54 Claudius* emperor of Rome, killed by poisoning by his wife Agrippina
41-44 Claudius adds Judea and Samaria to kingdom of Herod Agrippa I
41-48 Herod of Chalcis* (brother of Herod Agrippa I), king of Chalcis
44 James brother of John executed by Herod Agrippa I kjv@Acts12:1-3
44-46 C. Cuspius Fadus* Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea)
44 Fadus beheads Theudas for magically parting the Jordan R. JA20.97, kjv@Acts:5:36
45 C. Julius Phaedrus, b.15bce?, Roman fables; (Loeb Classics)
45 Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, b.30bce, Jewish philosopher and hellenizer, tried to unify Greek and Hebrew philosophy; Loeb Classics has 12 volumes
45? Fadus crucifies Jacob and Simon sons of Judah of Gamala (6) (JA20.5.2)
46-48 Tiberius Julius Alexander* Roman Procurator of Iudaea, an apostate Jew
47-59 Ananias ben Nedebaeus* H. P. of Jerus. Temple, app. by Herod of Chalcis
47-48 Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus kjv@Acts:13:4-12
48-52 Ventidius Cumanus* Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea)
48-93 Agrippa II* king of Judea, ruled from Chalcis 48-52 and Iturea 52-93
48-49 Council of Apostles and Elders, 1st Christian council?, kjv@Acts:15, kjv@Galatians:2:1 also Incident at Antioch kjv@Galatians:2:11-18 where Paul publicly condemned Peter
48-62 Pauline Epistles* Gl(48-55),1Th(51),Rm(56-58),1Cr(56),2Cr(57),Ph(55-62)
49-50 Paul in Corinth, the center of his mission to the Gentiles kjv@Acts:18
49-54 Claudius expels Septuagint missionaries from Rome* {Since the Jews con- stantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus {{Christ?}}, he ex- pelled them from Rome.} (Suetonius, de Vita Caesarum, Claudius XXV.4, Loeb)
50 Jewish riot in Jerusalem, 20-30,000 killed? (JA20.5.3,JW2.12.1)
50? Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)
50? 2nd Thess., probably itself a forgery, warns of Christian Epistle forgery
50? Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
50? Barthelemy Greek Minor Prophets, R943, pb.1953, unknown translation type
52-60? M. Antonius Felix* Roman Procurator of Iudaea, a Greek freedman
54-68 Nero* b. 37, emperor of Rome
55? Felix kills Egyptian prophet planning to take Jerusalem kjv@Acts:21, Josephus
57 Paul's last visit to Jerusalem kjv@Acts:21
58 Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea kjv@Acts:25:4
58 Ming-Ti, emperor of China, introduces Buddhism to China
58? Felix crushes Jewish revolt in Caesarea
59 Nero kills his mother Agrippina (see 41-54)
60?-62 Porcius Festus* Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea)
60 Paul imprisoned in Rome kjv@Acts:28:16
62 Paul martyred for treason in Rome
62 Jesus the Rustic, proclaims "... a voice against Jerusalem ..." (Josephus)
62 Nero kills his wife Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina
62 Persius, b.34, Roman Stoic satirist, wrote* "Satirae"; (Loeb Classics)
62 {Being therefore this kind of person (i.e., a heartless Sadducee), Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting (literally, "sanhedrin") of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} (JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57)
62-64 Lucceius Albinus* Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea)
64 Great Fire of Rome Nero accused and persecuted the Christians {Therefore to squelch the rumor , Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," (a group) hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated.} (Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal Jew;Meier;p.89-90)
65-150 Gospel redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post-Paul, center of Christianity shifts to Antioch and Rome - "New Babylon" of kjv@1Peter:5:13
65? Q (German:Quelle:Source), hypothetical Greek text used in Matt & Luke
65-150 Didache* Instructions of the Apostles, pub. 1883 (Apostolic Fathers)
65-150 Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter (Complete Gospels)
