PCARR Search Result: pcarr - ages
PCARR BibleNotes MyJournal

SolaGratia
Found:
  • kjv@Ephesians:2:1-10 @ And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins; Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus. For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.


  • AnglicanArticlesOfReligion
    Found: THE Romish doctrine concerning Purgatory, Pardons, worshipping and adoration as well of Images as of Relics, and also Invocation of Saint, is a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture; but rather repugnant to the word of God.


    AugsburgConfession
    Found:

    Article XV: Of Ecclesiastical Usages.




    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 1] Of Usages in the Church they teach that those ought to be observed which may be observed without sin, and which are profitable unto tranquillity and good order in the Church, as particular holy days, festivals, and the like.


    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 1] Our teachers are falsely accused of forbidding Good Works. 2] For their published writings on the Ten Commandments, and others of like import, bear witness that they have taught to good purpose concerning all estates and duties of life, as to what estates of life and what works in every calling be pleasing to God. 3] Concerning these things preachers heretofore taught but little, and urged only childish and needless works, as particular holy-days, particular fasts, brotherhoods, pilgrimages, services in honor of saints, the use of rosaries, monasticism, and such like. 4] Since our adversaries have been admonished of these things, they are now unlearning them, and do not preach these unprofitable works as heretofore. 5] Besides, they begin to mention faith, of which there was heretofore marvelous silence. 6] They teach that we are justified not by works only, but they conjoin faith and works, and say that we are justified by faith and works. 7] This doctrine is more tolerable than the former one, and can afford more consolation than their old doctrine.


    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 24] Now he that knows that he has a Father gracious to him through Christ, truly knows God; he knows also that God cares for him, and calls upon God; in a word, he is not 25] without God, as the heathen. For devils and the ungodly are not able to believe this article: the forgiveness of sins. Hence, they hate God as an enemy, call not upon Him, 26] and expect no good from Him. Augustine also admonishes his readers concerning the word "faith," and teaches that the term "faith" is accepted in the Scriptures not for knowledge such as is in the ungodly but for confidence which consoles and encourages the terrified mind.


    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 10] It is also evident that in the ancient Church priests were married men. 11] For Paul says, kjv@1Timothy:3:2, that a bishop should be chosen who is the husband of one wife. 12] And in Germany, four hundred years ago for the first time, the priests were violently compelled to lead a single life, who indeed offered such resistance that the Archbishop of Mayence, when about to publish the Pope's decree concerning this matter, was almost killed in the tumult raised by the enraged priests. 13] And so harsh was the dealing in the matter that not only were marriages forbidden for the future, but also existing marriages were torn asunder, contrary to all laws, divine and human, contrary even to the Canons themselves, made not only by the Popes, but by most celebrated Synods. Moreover, many God-fearing and intelligent people in high station are known frequently to have expressed misgivings that such enforced celibacy and depriving men of marriage (which God Himself has instituted and left free to men) has never produced any good results, but has brought on many great and evil vices and much iniquity.]


    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 40] Nevertheless, very many traditions are kept on our part, which conduce to good order in the Church, as the Order of Lessons 41] in the Mass and the chief holy-days. But, at the same time, men are warned that such observances do not justify before God, and that in such things it should not be made sin if they be omitted without offense. 42] Such liberty in human rites was not unknown to the Fathers. 43] For in the East they kept Easter at another time than at Rome, and when, on account of this diversity, the Romans accused the Eastern Church of schism, they were admonished by others 44] that such usages need not be alike everywhere. And Irenaeus says: Diversity concerning fasting does not destroy the harmony of faith; as also Pope Gregory intimates in Dist. XII, that such diversity does not violate the unity of the Church. 45] And in the Tripartite History, Book 9, many examples of dissimilar rites are gathered, and the following statement is made: It was not the mind of the Apostles to enact rules concerning holy-days, but to preach godliness and a holy life to teach faith and love].


    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 31] Most canonical laws rescind vows made before the age of fifteen; for before that age there does not seem sufficient judgment in a person to decide concerning a perpetual life. 32] Another Canon, granting more to the weakness of man, adds a few years; for it forbids a vow to be made before the age of eighteen. 33] But which of these two Canons shall we follow? The most part have an excuse for leaving the monasteries, because most of them have taken the vows before they reached these ages.


    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 34] Finally, even though the violation of a vow might be censured, yet it seems not forthwith to follow that the marriages of such persons must be dissolved. 35] For Augustine denies that they ought to be dissolved (XXVII. Quaest. I, Cap. Nuptiarum), and his authority is not lightly to be esteemed, although other men afterwards thought otherwise.


    AugsburgConfession
    Found: 1] These are the chief articles which seem to be in controversy. For although we might have spoken of more abuses, yet, to avoid undue length, we have set forth the chief points, from which the rest may be readily judged. 2] There have been great complaints concerning indulgences, pilgrimages, and the abuse of excommunications. The parishes have been vexed in many ways by the dealers in indulgences. There were endless contentions between the pastors and the monks concerning the parochial right, confessions, burials, sermons on extraordinary occasions, and 3] innumerable other things. Issues of this sort we have passed over so that the chief points in this matter, having been briefly set forth, might be the more readily understood. 4] Nor has anything been here said or adduced to the reproach of any one. 5] Only those things have been recounted whereof we thought that it was necessary to speak, in order that it might be understood that in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic. For it is manifest that we have taken most diligent care that no new and ungodly doctrine should creep into our churches.


    RomanRoadToSalvation
    Found:
    kjv@Romans:6:23 "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord".


    EscapeCorruptionWorldLust
    Found: We need to add into our present consideration of the world's all consuming corruption and the position or proximity of the "like precious" believer to either contrasting extreme. It would be one thing to say that each believer is a new creature in Christ and has escaped the corruption; he/she is in the corruption but not of the corruption. Yet often we see the observable signs of the same corruption gnawing at their marriages, their addiction recoveries, their angers/rages/hostilities/impulses/compulsions/unforgiveness, sanity overwhelming depressions, etc..


    EscapeCorruptionWorldLust
    Found:
  • Aggravated by neglecting advantages


  • EscapeCorruptionWorldLust
    Found:
  • Death, the wages of


  • BaptistConfessionOfFaith1689
    Found: Paragraph 8. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old)(14), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentic; so as in all controversies of religion, the church is finally to appeal to them(15). But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God, who have a right unto, and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded in the fear of God to read(16), and search them(17), therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come(18), that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship Him in an acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures may have hope(19).


    BaptistConfessionOfFaith1689
    Found: Paragraph 6. Although the price of redemption was not actually paid by Christ until after His incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefit thereof were communicated to the elect in all ages, successively from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types, and sacrifices wherein He was revealed, and signified to be the seed which should bruise the serpent's head(34). and the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world(35), being the same yesterday, and today and for ever(36).


    BaptistConfessionOfFaith1689
    Found: Paragraph 3. This faith, although it be in different stages, and may be weak or strong(11), yet it is in the least degree of it different in the kind or nature of it, as is all other saving grace, from the faith and common grace of temporary believers(12). and therefore, though it may be many times assailed and weakened, yet it gets the victory(13), growing up in many to the attainment of a full assurance through Christ(14), who is both the author and finisher of our faith(15).


