ChronoTemp2(Return to parent thread: TopicalNotes)


Please view this information as being an educated speculation from a highly critical view point with a great deal of information from sources other than the Bible. It is included here because of it's scholarly historical and chronological efforts.----400 ad +(400-600 era of "aggressive forgeries" in Christian texts (Grant,J.T.S.,1960)

400? Vulgate Bible (Hebrew OT->Latin, Greek NT->Latin), by Jerome? (340?-420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin Text becomes standard Western Christian Bible
400? Codex Vercellensis it(a) Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
400? Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes* 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
400? Palestinian Talmud (Mishnah (Oral Law) + Gemara (Mishnah commentary))
400? Pericope of the Adulteress, John 7:53-8:11, added to Bible (Jerome,(D))
400? Codex Bobiensis it(k) ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8* {But they reported briefly to Peter & those with him all that they had been told. & after this Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal slavation.} (Text.Com., Metzger, p.123)
400? Jerome cites "expanded" ending of Mark found in (W) after Mk16:14* {And they excused themselves, saying, "This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth & power of God to pervail over the unclean things of the spirits (or does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth & power of God). Therefore reveal thy right- eousness now" - thus they spoke to Christ. And Christ replied to them, "The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they many inherit the spirtual & incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven."} (A Textual Commentary on the Greek NT, Bruce Metzger, p.124)
401-417 Pope Innocent I* decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity
401 Visigoths invade Italy
403 Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers
405? Prudentius, b.348, greatest Christian Latin poet; Loeb Classics* 2 vols.
408? Claudian, b.370?, Roman poet; Loeb Classics* 2 volumes
410 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, sacks Rome
410 beginnings of Alchemy
413 Kumarajira, b.334, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
414 Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers
414 Seng-chao, b.384, Chinese Buddhist philosopher, "Book of Chao"
415 Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells
416 Visigoths take Spain
416? C.R. Namatianus, last Pagan Latin poet, wrote* "de Reditu Suo"
417 Hui-yuan, b.334, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
417-418-422-432 Pope Zosimus - Pope Boniface I - Pope Celestine I
418-419 anti-Pope Eulalius
418 Franks take Gaul
420 St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)
423 Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use
427? Ashi, head of Sura Yeshiva, "Rabbana", began compilation of Bab. Talmud
429 Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
430 St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philo- sopher, wrote* "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)
430 Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers
431 Council of Ephesus* 3d ecumenical;decreed Mary* Mother of God (Theotokos)
431 Letters of Nonnus of Panopolis, John Cassian; Christian church fathers
431 Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian) and West (Jacobites)
432-440-461-468 Pope Sixtus III - Pope Leo I - Pope Hilarus
432 St. Patrick begins mission in Ireland
433-453 Attila the Hun* b.406?, "Scourge of the Gods"
434 Chu Tao-sheng, b.360?, Chinese Buddhist philosopher
439 Codex Theodosianus* compilation of Roman Law
444 Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers
450? Mark's Resurrection of Jesus, Mark 16:9-20, added to Bible ((A),(D),(W))
450? Codex Alexandrinus (A) (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT + 1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4, 2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type* most accurate text-type
450? Codex Bezae (D) Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W) Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type* "fondness for paraphrase"
450? Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C) Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
450? Codex Marchalianus (Q) Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
450? Codex Ambrosianus (F) Greek Genesis to Joshua
450? Codex Freer* Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua
450? Codex Colberto-Sarravianus* Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg
450? Codex Palatinus it(e) Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
450? Codex Veronensis it(b) Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
450? Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type
450? std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets
451 Council of Chalcedon* 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both human and divine, in one; a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms
451 Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians Mary was *not "Mother of God"
451 Letters of Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; early Christian church fathers
454 Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites* Jesus was divine but not human
455 Vandals sack Rome (it was becoming the thing to do)
457-474 Pope Leo I becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman empire
463 Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine, early Christian church father
466 Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers
468-483-492 Pope Simplicius - Pope Felix III
470 flowering of Mayan city culture in southern Mexico
474-491 Zeno* eastern Roman emperor
476 official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus
478 first Shinto shrines in Japan
483-492 Pope Felix III
484-519 Acacian schism* over "Henoticon" divides Western and Eastern churches
484 Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father
489 Zeno destroys Nestorian(451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St.Simeon
491 Armenian Church secedes from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches
491-518 Anastasius I* eastern Roman emperor