65-150 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments* pub. 1914, {When the scholars a(nd Pharise)es and priests observe(ed hi)m, they were indignant (because he re- clined in the com)pany of sin(ners). But Jesus overheard (them and said,) Those who are we(ll don't need a doctor.)} -5(SV) kjv@Mark:2:15-17; kjv@Matthew:9:10-13; kjv@Luke:5:29-32 (Ref* The Complete Gospels, 1992, ISBN:0-944344-30-5)
65-150 Gospel of Thomas, based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals* Papyrus Ox. 1,654-5; {Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the imperial rule is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the imperial rule is within you and it is outside you. When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."} -Th3(SV), cf. kjv@Mark:13:21-23; kjv@Matthew:24:23-28; kjv@Luke:17:20-25;Jb28:12-14,20-22(LXX);Bar3:29-32,35-37;Dt30:11-14(LXX) ;Sir1:1-3 {His disciples said to him, "When will the rest for the dead take place, and when will the new world come?" He said to them, "What you are looking forward to has come, but you don't know it."} -Th51(SV), cf. kjv@Matthew:11:28 -29;DSav65-68;Sir51:26-27,6:23-31; kjv@Luke:17:20-21; kjv@Mark:9:12-13; kjv@Matthew:17:11; kjv@2Timothy:2:17-18 {His disciples said to him, "When will the imperial rule come?" "It will not come by watching for it. It will not be said, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Rather, the Father's imperial rule is spread out upon the earth, and people don't see it."} -Th113(SV) kjv@Luke:17:20-21; cf. Mary4:4-5; kjv@Mark:13:21; kjv@Matthew:24:23; kjv@Luke:17:23 (Ref* The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5)
65-175 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments* pub. 1908, {In response the savior said to him* "I feel sorry for the blind who can't see. You bathe in these stagnant waters where dogs & pigs wallow day & night.} -2:7(SV) cf. kjv@Matthew:7:6; kjv@John:9:40-41; kjv@2Peter:2:22; kjv@Revalations:22:15 (Ref* The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5)
65-175 Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments* pub. 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175), {Turning to the rulers of the people, made this statement* "Pore over the writings. You imagine that in them there is life to be had. They do indeed give evidence on my behalf."} -EgerG1:2(SV) kjv@John:5:39 (Comp. Gospels)
65-250 Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments* pub. 1887, {(He said, after) eating according to custom, "Al(l of you on this) night will fall away, (according to) scripture* 'I will strike the (shepherd and the) sheep will be scattered.'" (When) Peter said, "Even if all, (yet not I," (Jesus said) "Before) the cock crows twice (today three times) you will deny me."} cf. kjv@Mark:14:26-31;kjv@Mtthew:26:30-35;kjv@Luke:22:31-34 (Ref* Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992)
65-350 "Jewish-Christian Gospels"* 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; (Ref* NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1)
64-66 Gessius Florus* Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea), a Greek from Asia Minor, raids Temple setting off Jewish rebellion of 66-70
65 Nero orders Seneca to commit suicide Seneca the Younger, Roman poet, wrote "Dialogi", "Naturales quaestiones"; (Loeb Classics has 11 volumes)
65 Lucan, b.39, Roman poet, wrote* "Pharsalia" (Civil War); (Loeb Classics)
66-70 Roman-Jewish War* final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
66 Cestius Gallus, Roman legate of Syria, forced to retreat from Iudaea
66 Petronius, b.26?, Roman courtier* "Satyricon" (satire of Caligula); (Loeb)
67 General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee
67 Peter, 1st Pope?, bishop of Antioch & Rome?, martyred (crucified?) in Rome
67-78 Linus becomes second (first?) Pope* kjv@2Timothy:4:21?