    BaptistConfessionOfFaith1689
    Found: Paragraph 6. Although true believers are not under the law as a covenant of works, to be thereby justified or condemned(13), yet it is of great use to them as well as to others, in that as a rule of life, informing them of the will of God and their duty, it directs and binds them to walk accordingly; discovering also the sinful pollutions of their natures, hearts, and lives, so as examining themselves thereby, they may come to further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred against, sin(14). together with a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ and the perfection of his obedience; it is likewise of use to the regenerate to restrain their corruptions, in that it forbids sin; and the threatenings of it serve to show what even their sins deserve, and what afflictions in this life they may expect for them, although freed from the curse and unallayed rigour thereof. The promises of it likewise show them God's approbation of obedience, and what blessings they may expect upon the performance thereof, though not as due to them by the law as a covenant of works; so as man's doing good and refraining from evil, because the law encourages to the one and deters from the other, is no evidence of his being under the law and not under grace(15).


    BaptistConfessionOfFaith1689
    Found: Paragraph 3. The revelation of the gospel to sinners, made in divers times and by sundry parts, with the addition of promises and precepts for the obedience required therein, as to the nations and persons to whom it is granted, is merely of the sovereign will and good pleasure of God(6). not being annexed by virtue of any promise to the due improvement of men's natural abilities, by virtue of common light received without it, which none ever made, or can do so(7). and therefore in all ages, the preaching of the gospel has been granted unto persons and nations, as to the extent or straitening of it, in great variety, according to the counsel of the will of God.


    BaptistConfessionOfFaith1689
    Found: Paragraph 7. As it is the law of nature, that in general a proportion of time, by God's appointment, be set apart for the worship of God, so by his Word, in a positive moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men, in all ages, he has particularly appointed one day in seven for a sabbath to be kept holy unto him(28), which from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ was the last day of the week, and from the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the week, which is called the Lord's Day:29 and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath, the observation of the last day of the week being abolished.


    BaptistConfessionOfFaith1689
    Found: Paragraph 4. Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity, forbidden in the Word(8). nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful, by any law of man or consent of parties, so as those persons may live together as man and wife(9).


    SavoyDeclaration1658
    Found: The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old) and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of writing of it was most generally known to the nations) being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as in all controversies of religion the Church is finally to appeal unto them. But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God, who have right unto and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded in the fear of God to read and search them; therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come, that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures may have hope.


    SavoyDeclaration1658
    Found: Although the work of redemption was not actually wrought by Christ, till after his incarnation; yet the virtue, efficacy and benefits thereof were communicated to the elect in all ages, successively from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types and sacrifices wherein he was revealed and signified to be the Seed of the woman, which should bruise the serpent's head, and the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world, being yesterday and today the same, and for ever.


    SavoyDeclaration1658
    Found: The revelation of the gospel unto sinners, made in divers times, and by sundry parts, with the addition of promises and precepts for the obedience required therein, as to the nations and persons to whom it is granted, is merely of the sovereign will and good pleasure of God, not being annexed by virtue of any promise to the due improvement of men's natural abilities, by virtue of common light received without it, which none ever did make or can so do. And therefore in all ages the preaching of the gospel hath been granted unto persons and nations, as to the extent or straitening of it, in great variety, according to the counsel of the will of God.


    SavoyDeclaration1658
    Found: As it is of the law of nature, that in general a proportion of time by God's appointment be set apart for the worship of God; so by his Word in a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath to be kept holy unto him; which from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and from the resurrection of Christ was changed into the first day of the week, which in Scripture is called the Lord's Day, and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath, the observation of the last day of the week being abolished.


    SavoyDeclaration1658
    Found: Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguity or affinity forbidden in the Word; nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by any law of man, or consent of parties, so as those persons may live together as man and wife.


    SavoyDeclaration1658
    Found: As the Lord in his care and love towards his Church, hath in his infinite wise providence exercised it with great variety in all ages, for the good of them that love him, and his own glory; so according to his promise, we expect that in the latter days, antichrist being destroyed, the Jews called, and the adversaries of the kingdom of his dear Son broken, the churches of Christ being enlarged, and edified through a free and plentiful communication of light and grace, shall enjoy in this world a more quiet, peaceable and glorious condition than they have enjoyed.


    GodlyPatience
    Found:
  • ExceedingPromisesPartakersDivineNature - It must be considered that the glory and virtue to which we have been called by God is not proposed in the improvement of our corrupted nature free standing or in the sudden extraction of certain other bad eggs, it is in the each of us individually and corporately partaking of His uncorrupted form to the increasing exclusion (extinction) of ours even in the midst these bad often controlling eggs. This availability has been the promise all along and in the establishment and eventual fulfillment of this promise it has painstakingly had to be made known again and again that our nature just can not help us to get there. This process of disproving ours to reestablish His, generation after generation, has required considerable patience on God's part and on the part of the saints of each of those ages who have been brought to the doorstep of the promise to await it's final complete fulfillment.


  • ConsensusTigurinus1549
    Found: As the sacraments are appendages of the gospel, he only can discourse aptly and usefully of their nature, virtue, office, and benefit, who begins with Christ: and that not by adverting cursorily to the name of Christ, but by truly holding for what end he was given us by the Father, and what blessings he has conferred upon us.


    ConsensusTigurinus1549
    Found: The ends of the sacraments are to be marks and badges of Christian profession and fellowship or fraternity, to be incitements to gratitude and exercises of faith and a godly life; in short, to be contracts binding us to this. But among other ends the principal one is, that God may, by means of them, testify, represent, and seal his grace to us. For although they signify nothing else than is announced to us by the Word itself, yet it is a great matter, first, that there is submitted to our eye a kind of living images which make a deeper impression on the senses, by bringing the object in a manner directly before them, while they bring the death of Christ and all his benefits to our remembrance, that faith may be the better exercised; and, secondly, that what the mouth of God had announced is, as it were, confirmed and ratified by seals.


    TorreyRighteousnessOfGod
    Found: kjv@Judges:5:11 They that are delivered from the noise of archers in the places of drawing water, there shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the LORD, even the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of his villages in Israel: then shall the people of the LORD go down to the gates.


    ApostolosApostle
    Found: kjv@Ephesians:3:5 @ Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: Then President John Quincy Adams said, “I speak as a man of the world to men of the world; and I say to you: search the Scriptures. The Bible is the book above all other to be read at all ages and in all conditions of human life; not to be read once or twice through and then laid aside, but to be read in small portions every day.” And the Presidents back in those days, who made our nation great, did not get us into foreign wars and were able to solve the problems of the streets. Someone may counter, “But the problems weren’t as complicated then as they are now.” They were for that day, friend.