492-496-498 Pope Gelasius I (1st 'Vicar of Christ') - Pope Anastasius II
498 Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia
498-514-523-526 Pope Symmachus - Pope Hormisdas - Pope John I
498-506 anti-Pope Lawrence* Lawrentian schism
500 incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican
500 Tamo brings tea from India to China
500? Codex Sangallensis vg* earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
500? Codex Argenteus (got) earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
500? Codex Cottonianus* Greek Genesis
502 Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)
518-527 Justin I* emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire
524 Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote* "Theological Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)
525 Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus birth 23Dec1ce
526-530-532-535 Pope Felix IV - Pope Boniface II - Pope John II
527-565 Justinian the Great* Byzantine emperor
527 Letters of Fulgentius, early Christian church father
529 Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic
529-534 "Corpus Juris Civilis", a compilation of Roman law by Tribonian
530 anti-Pope Dioscorus
533 N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province
534-870 Malta becomes Byzantine province
535-536-537 Pope Agapitus I - Pope Silverius
535 Synod of Clermont excludes Jews from public office
537-555 Pope Vigilius involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550 ... (Ref Oxford Dictionary of Popes, 1986, ISBN:0-19-213964-9)
538 3d Synod of Orleans requires Jews to remain indoors during "Passion Week"
539-562 war between Byzantine Empire and Persia
541-546 Codex Fuldensis vg(F) Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans
542 plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe
543 Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world
544 Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)
547 Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti- "2-natures"
547 plague, medically described by Gildas, reaches Britain
548 Letters of Apringius Pacensis, early Christian church father
550-1453 Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek
550 Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation
550 St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon
550? Codex Claromontanus (Dp) Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250ce lists 27NT+Barnabas+Hermas+Acts_of_Paul+Apocalypse_of_Peter; "Western" type
550? Codex Mediolanensis vg(M) Latin Vulgate Gospels
550? Codex Veronensis* Greek & Old Latin Psalms
552 Emperor Shotoko Taishi introduces Buddhism into Japan
552 Justinian sends Christian missionaries to China & Ceylon to get silkworm
553 silk industry monopoly established in Byzantine empire
555 2nd Council of Constantinople* 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian
556-561 Pope Pelagius I* selected by Justianian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)
561-574 Pope John III* authorized by Justianian
565-578 Justin II* Byzantine emperor
567 Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers
572-628 war between Byzantine Empire and Persia
575-579 Pope Benedict I* authorized by Justin II
578-582 Tiberius II* Byzantine emperor
579-590 Pope Pelagius II* died of plague
581-618 Sui dynasty of China
582-602 Maurice* Byzantine emperor
587 Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity
589 Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity
590 plague in Rome
590-604 Pope Gregory I
594 end of plague which began in 542 and halved the population of Europe!
595 1st authenticated record of decimal number system (0-9) appears in India
596 St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity
600 Babylonian Talmud (Mishnah(Oral Law) + Gemara(Mishnah commentary)); Ashi
600 Antara ibn Shaddad, one of seven great Islamic poets
600 Pope Gregory "strives" to convert the Jews to Christianity
600 book printing in China
600? Codex Harleianus vg(Z) Latin Vulgate Gospels
600? Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h) Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type
602-610 Phocas* kills Maurice, becomes Byzantine emperor
604-606-607-615 Popes Sabinian, Boniface III, Boniface IV; author. by Phocas
606 standard examinations for public office in China
609 Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda
610-641 Heraclius* kills Phocas, becomes Byzantine emperor
610 Muhammad's vision on Mount Hira
614 Persians take Damascus and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ"
615 earliest records of some of Muhammad's teachings
615-618 Pope Deusdedit
616 Persians take Egypt
618-907 T'ang dynasty of China
619-625 Pope Boniface V* authorized by Heraclius
619 "Suan-Ching", ten classics, textbooks used for Chinese exams (606)
622 first year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h. = anno hegirae)
622-680 Monothelite controversy* condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Const.
624 Muhammad marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr
625-638 Pope Honorius I
625 Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity
625 Muhammad begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe
625 Brahmagupta, mathematician of India, teaches at Ujjain
626 King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization
627 Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh, discover Indian sugar cane
628 Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians (614)
628 Muhammad captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam
629 Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians
629 Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622)
632 East Anglia Christianized
632 Muhammad, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam
632 Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina
634 Omar I, 2d Caliph, takes Syria/Persia/Egypt;defeats Heraclius in Holy War
635 Christianization of Wessex
635-750 Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs
636 Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism
637 Jerusalem captured by Islam
638 Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature* "Monothelites"
640 Pope Severinus
640 Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed.

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