68 Nero commits suicide & resurrects as "Nero redivivus" (Revelation's 666?)
68 Qumran (Essenes?) (Dead Sea Scrolls - 1949) community destroyed by Rome
69 Galba(6/68-1/69), Otho(1-4), Vitellius(6-12), emperors in series of Rome
69-79-81-96 Flavian Dynasty of Rome* Vespasian - Titus - Domitian
69-79 Vespasian* emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem
70 General Titus, Vespasian's eldest son, conquers Jerusalem, destroys Temple
70-361 special annual tax of 2 drachmas levied on all Jews of the Roman Empire since Jupiter Capitolinus (God of Rome) had defeated God of Jerusalem {Besides other taxes, that on the Jews was levied with the utmost rigour, and those were prosecuted who without publicly acknowledging that faith yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people. {{These were doubtless Christians, whom the Romans commonly confounded with the Jews.}} I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised.} (Suetonius, de Vita Caesarum, Book VII, Domitian, XII.2, Loeb Classics)
70-640 Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel (9)
70-132 Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Jabneh (Jamnia), begun by Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai to 'perform commandments and teach Torah'
70? Gospel of Mark, Peter's interpreter? (1Pt5:13), written in Rome?, ends unexpectedly at kjv@Mark:16:8, original ending apparently lost, endings added ~400
70? "Signs Gospel", hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is Messiah; (Complete Gospels) Opening* kjv@John:1:6-7,19-49 in Galilee* kjv@John:2:1-12 kjv@John:4:46-54 kjv@John:21:1-14 kjv@John:6:1-14-25; in Jerusalem* kjv@John:11:1-45 kjv@John:9:1-8 kjv@John:5:2-9; Culmination* kjv@John:11:47-53 kjv@John:2:14-19 kjv@John:12:37-40; Passion Prelude* kjv@John:12:1-8 kjv@John:12:12-15; Passion* kjv@John:18:1-19:42; Resurrection* kjv@John:20:1-22; Closing* kjv@John:20:30-31
71? "The Jewish War" (JW), by Josephus (see 100?), written in Greek
73 Jewish fortress at Masada falls to Rome, residents commit mass suicide
74? Publius Annius Florus, Roman historian; (Loeb Classics)
79 Pliny the Elder, b.23, Roman scholar, victim of Vesuvius eruption, wrote of Essenes; Loeb Classics has 10 volumes of Pliny's "Natural History"
79-81 Titus* emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian
79-91 Pope Anacletus* "blameless?", kjv@Titus:1:7?
80? Gospel of Matthew, most popular in early church, based on Mark and Q
80? "Council of Jamnia" said to have canonized Jewish Scripture (discredited)
81-96 Domitian* emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)
90? Gospel of Luke, based on Mark & Q, also Acts - same author, style of LXX
90? Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books* 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns
91-101 Pope Clement I* kjv@Philippians:4:3?, wrote to Corinth in 95* "1 Clement" (AF)
94 "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium Flavianum* {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek ori- gin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out.} (JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, Marginal Jew, p.61)
95? Quintilian, Roman rhetor, wrote* "Institutio oratoria"; Loeb* 4 volumes
96-98 Nerva* emperor of Rome
96 Statius, b.40?, Roman poet, wrote* Silvae, Thebais, Achilleis; Loeb* 2v.
98-116 Trajan* emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size
100 Romans build aqueduct using Roman Arch (semicircle) at Segovia, Spain
100? Gospel of John* only eyewitness? the disciple Jesus loved? Gnostic? ...
100? Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
100? Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100? 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100? 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)
100? Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)
100? Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
100? Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
100? Masoretes at Tiberias compile Masora (MT), standard Jewish Scriptures
100? Flavius Josephus, b.37, Jewish general, turncoat, historian, hellenist* Against Apion; Jewish War (JW) in 71; Jewish Antiquities (JA) in 94; 10 Loeb
100-150 Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
101-109-116-125 Pope Evaristus - Pope Alexander - Pope Sixtus I
104? Martial, b.40?, Roman epigrammist; Loeb Classics has 2 volumes
110? Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)
110? "Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)
114 Lucius Apuleius, Roman satirist* The Golden Ass, Metamorphoses; Loeb* 3v.
114? Pliny the Younger, b.61?, Roman consul "Epistulae" (10.96); Loeb* 2 v.
115 Lucian, Gk satirist* Passing of Peregrinus (satire of Christians); Loeb8v
115-117 Kitos War in Jerusalem, provoked by Roman Procurator Lucius Quietus
117-138 Hadrian* b. 76, emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain ...