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: Born in the East and clothed in Oriental form and imagery, the Bible walks the ways of all the world with familiar feet, and enters land after land to find its own everywhere. It has learned to speak in hundreds of languages to the heart of man. It comes into the palace to tell the monarch that he is a servant of the Most High, and into the cottage to assure the peasant that he is a son of God.


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: The wilderness and the solitary place have been made glad by it, and the fire on the hearth has lit the reading of its well-worn pages. It has woven itself into our dearest dreams; so that love, friendship, sympathy and devotion, memory and hope put on the beautiful garments of its treasured speech, breathing of frankincense and myrrh. —Henry van Dyke


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: Again and again and again this testimony could be multiplied. Young and old have found purpose and fulfillment in life, marriages have been saved, families reunited, individuals have been freed from alcoholism and drug addiction. Folk have had their lives transformed by coming to Christ. Now let me give you a reason. When I finished seminary, I was a preacher who majored in the realm of the defense of the Gospel, and I attempted to defend the Bible. In fact, I think every message I gave entered into that area. I felt if I could just get enough answers to the questions that people have for not believing the Bible that they would believe. But I found out that the worst thing I could do was to whip a man down intellectually. The minute I did that, I made an enemy and never could win him for the Lord. So I moved out of the realm of apologetics and into another area of just giving out the Word of God as simply as I could. Only the Bible can turn a sinner into a saint.


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: A young preacher said to me some time ago, “Dr. McGee, isn’t it wonderful that they have discovered this,” and he mentioned something in particular. And I said, “Well, I don’t see anything to be excited about.” He was greatly disappointed and even chagrined that I was so far away from it that I did not respond enthusiastically. “Why, what do you mean?” he asked. “Is it possible that this hasn’t impressed you?” Well, I answered him this way, “I already knew it was the Word of God long before the spade of the archaeologist turned that up.” He asked how I knew it, and I said, “The Spirit of God has been making it real to my own heart.” I trust that the Spirit of God is going to make the Word of God not only real to you to incorporate into your living, but that He is also going to give you that assurance that you can say, “I know that it’s the Word of God.” Whence but from Heaven, could men unskilled in arts, In several ages born, in several parts, Weave such agreeing truths, or how, or why, Should all conspire to cheat us with a lie? Unasked their pains, ungrateful their advice, Starving their gain, and martyrdom their price. —Dryden


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found:
    But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the ages unto our glory; which none of the princes of this age knew; for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. ( kjv@1Corinthians:2:7-9 NSRB)



    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: 3. The immediate context before and after a Scripture should be observed. What is the passage talking about? And what other passages of Scripture deal with the same thing?


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: The danger in modern translations is that translation is done in a dogmatic fashion. When you translate, you have to take something out of one language and put it into another language in comparable terms—identical terms if possible. The thing that most of our modern translators are trying to do is to get it into modern speech. And in doing so, they really miss what the original is saying. Personally, I stick by the Authorized (King James) Version. I feel that The New Scofield Reference Bible has made a tremendous step forward in making certain distinctions and corrections that needed to be made in the Authorized Version. I recommend that also, although I still use my old Scofield Reference Bible . I know my way around through the Book, and, after all, the old scout will follow the old trail. However, the important thing is to attempt to determine the exact words of the original. 5. Interpret the Bible literally. The late Dr. David Cooper has stated it well: “When the plain sense of Scripture makes common sense, seek no other sense; therefore, take every word at its primary, ordinary, usual, literal meaning unless the facts of the immediate context, studied in the light of related passages and axiomatic and fundamental truths, indicate clearly otherwise.”


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: I have always encouraged members of my family to read the Bible on their own. That is the reading that is profitable. Someone is going to say, “But I have my devotions at night after the day is over.” Now really, don’t you have them right before you go to bed? You’ve got one foot in bed already, one eye is already closed, and you turn to a passage of Scripture to read. Now, friend, you cannot learn mathematics that way. You cannot learn literature that way. You cannot learn the Bible that way. You have to study the Word of God. You ought to read it when you can give time to it. And if you can’t find time, you ought to make time. Set apart thirty minutes or an hour. Or if you do things haphazardly like I do, read thirty minutes one day, perhaps only five minutes the next day, and two or three hours the next day, however it fits into your program. I put down no particular rule except that each person should read for himself, and boys and girls should be encouraged to read the Bible for themselves. Some folks feel that they ought to have devotional reading together. And that is fine, if the Lord leads you to do it, but I guarantee you will not be intelligent Bible students after twenty years of doing it like that. You also need to study the Word of God on your own. It was said of John Wesley that he was a man of one Book. What made him a man of one Book? Well, he got up and read the Bible at four and five o’clock every morning—read it in five different languages. Believe me, he studied the Word of God. And you and I need to study the Word; we need to get the meaning of the Bible. This leads me to the fourth guideline:


    McGeeGuidelines
    Found: There have been some wonderful, profound works on the books of the Bible. In addition to commentaries, a concordance is invaluable. I can recommend three: Young's concordance, Strong's concordance, and Cruden's concordance—take your pick. Also you will need a good Bible dictionary. The Davis Bible dictionary is good if you don’t get the wrong edition. Unger’s Bible Dictionary I can recommend without reservation. Every teacher and preacher of the Gospel has a set of books that he studies. He needs them. Someone asks, “Should he present verbatim what somebody else has written?” No, he should never do that, unless he gives credit to the author. But he has a perfect right to use what others have written. I have been told that some of my feeble messages are given by others, and sometimes credit is given and sometimes no mention is made of the author at all.


    ChristiansPoliticsAndReligion
    Found:
  • fornication ( dict:strongs G4202 @ πορνεία porneia) - As of 2003, there were 1.3 million pornographic websites; 260 million pages. The total porn industry revenue for 2006: $13.3 billion in the United States; $97 billion worldwide.U.S. adult DVD/video rentals in 2005: almost 1 billion (Adult Video News).


  • ChristiansPoliticsAndReligion
    Found: Hotel viewership for adult films: 55% (cbsnews.com). Unique worldwide users visiting adult web sites monthly: 72 million (Internet Filter Review). Number of hardcore pornography titles released in 2005 (U.S.): 13,588 (Internet Filter Review). Adults admitting to Internet sexual addiction: 10%; 28% of those are women (Internet Filter Review). More than 70% of men from 18 to 34 visit a pornographic site in a typical month (comScore Media Metrix). More than 20,000 images of child pornography posted online every week (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 10/8/03). Approximately 20% of all Internet pornography involves children (National Center for Mission & Exploited Children). 100,000 websites offer illegal child pornography (U.S. Customs Service estimate). As of December 2005, child pornography was a $3 billion annual industry (Internet Filter Review). (http://www.safefamilies.org/sfStats.php )


    ChristiansPoliticsAndReligion
    Found: There were 5,462 single-bias incidents that involved 6,385 offenses, 6,681 victims, and 5,176 known offenders. The 17 multiple-bias incidents reported in 2014 involved 33 offenses, 46 victims, and 16 offenders. 47.0 percent were racially motivated. 18.6 percent resulted from sexual-orientation bias. 18.6 percent were motivated by religious bias. 11.9 percent stemmed from ethnicity bias. 1.8 percent were motivated by gender-identity bias. 1.5 percent were prompted by disability bias. 0.6 percent (33 incidents) resulted from gender bias. (http://ucr.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/hate-crime/2014/topic-pages/incidentsandoffenses_final ) . According to Gregory M. Herek, a psychologist at the University of California at Davis, gays and lesbians report hate crimes to law enforcement only one-third of the time. Research shows that victims of severe hate crimes such as sexual assaults are the least likely of all hate-crime victims to report. The National Council of La Raza holds that Hispanics often do not report hate crimes because they mistrust the police. (http://inthesetimes.com/article/3132/defining_hate_in_the_united_states )


    ChristiansPoliticsAndReligion
    Found:
  • strife ( dict:strongs G2052 @ ἐριθεία eritheia ) - Victimization due to violent assault in general is common in the U.S. among both sexes, with an estimated 1.9 million women and 3.2 million men physically assaulted annually, and domestic violence is a large part of that problem, with 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men having been physically assaulted by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriend, girlfriend or date in their lifetime (the preceding data is according to a 2000 U.S. Department of Justice Report). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_the_United_States ). In 2013, about 22 percent of students ages 12 to 18 reported being bullied at school during the school year. 2013 about 24 percent of female students reported being bullied at school. Nine percent of females reported that they were cyberbullied compared with 5 percent of males. (http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/new-data-show-decline-school-based-bullying ). 77 percent of all students being bullied verbally in some way or another including mental bullying or even verbal abuse. (http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/school-bullying-statistics.html ). Since 2009, OCR has received more than 2,000 complaints regarding the bullying of students with disabilities in the nation's public elementary and secondary schools. (http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/bullying-students-disabilities-addressed-guidance-america ’s-schools )


  • ChristiansPoliticsAndReligion
    Found:
  • drunkenness ( dict:strongs G3178 @ μέθη methē meth'-ay ) - In 2014, 87.6 percent of people ages 18 or older reported that they drank alcohol at some point in their lifetime; 71.0 percent reported that they drank in the past year; 56.9 percent reported that they drank in the past month. In 2014, 24.7 percent of people ages 18 or older reported that they engaged in binge drinking in the past month; 6.7 percent reported that they engaged in heavy drinking in the past month. (http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-facts-and-statistics )


  • HelveticConfession2
    Found: THE TRUE INTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE. The apostle peter has said that the Holy Scriptures are not of private interpretation ( kjv@2Peter:1:20), and thus we do not allow all possible interpretations. Nor consequently do we acknowledge as the true or genuine interpretation of the Scriptures what is called the conception of the Roman Church, that is, what the defenders of the Roman Church plainly maintain should be thrust upon all for acceptance. But we hold that the interpretation of the Scripture to be orthodox and genuine which is gleaned from the Scriptures themselves (from the nature of the language in which they were written, likewise according to the circumstances in which they were set down, and expounded in the light of and unlike passages and of many and clearer passages) and which agree with the rule of faith and love, and contributes much to the glory of God and man's salvation.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: Of Idols or Images of God,


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: IMAGES OF GOD. Since God as Spirit is in essence invisible and immense, he cannot really be expressed by any art or image. For this reason we have no fear pronouncing with Scripture that images of God are mere lies. Therefore we reject not only the idols of the Gentiles, but also the images of Christians.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: IMAGES OF CHRIST. Although Christ assumed human nature, yet he did not on that account assume it in order to provide a model for carvers and painters. He denied that he had come "to abolish the law and the prophets" kjv@Matthew:5:17). But images are forbidden by the law and the prophets" kjv@Deuteronomy:4:15; kjv@Isaiah:44:9). He denied that his bodily presence would be profitable for the Church, and promised that he would be near us by his Spirit forever kjv@John:16:7). Who, therefore, would believe that a shadow or likeness of his body would contribute any benefit to the pious? kjv@2Corinthians:5:5). Since he abides in us by his Spirit, we are therefore the temple of God kjv@1Corinthians:3:16). But "what agreement has the temple of God with idols?" kjv@2Corinthians:6:16).


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: IMAGES OF SAINTS. And since the blessed spirits and saints in heaven, while they lived here on earth, rejected all worship of themselves kjv@Acts:3:12 f.; 14:11 ff.; kjv@Revelation:14:7 kjv@Revelation:22:9) and condemned images, shall anyone find it likely that the heavenly saints and angels are pleased with their own images before which men kneel. uncover their heads, and bestow other honors?


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: But in fact in order to instruct men in religion and to remind them of divine things and of their salvation, the Lord commanded the preaching of the Gospel kjv@Mark:16:15) - not to paint and to teach the laity by means of pictures. Moreover, he instituted sacraments, but nowhere did he set up images.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: THE SCRIPTURES OF THE LAITY. Furthermore, wherever we turn our eyes, we see the living and true creatures of God which, if they be observed, as is proper, make a much more vivid impression on the beholders than all images or vain, motionless, feeble and dead pictures made by men, of which the prophet truly said: "They have eyes, but do not see" kjv@Psalms:115:5).


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: GOD HAS ELECTED US OUT OF GRACE. From eternity God has freely, and of his mere grace, without any respect to men, predestinated or elected the saints whom he wills to save in Christ, according to the saying of the apostle, "God chose us in him before the foundation of the world" kjv@Ephesians:1:4). And again: "Who saved us and called an with a holy calling, not in virtue of our works but in virtue of his own purpose and the grace which he gave us in Christ Jesus ages ago, and now has manifested through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus" kjv@2Timothy:1:9 f.).


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: IMPARTATION OF PROPERTIES. We piously and reverently accept and use the impartation of properties which is derived from Scripture and which has been used by all antiquity in explaining and reconciling apparently contradictory passages.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: MILITANT AND TRIUMPHANT. For the one is called the Church Militant, the other the Church Triumphant. The former still wages war on earth, and fights against the flesh, the world, and the prince of this world, the devil; against sin and death. But the latter, having been now discharged, triumphs in heaven immediately after having overcome all those things and rejoices before the Lord. Notwithstanding both have fellowship and union one with another.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: MINISTERS AS STEWARDS OF THE MYSTERIES OF GOD. Moreover, to the end that he might expound the ministry more fully, the apostle adds that ministers of the Church are administrators and stewards of the mysteries of God. Now in may passages, especially in Eph., ch. 3, Paul called the mysteries of God the Gospel of Christ. And the sacraments of Christ are also called mysteries by the ancient writers. Therefore for this purpose are the ministers of the Church called--namely, to preach the Gospel of Christ to the faithful, and to administer the sacraments. We read, also, in another place in the Gospel, of "the faithful and wise steward," whom "his master will set over his household, to give them their portion of food at the proper time" kjv@Luke:12:42). Again, elsewhere in the Gospel a man takes a journey in a foreign country and, leaving his house, gives his substance and authority over it to his servants, and to each his work.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: THE SUBSTANCE OR CHIEF THING IN THE SACRAMENTS. But the principal thing which God promises in all sacraments and to which all the godly in all ages direct their attention (some call it the substance and matter of sacraments) is Christ the Savior -- that only sacrifice, and that Lamb of God slain from the foundation of the world; that rock, also, from which all our fathers drank, by whom all the elect are circumcised without hands through the Holy Spirit, and are washed from all their sins, and are nourished with the very body and blood of Christ unto eternal life.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: THINGS INDIFFERENT. But at the same time we admonish me to be on guard lest they reckon among things indifferent what are in fact not indifferent, as some are wont to regard the mass and the use of images in places of worship as things indifferent. "Indifferent," wrote Jerome to Augustine, "is that which is neither good nor bad, so that, whether you do it or not, you are neither just nor unjust." Therefore, when things indifferent are wrested to the confession of faith, they cease to be free; as Paul shows that it is lawful for a man to eat flesh if someone does not remind him that it was offered to idols; for then it is unlawful, because he who eats it seems to approve idolatry by eating it kjv@1Corinthians:8:9 ff.; 10:25 ff.).