117 Publius Cornelius Tacitus, b.55?, Roman historian "Annals" Loeb 5 vols.
117 Juvenal, b.60?, greatest Roman satirist; (Loeb Classics with Persius)
120? Plutarch, b.47?, Greek historian, wrote 200+* Moralia; Vitae; Loeb* 27 v
125-136 Pope Telesphorus* martyred
125? Papyrus 52* oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
125? Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
130-200 "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by* Justin Martyr (165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apolli- naris of Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers
130? "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost
130? Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote* "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
130? Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
132-135 Bar Kokhba Revolt* final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
135 R. Akiva ben Joseph of Judea, b.50?, executed by the Romans for teaching Torah in public after revolt, flesh was torn from his body with iron combs, coined "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" as 1st principle of Torah
138-161 Antoninus Pius* emperor of Rome
138-165 Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Usha, Galilee
138-142-155-166 Pope Hyginus - Pope Pius I - Pope Anicetus
140 Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
140? Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek (NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2)
140? Suetonius, b.70, Roman historian* "de Vita Caesarum"; Loeb Classics* 2v
150? Justin Martyr's "Dialogue with Trypho" fictional Christian-Jewish debate
150? Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria, Greek astronomer* "Tetrabiblos"; (Loeb)
150? Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
150? Nagarjuna founds Madhyamika (Mahayana Buddhism) school in India
150? "Western Reviser" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" version which is 10
larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 & Codex Bezae (D) {Who it was that was responsible for the additional information concerning the apostolic age or where it came from is entirely unknown. According to F. G. Kenyon, "What one would like to suppose (but for which there is no exter- nal evidence), is that one of St. Paul's companions transcribed Luke's book (Acts) (perhaps after the author's death), and inserted details of which he had personal knowledge, & made other alterations in accordance with his own taste in a matter on which he was entitled to regard himself as having auth- ority equal to that of Luke."} (Textual Comm., Metzger, p272, 3-438-06010-8)
150? Papyrus Chester Beatty 6* R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
160? Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86* "Let. to Philip." (110)
160? Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)
161-180 Marcus Aurelius b.121, emperor of Rome "Meditationes" (Gk) (Loeb)
164-180 Great Plague in Roman empire
165 Letters of Justin Martyr, cites "Acts of Pilate", debates Trypho the Jew
165-180 Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Shefaram, Galilee
165? Gellius, b.123?, Roman writer, wrote* Attic Nights; Loeb Classics* 3 v.
166-174 Pope Soter* moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday
170 Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
170 Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor
170 Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as (he knew) they had changed the Gospels
170 Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type Gospels into 1* {... (the mother of the sons of Zebed)ee (Mt27:56) & Salome (Mk15:40) & the wives (of those who) had followed him from (Galile)e to see the crucified (Lk23:49b-c). And (the da)y was Preparation; the Sabbath was daw(ning) (Lk23:54). & when it was evening (Mt27:57), on the Prep(aration), that is, the day before the Sabbath (Mk25:42), (there came) up a man (Mt27* 57), be(ing) a member of the council (Lk23:50), from Arimathea (Mt27:57), a c(i)ty of (Jude)a (Lk23:51), by name Jo(seph) (Mt27:57), good & ri(ghteous) (Lk23:50), being a disciple of Jesus, but se(cret)ly, for fear of the (Jew)s (Jn19:38). & he (Mt27:57) was looking for (the) k(ingdom) of God (Lk23:51b). This man (had) not (con)sented to (their) p(urpose) (Lk23:51a) ...} {#0212} (Ref* Text of the NT, Bruce Metzger, 3rd ed., kjv@ISBN:0-19-507297-9, pg. 90)
170? Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
174-189 Pope Eleutherius
175? Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek (NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2)
178 Celsus writes "True Discourse", a pro-Pagan/anti-Christian polemic, lost
180-192 Commodus* emperor of Rome
180-210 Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Beth-shearim
180 Gaius, b.110?, Roman jurist, wrote "Institutiones" summary of Roman Law
180? Minucius Felix, Roman Christian lawyer, wrote* "Octavius" on morality
185-350 Canon Muratorian first extant for NT? written in Rome by Hippolytus? ex Hebrews, James, 1-2Pt, 3Jn; in* Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter
189-198 Pope Victor I* first Latin Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166, 190)
190 Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter
193-211 Septimius Severus* emperor of Rome
198-217 Pope Zephyrinus
200 Mishnah, Torah teachings, Halakhah (Oral Law), by Hillel/Akiva/Meir/Judah
200 Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia
200-300 period of Neo-Platonism* developed in Alexandria, last of Greek philosophies, (Hermetica, Sir Walter Scott, kjv@ISBN:0-87773-338-4) (see 270)