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: THE SECTS. We therefore condemn polygamy, and those who condemn second marriages.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: HOW MARRIAGES ARE TO BE CONTRACTED. We teach that marriages are to be lawfully contracted in the fear of the Lord, and not against the laws which forbid certain degrees of consanguinity, lest the marriages should be incestuous. Let marriages be made with consent of the parents, or of those who take the place of parents, and above all for that purpose for which the Lord instituted marriages. Moreover, let them be kept holy with the utmost faithfulness, piety, love and purity of those joined together. Therefore let them guard against quarrels, dissensions, lust and adultery.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: MATRIMONIAL FORUM. Let lawful courts be established in the Church, and holy judges who may care for marriages, and may repress all unchastity and shamefulness, and before whom matrimonial disputes may be settled.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: THE DUTY OF SUBJECTS. For as God wants to effect the safety of his people by the magistrate, whom he has given to the world to be, as it were, a father, so all subjects are commanded to acknowledge this favor of God in the magistrate. Therefore let them honor and reverence the magistrate as the minister of God; let them love him, favor him, and pray for him as their father; and let them obey all his just and fair commands. Finally, let them pay all customs and taxes, and all other such dues faithfully and willingly. And if the public safety of the country and justice require it, and the magistrate of necessity wages war, let them even lay down their life and pour out their blood for the public safety and that of the magistrate. And let them do this in the name of God willingly, bravely and cheerfully. For he who opposes the magistrate provokes the severe wrath of God against himself.


    HelveticConfession2
    Found: We beseech God, our most merciful Father in heaven, that he will bless the rulers of the people, and us, and his whole people, through Jesus Christ, our only Lord and Savior; to whom be praise and glory and thanksgiving,for all ages. Amen.


    SmalcaldArticles
    Found: 16 Secondly. From this it has followed that evil spirits have perpetrated much knavery exercised their malice by appearing as the souls of the departed, and with unspeakable horrible lies and tricks demanded masses, vigils, pilgrimages, and other alms. 17 All of which we had to receive as articles of faith, and to live accordingly; and the Pope confirmed these things, as also the Mass and all other abominations. Here, too, there is no cannot and must not be any yielding or surrendering.


    SmalcaldArticles
    Found: 18 Thirdly. Hence arose the pilgrimages. Here, too, masses, the remission of sins and the grace of God were sought, for the Mass controlled everything. Now it is indeed certain that such pilgrimages, without the Word of God, have not been commanded us, neither are they necessary, since we can have these things the soul can be cared for in a better way, and can omit these pilgrimages without any sin and danger. Why therefore do they leave at home desert their own parish their called ministers, their parishes, the Word of God, wives, children, etc., who are ordained and attention to whom is necessary and has been commanded, and run after these unnecessary, uncertain, pernicious will-o'-the-wisps of the devil and errors? 19 Unless the devil was riding made insane the Pope, causing him to praise and establish these practices, whereby the people again and again revolted from Christ to their own works, and became idolaters, which is worst of all; moreover, it is neither necessary nor commanded, but is senseless and doubtful, and besides harmful. Hence here, too, there can be no yielding or surrendering to yield or concede anything here is not lawful, etc. 20 And let this be preached, that such pilgrimages are not necessary, but dangerous; and then see what will become of them. For thus they will perish of their own accord.


    SmalcaldArticles
    Found: 4 For all his bulls and books are extant, in which he roars like a lion (as the angel in kjv@Revelation:12 depicts him, crying out that no Christian can be saved unless he obeys him and is subject to him in all things that he wishes, that he says, and that he does. All of which amounts to nothing less than saying: Although you believe in Christ, and have in Him alone everything that is necessary to salvation, yet it is nothing and all in vain unless you regard have and worship me as your god, and be subject and obedient to me. And yet it is manifest that the holy Church has been without the Pope for at least more than five hundred years, and that even to the present day the churches of the Greeks and of many other languages neither have been nor are yet under the Pope. 5 Besides, as often remarked, it is a human figment which is not commanded, and is unnecessary and useless; for the holy Christian or catholic Church can exist very well without such a head, and it would certainly have remained better purer, and its career would have been more prosperous if such a head had not been raised up by the devil. 6 And the Papacy is also of no use in the Church, because it exercises no Christian office; and therefore it is necessary for the Church to continue and to exist without the Pope.


    CanonsOfDort
    Found: As all men have sinned in Adam, lie under the curse, and are deserving of eternal death, God would have done no injustice by leaving them all to perish and delivering them over to condemnation on account of sin, according to the words of the apostle:That every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may be brought under the judgment of God (kjv@Romans:3:19). And:For all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God (kjv@Romans:3:23). And:For the wages of sin is death (kjv@Romans:6:23).


    CanonsOfDort
    Found: For this savors of the teaching of Pelagius, and is opposed to the doctrine of the apostle when he writes:Among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest; but God, being rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace have ye been saved), and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places, in Christ Jesus; that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness towards us in Christ Jesus; for by grace have ye been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not of works, that no man should glory (kjv@Ephesians:2:3-9).


    CanonsOfDort
    Found: For these contradict the apostle, who declares:Therefore, as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin; and so death passed unto all men, for that all sinned (kjv@Romans:5:12). And:The judgment came of one unto condemnation (kjv@Romans:5:16). And:The wages of sin is death (kjv@Romans:6:23).


    CanonsOfDort
    Found: For both the experience of all ages and the Scriptures testify that this is untrue. He showeth his word unto Jacob, his statutes and his ordinances unto Israel. He hath not dealt so with any nation; and as for his ordinances, they have not known them (kjv@Psalms:147:19, 20). Who in the generations gone by suffered all the nations to walk in their own way (kjv@Acts:14:16). And:And they (Paul and his companions) having been forbidden of the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia, when they were come over against Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia, and the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not (kjv@Acts:16:6, 7).


    WestministerShorterCatechism
    Found: 3.The wages of sin is death. kjv@Romans:6:23


    WestministerShorterCatechism
    Found: A:The second commandment forbiddeth the worshipping of God by images1, or any other way not appointed in his Word2.