200? Papyrus 66 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-20:20,22-23,25-21:9
200? Papyrus 75* Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; Lk3:18-22,33-4:2,34-5:10,37-6:4,10-7:32,35-39,41-43,46-9:2,4-17:15,19-18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8
200? Papyrus 46 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type Rm5:17-6:3,5-14 ;8:15-25,27-35,37-9:32;10:1-11:22,24-33,35-15:9,11-16:27;Hb1:1-9:16,18-10:20 ,22-30,32-13:25;1Cr1:1-9:2,4-14:14,16-15:15,17-16:22;2Cr1:1-11:10,1221,23 13:13;Ep1:1-2:7,10-5:6,8-6:6,8,20-24;Gl1:1-8,10-2:9,12-21;3:2-29;4:2-18,20-5 :17,20-6:8,10-18;Ph1:1,5-15,17-28,30-2:12,14-27,29-3:8,10-21;4:2-12,14-23;Cl 1:1-2,5-13,16-24,27-2:19,23-3:11,13-24;4:3-12,16-18;1Th1:1,9-2:3;5:5-9,23-28
200? Papyrus 32 J. Rylands Library Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
200? Papyrus 64 (+67) Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33
200? Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
200? Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant
200? Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria
200? Theodotion, Greek convert to Judaism, makes revision of LXX (Septuagint)
201? Claudius Galen, b.130?, Greek anatomist* On the Natural Faculties (Loeb)
210-240 Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Sepphoris Galilee
212-217 Geta then Caracalla* emperors of Rome
212 "Civis Romanus sum!", Roman citizenship for every free born subject
217-222-230 Pope Callistus I - Pope Urban I
217-236 anti-Pope Hippolytus* bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect
217 Judah Ha-Nasi, "Rabbi", codified Mishnah (200)
218-222 Heliogabalus* emperor of Rome
220 Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans
220? Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote* "Exhortations to the Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
222-235 Alexander Severus* emperor of Rome
223? Tertullian, wr* "de Spectaculis" (Latin) v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb)
225? Papyrus 45* 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian) Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-25,36-50;7:3-15 ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26 -41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-46,50-12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,2914:10,17 33; Jn10:7-25,30-11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32 -41,52-8:1,14-25,34-9:6,16-27,35-10:2,10-23,31-41;11:2-14,24-12:5,13-22;13:6 -16,25-36,46-14:3,15-23;15:2-7,19-27,38-16:4,15-21,32-40;17:9-17
225? Papyrus 967* Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus
230-236-237-250 Pope Pontian - Pope Anterus - Pope Fabian
230-250 Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen
236-238 Maximinus* emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deport- ing Pope Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die
238-244 Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III* emperors of Rome
240-250 Christian council of Carthage
240-640 Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Tiberias, Galilee
244-249 Philip the Arabian* emperor of Rome
248 Rome celebrates 1,000th anniversary, see 753bce
248 Origen (d.254) writes "Contra Celsus", against Celsus' lost work of 178, cites a rumor recorded by Celsus* "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a (Roman) soldier named Panthera (thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources). Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." (CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223)
249-251 Decius* emperor of Rome
250 Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers
250 Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints
250 Diophantus of Alexandria, first book of algebra
250? Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
250? Papyrus 72 Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type Nativity of Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
250? Papyrus Chester Beatty #5:R962 Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105; #7* I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8* Jr4:30-5:24; #10* Dn1-12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end,Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)
251-253 Gallus* emperor of Rome
251-253-254 Pope Cornelius - Pope Lucius I
251-258 anti-Pope Novatian* decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
253-260 Valerian* emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests and Deacons
254-257 Pope Stephen I* major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates
254 Letters of Origen, b.185?, coined "homoousios" or Jesus and God of one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled "Hexapla" 6 ver- sions of LXX side by side Hebrew, Hebrew transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans., Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Or. castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 (EH6.8.1-3)
257-258 Pope Sixtus II* martyred
257 Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain
258 Letters of Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him
260-268 Gallienus* emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman church
260-268 Pope Dionysius* rebuilds Roman church after Valerian's massacre
264-268 Christian council on Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism* Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism
264? Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
268 Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth
268-270 Claudius II* emperor of Rome
269-274 Pope Felix I
270-275 Aurelian* emperor of Rome, "restitutor orbis"