    TorreyPoor
    Found: kjv@Habakkuk:3:14 @ Thou didst strike through with his staves the head of his villages: they came out as a whirlwind to scatter me: their rejoicing was as to devour the poor secretly.


    TorreyConvenant
    Found: kjv@Isaiah:49:8 @ Thus saith the LORD, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, to establish the earth, to cause to inherit the desolate heritages;


    SolaFideVerses
    Found:

    Passages used to defend sola fide



    SolaFideVerses
    Found: nkjv@Romans:6:23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


    SolaFideVerses
    Found:

    Passages used to argue against sola fide



    SolaFideVerses
    Found: 6. Hilary of Poitiers (300-368): “Wages cannot be considered as a gift, because they are due to work, but God has given free grace to all men by the justification of faith.”


    SolaFideVerses
    Found: 25. Prosper of Aquitaine (390–455): “And just as there are no crimes so detestable that they can prevent the gift of grace, so too there can be no works so eminent that they are owed in condign deserved judgment that which is given freely. Would it not be a debasement of redemption in Christ’s blood, and would not God’s mercy be made secondary to human works, if justification, which is through grace, were owed in view of preceding merits, so that it were not the gift of a Donor, but the wages of a laborer?”


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalHermeneutics
    Found: The Denial adds the clarification that simply because Scripture has one meaning does not imply that its messages cannot be applied to a variety of individuals or situations. While the interpretation is one, the applications can be many.


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalHermeneutics
    Found: The Denial is directed at an illegitimate use of genre criticism by some who deny the truth of passages which are presented as factual. Some, for instance, take Adam to be a myth, whereas in Scripture he is presented as a real person. Others take Jonah to be an allegory when he is presented as a historical person and so referred to by Christ kjv@Matthew:12:40-42). This Denial is an appropriate and timely warning not to use genre criticism as a cloak for rejecting the truth of Scripture.


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalHermeneutics
    Found: WE DENY that Scripture may be interpreted in such a way as to suggest that one passage corrects or militates against another. We deny that later writers of Scripture misinterpreted earlier passages of Scripture when quoting from or referring to them.


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalHermeneutics
    Found: WE DENY that all passages of Scripture are equally clear or have equal bearing on the message of redemption.


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalHermeneutics
    Found: The Denial disassociates this claim from the belief that everything in Scripture is clear or that all teachings are equally clear or equally relevant to the Bible's central saving message. It is obvious to any honest interpreter that the meaning of some passages of Scripture is obscure. It is equally evident that the truth of some passages is not directly relevant to the overall plan of salvation.


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalInerrancy
    Found: The Triune God, who formed all things by his creative utterances and governs all things by His Word of decree, made mankind in His own image for a life of communion with Himself, on the model of the eternal fellowship of loving communication within the Godhead. As God's image-bearer, man was to hear God's Word addressed to him and to respond in the joy of adoring obedience. Over and above God's self-disclosure in the created order and the sequence of events within it, human beings from Adam on have received verbal messages from Him, either directly, as stated in Scripture, or indirectly in the form of part or all of Scripture itself.


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalInerrancy
    Found: When Adam fell, the Creator did not abandon mankind to final judgment but promised salvation and began to reveal Himself as Redeemer in a sequence of historical events centering on Abraham's family and culminating in the life, death, resurrection, present heavenly ministry, and promised return of Jesus Christ. Within this frame God has from time to time spoken specific words of judgment and mercy, promise and command, to sinful human beings so drawing them into a covenant relation of mutual commitment between Him and them in which He blesses them with gifts of grace and they bless Him in responsive adoration. Moses, whom God used as mediator to carry His words to His people at the time of the Exodus, stands at the head of a long line of prophets in whose mouths and writings God put His words for delivery to Israel. God's purpose in this succession of messages was to maintain His covenant by causing His people to know His Name—that is, His nature—and His will both of precept and purpose in the present and for the future. This line of prophetic spokesmen from God came to completion in Jesus Christ, God's incarnate Word, who was Himself a prophet—more than a prophet, but not less—and in the apostles and prophets of the first Christian generation. When God's final and climactic message, His word to the world concerning Jesus Christ, had been spoken and elucidated by those in the apostolic circle, the sequence of revealed messages ceased. Henceforth the Church was to live and know God by what He had already said, and said for all time.


    ChicagoStatementOnBiblicalInerrancy
    Found: At Sinai God wrote the terms of His covenant on tables of stone, as His enduring witness and for lasting accessibility, and throughout the period of prophetic and apostolic revelation He prompted men to write the messages given to and through them, along with celebratory records of His dealings with His people, plus moral reflections on covenant life and forms of praise and prayer for covenant mercy. The theological reality of inspiration in the producing of Biblical documents corresponds to that of spoken prophecies: although the human writers' personalities were expressed in what they wrote, the words were divinely constituted. Thus, what Scripture says, God says; its authority is His authority, for He is its ultimate Author, having given it through the minds and words of chosen and prepared men who in freedom and faithfulness "spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit" ( kjv@2Peter:1:21). Holy Scripture must be acknowledged as the Word of God by virtue of its divine origin.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It seems that there is not only one aeviternity; for it is written in the apocryphal books of Esdras: "Majesty and power of ages are with Thee, O Lord."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Aeviternity is sometimes taken for age, that is, a space of a thing's duration; and thus we say many aeviternities when we mean ages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Some of the cognitive faculties form other images from those first conceived; thus the imagination from the preconceived images of a mountain and of gold can form the likeness of a golden mountain; and the intellect, from the preconceived ideas of genus and difference, forms the idea of species; in like manner from the similitude of an image we can form in our minds the similitude of the original of the image. Thus Paul, or any other person who sees God, by the very vision of the divine essence, can form in himself the similitudes of what is seen in the divine essence, which remained in Paul even when he had ceased to see the essence of God. Still this kind of vision whereby things are seen by this likeness thus conceived, is not the same as that whereby things are seen in God.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, It is written, "Man shall not see Me, and live" (Ex. 32:20), and a gloss upon this says, "In this mortal life God can be seen by certain images, but not by the likeness itself of His own nature."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: God is known by natural knowledge through the images of His effects.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, We have a more perfect knowledge of God by grace than by natural reason. Which is proved thus. The knowledge which we have by natural reason contains two things: images derived from the sensible objects; and the natural intelligible light, enabling us to abstract from them intelligible conceptions.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Now in both of these, human knowledge is assisted by the revelation of grace. For the intellect's natural light is strengthened by the infusion of gratuitous light; and sometimes also the images in the human imagination are divinely formed, so as to express divine things better than those do which we receive from sensible objects, as appears in prophetic visions; while sometimes sensible things, or even voices, are divinely formed to express some divine meaning; as in the Baptism, the Holy Ghost was seen in the shape of a dove, and the voice of the Father was heard, "This is My beloved Son" (Mat. 3:17).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: From the images either received from sense in the natural order, or divinely formed in the imagination, we have so much the more excellent intellectual knowledge, the stronger the intelligible light is in man; and thus through the revelation given by the images a fuller knowledge is received by the infusion of the divine light.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, A name is communicable in two ways: properly, and by similitude. It is properly communicable in the sense that its whole signification can be given to many; by similitude it is communicable according to some part of the signification of the name. For instance this name "lion" is properly communicable to all things of the same nature as "lion"; by similitude it is communicable to those who participate in the nature of a lion, as for instance by courage, or strength, and those who thus participate are called lions metaphorically. To know, however, what names are properly communicable, we must consider that every form existing in the singular subject, by which it is individualized, is common to many either in reality, or in idea; as human nature is common to many in reality, and in idea; whereas the nature of the sun is not common to many in reality, but only in idea; for the nature of the sun can be understood as existing in many subjects; and the reason is because the mind understands the nature of every species by abstraction from the singular. Hence to be in one singular subject or in many is outside the idea of the nature of the species. So, given the idea of a species, it can be understood as existing in many. But the singular, from the fact that it is singular, is divided off from all others. Hence every name imposed to signify any singular thing is incommunicable both in reality and idea; for the plurality of this individual thing cannot be; nor can it be conceived in idea. Hence no name signifying any individual thing is properly communicable to many, but only by way of similitude; as for instance a person can be called "Achilles" metaphorically, forasmuch as he may possess something of the properties of Achilles, such as strength. On the other hand, forms which are individualized not by any "suppositum," but by and of themselves, as being subsisting forms, if understood as they are in themselves, could not be communicable either in reality or in idea; but only perhaps by way of similitude, as was said of individuals. Forasmuch as we are unable to understand simple self-subsisting forms as they really are, we understand them as compound things having forms in matter; therefore, as was said in the first article, we give them concrete names signifying a nature existing in some "suppositum." Hence, so far as concerns images, the same rules apply to names we impose to signify the nature of compound things as to names given to us to signify simple subsisting natures.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, In God there exists the most perfect knowledge. To prove this, we must note that intelligent beings are distinguished from non-intelligent beings in that the latter possess only their own form; whereas the intelligent being is naturally adapted to have also the form of some other thing; for the idea of the thing known is in the knower. Hence it is manifest that the nature of a non-intelligent being is more contracted and limited; whereas the nature of intelligent beings has a greater amplitude and extension; therefore the Philosopher says (De Anima iii) that "the soul is in a sense all things." Now the contraction of the form comes from the matter. Hence, as we have said above (77Q7, A1) forms according as they are the more immaterial, approach more nearly to a kind of infinity. Therefore it is clear that the immateriality of a thing is the reason why it is cognitive; and according to the mode of immateriality is the mode of knowledge. Hence it is said in De Anima ii that plants do not know, because they are wholly material. But sense is cognitive because it can receive images free from matter, and the intellect is still further cognitive, because it is more separated from matter and unmixed, as said in De Anima iii. Since therefore God is in the highest degree of immateriality as stated above (78Q7, A1), it follows that He occupies the highest place in knowledge.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: The object understood is a perfection of the one understanding not by its substance, but by its image, according to which it is in the intellect, as its form and perfection, as is said in De Anima iii. For "a stone is not in the soul, but its image." Now those things which are other than God are understood by God, inasmuch as the essence of God contains their images as above explained; hence it does not follow that there is any perfection in the divine intellect other than the divine essence.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The intellectual act is not specified by what is understood in another, but by the principal object understood in which other things are understood. For the intellectual act is specified by its object, inasmuch as the intelligible form is the principle of the intellectual operation: since every operation is specified by the form which is its principle of operation; as heating by heat. Hence the intellectual operation is specified by that intelligible form which makes the intellect in act. And this is the image of the principal thing understood, which in God is nothing but His own essence in which all images of things are comprehended. Hence it does not follow that the divine intellectual act, or rather God Himself, is specified by anything else than the divine essence itself.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Although as regards the species in the divine intellect its being has no material conditions like the images received in the imagination and sense, yet its power extends to both immaterial and material things.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, It must necessarily be held that ideas are many. In proof of which it is to be considered that in every effect the ultimate end is the proper intention of the principal agent, as the order of an army (is the proper intention) of the general. Now the highest good existing in things is the good of the order of the universe, as the Philosopher clearly teaches in Metaph. xii. Therefore the order of the universe is properly intended by God, and is not the accidental result of a succession of agents, as has been supposed by those who have taught that God created only the first creature, and that this creature created the second creature, and so on, until this great multitude of beings was produced. According to this opinion God would have the idea of the first created thing alone; whereas, if the order itself of the universe was created by Him immediately, and intended by Him, He must have the idea of the order of the universe. Now there cannot be an idea of any whole, unless particular ideas are had of those parts of which the whole is made; just as a builder cannot conceive the idea of a house unless he has the idea of each of its parts. So, then, it must needs be that in the divine mind there are the proper ideas of all things. Hence Augustine says (Octog. Tri. Quaest. qu. xlvi), "that each thing was created by God according to the idea proper to it," from which it follows that in the divine mind ideas are many. Now it can easily be seen how this is not repugnant to the simplicity of God, if we consider that the idea of a work is in the mind of the operator as that which is understood, and not as the image whereby he understands, which is a form that makes the intellect in act. For the form of the house in the mind of the builder, is something understood by him, to the likeness of which he forms the house in matter. Now, it is not repugnant to the simplicity of the divine mind that it understand many things; though it would be repugnant to its simplicity were His understanding to be formed by a plurality of images. Hence many ideas exist in the divine mind, as things understood by it; as can be proved thus. Inasmuch as He knows His own essence perfectly, He knows it according to every mode in which it can be known. Now it can be known not only as it is in itself, but as it can be participated in by creatures according to some degree of likeness. But every creature has its own proper species, according to which it participates in some degree in likeness to the divine essence. So far, therefore, as God knows His essence as capable of such imitation by any creature, He knows it as the particular type and idea of that creature; and in like manner as regards other creatures. So it is clear that God understands many particular types of things and these are many ideas.