270 Plotinus, Egyptian Neo-Platonic philosopher, wrote in Greek; Loeb* 7v.
271 compass invented in China
275-283 Pope Eutychian* decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass
275? Papyrus 47* 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2
276-282 Marcus Aurelius Probus* emperor of Rome
276 Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
282-283 Marcus Aurelius Carus* emperor of Rome
283-296 Pope Gaius
284-305 Diocletian* emperor of Rome, notorious persecutor of Christians
285 Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires
285 Pappus of Alex. describes 5 machines* cogwheel/lever/pulley/screw/wedge
294 Codex Gregorianus* compilation of Roman Law
296-304 Pope Marcellinus* apostate, offered pagan sacrifice for Diocletian
300? Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
300? Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost (Jerome)
300? Katayayana, a compilation of Indian law
300? Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
300? other 3rd century NT witnesses* P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-2:1, 6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-40;16:14-30;20:11-17, 19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1 P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9 P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32 P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9 P28:Jn6:8-12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28 ;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8 ;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29 P49:Ep4:16-29,315:13 P53:Mt26:29 40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:1316,22 3:1;11:26-27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25 #0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21 #0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13 #0212(Diatessaron)Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-42;Lk23:49-51,54;Jn19:38
303-311 last persecution of Christians in Rome
304 Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau
306-337 Emperor Constantine the Great* converts to Christianity on deathbed
306-312 Maxentius* emperor of Western Roman Empire
306-308 Pope Marcellus I* tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace
306 Synod of Elvira prohibits eating, marriage, sex between Christians & Jews
310 Pope Eusebius deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by Maxentius
311-314 Pope Miltiades* Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal residence
312 Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, revised LXX, martyred
312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire
313 Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity
313 Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates
314-335 Pope Silvester I
314 Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism
317 Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father
320 Ko Hung writes "Pao-p'u-tzu" (Master Who Preserves Simplicity)
321 Constantine decrees SUN-day as official Roman-Christian day of rest
325 Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called "1st great Christian council" by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend
325? Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
325-900 Teotihuacan, ancient Mexican city
331 seat of Roman empire moved to Constantinople (former Greek Byzantium)
334-365 Codex Hermogenianus* compilation of Roman Law
336-337-352-366 Pope Mark - Pope Julius I - Pope Liberius
336 Arius, Greek theologian, b.256?, Arianism* Jesus was a created being
337-350 Roman Empire splits again* Constans emperor of West until 350
337-361 Roman Empire splits again* Constantius II emperor of East until 361
338 Jewish calender modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar
340? Eusebius of Caesarea, theologian & church historian, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote* "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb Classics* 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew (more likely Aramaic) and each one translated them as he could."} (Ref EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126-127) Eusebius' NT Canon* Recognized Books 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books* Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the Hebrews; Rejected Books* Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John ... (EH3.25)
350 Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers
350? Codex Sinaiticus (S or ) earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2-3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas), missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type* most accurate text-type
350? Codex Vaticanus (B) earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type* most accurate text-type
350? Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
350? Papyrus Chester Beatty #4:R961 Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11* Greek Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12* Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-104:13,106:1-107:3
350? Papyrus Bodmer 45-46* Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
350? Canon Cheltenham* 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
350? Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
350? Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic
350? Avesta (Zoroastrian texts back to 1,000 bce) compiled in Persia
355-365 anti-Pope Felix II* Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II
360 Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)
361-363 Emperor Julian the Apostate attempts to revive Paganism; Loeb:3v (Gk)
363 Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers
363 Council of Laodicea names 26NT books (excludes Revelations)
366-384 Pope Damasus I* hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians)
366-367 anti-Pope Ursinus* leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
364 Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath
367 Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon
367 Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers
370 Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon
370 Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)
373 Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text-type
379-395 Theodosius the Great* last emperor of united empire
378 Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers
379? St. Basil the Great, Greek Christian writer* Loeb Classics has 4 vols.
380 Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius
381 Council of Theodosius at Const., 2d ecumenical, Jesus had true human soul
382 Pope Damasus I has Jerome begin revision & unification of Latin Bibles
383 Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain
384 Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost
384-399-401 Pope Siricius (criticized Jerome) - Pope Anastasius I
385 Tao-an, b.312, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
386 Letters of Cyril of Jerusalem, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type
390 Apollinaris of Laodicea, b.310, Jesus had human body but divine spirit
390 Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers
391? Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote* "Res gestae"
393,397 Augustine's (see 430) Councils, cites exactly 27NT books
395 Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games
395 Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)
396 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens
397 Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote* "de Fide" ...
397 Ling-pao ching writes "Book of the Sacred Jewel", Taoist philosophy

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