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Although creatures have not existed from eternity, except in God, yet because they have been in Him from eternity, God has known them eternally in their proper natures; and for that reason has loved them, even as we, by the images of things within us, know things existing in themselves.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Divine Scripture uses, in relation to God, names which signify procession. This procession has been differently understood. Some have understood it in the sense of an effect, proceeding from its cause; so Arius took it, saying that the Son proceeds from the Father as His primary creature, and that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son as the creature of both. In this sense neither the Son nor the Holy Ghost would be true God: and this is contrary to what is said of the Son, "That . . . we may be in His true Son. This is true God" (1 Jn. 5:20). Of the Holy Ghost it is also said, "Know you not that your members are the temple of the Holy Ghost?" (1 Cor. 6:19). Now, to have a temple is God's prerogative. Others take this procession to mean the cause proceeding to the effect, as moving it, or impressing its own likeness on it; in which sense it was understood by Sabellius, who said that God the Father is called Son in assuming flesh from the Virgin, and that the Father also is called Holy Ghost in sanctifying the rational creature, and moving it to life. The words of the Lord contradict such a meaning, when He speaks of Himself, "The Son cannot of Himself do anything" (Jn. 5:19); while many other passages show the same, whereby we know that the Father is not the Son. Careful examination shows that both of these opinions take procession as meaning an outward act; hence neither of them affirms procession as existing in God Himself; whereas, since procession always supposes action, and as there is an outward procession corresponding to the act tending to external matter, so there must be an inward procession corresponding to the act remaining within the agent. This applies most conspicuously to the intellect, the action of which remains in the intelligent agent. For whenever we understand, by the very fact of understanding there proceeds something within us, which is a conception of the object understood, a conception issuing from our intellectual power and proceeding from our knowledge of that object. This conception is signified by the spoken word; and it is called the word of the heart signified by the word of the voice.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, It is said, "To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God" (1 Tim. 1:17).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: This expression "alone," properly speaking, does not affect the predicate, which is taken formally, for it refers to the "suppositum," as excluding any other suppositum from the one which it qualifies. But the adverb "only," being exclusive, can be applied either to subject or predicate. For we can say, "Only Socrates"---that is, no one else---"runs: and Socrates runs only"---that is, he does nothing else. Hence it is not properly said that the Father is God alone, or the Trinity is God alone, unless some implied meaning be assumed in the predicate, as, for instance, "The Trinity is God Who alone is God." In that sense it can be true to say that the Father is that God Who alone is God, if the relative be referred to the predicate, and not to the "suppositum." So, when Augustine says that the Father is not God alone, but that the Trinity is God alone, he speaks expositively, as he might explain the words, "To the King of ages, invisible, the only God," as applying not to the Father, but to the Trinity alone.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Various languages have diverse modes of expression. So as by reason of the plurality of "supposita" the Greeks said "three hypostases," so also in Hebrew "Elohim" is in the plural. We, however, do not apply the plural either to "God" or to "substance," lest plurality be referred to the substance.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Some have said that this name "God" and the like, properly according to their nature, stand for the essence, but by reason of some notional adjunct are made to stand for the Person. This opinion apparently arose from considering the divine simplicity, which requires that in God, He "who possesses" and "what is possessed" be the same. So He who possesses Godhead, which is signified by the name God, is the same as Godhead. But when we consider the proper way of expressing ourselves, the mode of signification must be considered no less than the thing signified. Hence as this word "God" signifies the divine essence as in Him Who possesses it, just as the name "man" signifies humanity in a subject, others more truly have said that this word "God," from its mode of signification, can, in its proper sense, stand for person, as does the word "man." So this word "God" sometimes stands for the essence, as when we say "God creates"; because this predicate is attributed to the subject by reason of the form signified---that is, Godhead. But sometimes it stands for the person, either for only one, as when we say, "God begets," or for two, as when we say, "God spirates"; or for three, as when it is said: "To the King of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God," etc. (1 Tim. 1:17).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: When we say "Wisdom was created," this may be understood not of Wisdom which is the Son of God, but of created wisdom given by God to creatures: for it is said, "He created her namely, Wisdom in the Holy Ghost, and He poured her out over all His works" (Ecclus. 1:9,10). Nor is it inconsistent for Scripture in one text to speak of the Wisdom begotten and wisdom created, for wisdom created is a kind of participation of the uncreated Wisdom. The saying may also be referred to the created nature assumed by the Son, so that the sense be, "From the beginning and before the world was I made"---that is, I was foreseen as united to the creature. Or the mention of wisdom as both created and begotten insinuates into our minds the mode of the divine generation; for in generation what is generated receives the nature of the generator and this pertains to perfection; whereas in creation the Creator is not changed, but the creature does not receive the Creator's nature. Thus the Son is called both created and begotten, in order that from the idea of creation the immutability of the Father may be understood, and from generation the unity of nature in the Father and the Son. In this way Hilary expounds the sense of this text of Scripture (De Synod.). The other passages quoted do not refer to the Holy Ghost, but to the created spirit, sometimes called wind, sometimes air, sometimes the breath of man, sometimes also the soul, or any other invisible substance.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: The visible mission of the Holy Ghost does not apply to the imaginary vision which is that of prophecy; because as Augustine says (De Trin. ii, 6): "The prophetic vision is not displayed to corporeal eyes by corporeal shapes, but is shown in the spirit by the spiritual images of bodies. But whoever saw the dove and the fire, saw them by their eyes. Nor, again, has the Holy Ghost the same relation to these images that the Son has to the rock, because it is said, "The rock was Christ" (1 Cor. 10:4). For that rock was already created, and after the manner of an action was named Christ, Whom it typified; whereas the dove and the fire suddenly appeared to signify only what was happening. They seem, however, to be like to the flame of the burning bush seen by Moses and to the column which the people followed in the desert, and to the lightning and thunder issuing forth when the law was given on the mountain. For the purpose of the bodily appearances of those things was that they might signify, and then pass away." Thus the visible mission is neither displayed by prophetic vision, which belongs to the imagination, and not to the body, nor by the sacramental signs of the Old and New Testament, wherein certain pre-existing things are employed to signify something. But the Holy Ghost is said to be sent visibly, inasmuch as He showed Himself in certain creatures as in signs especially made for that purpose.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: These passages refer to the evil of penalty, and not to the evil of fault.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, speech is the function of a living subject, for it is produced by the voice, while the voice itself is a sound conveyed from the mouth. But it is evident from many passages of Sacred Scripture that angels spoke in assumed bodies. Therefore in their assumed bodies they exercise functions of life.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that in an angel the power or faculty of understanding is not different from his essence. For, "mind" and "intellect" express the power of understanding. But in many passages of his writings, Dionysius styles angels "intellects" and "minds." Therefore the angel is his own power of intelligence.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: A twofold answer can be returned to the contrary objections. First, it may be replied that those authorities are speaking according to the opinion of such men as contended that angels and demons have bodies naturally united to them. Augustine often makes use of this opinion in his books, although he does not mean to assert it; hence he says (De Civ. Dei xxi) that "such an inquiry does not call for much labor." Secondly, it may be said that such authorities and the like are to be understood by way of similitude. Because, since sense has a sure apprehension of its proper sensible object, it is a common usage of speech, when he understands something for certain, to say that we "sense it." And hence it is that we use the word "sentence." Experience can be attributed to the angels according to the likeness of the things known, although not by likeness of the faculty knowing them. We have experience when we know single objects through the senses: the angels likewise know single objects, as we shall show (493Q57, A2), yet not through the senses. But memory can be allowed in the angels, according as Augustine (De Trin. x) puts it in the mind; although it cannot belong to them in so far as it is a part of the sensitive soul. In like fashion 'a perverted phantasy' is attributed to demons, since they have a false practical estimate of what is the true good; while deception in us comes properly from the phantasy, whereby we sometimes hold fast to images of things as to the things themselves, as is manifest in sleepers and lunatics.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: There are images of creatures in the angel's mind, not, indeed derived from creatures, but from God, Who is the cause of creatures, and in Whom the likenesses of creatures first exist. Hence Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. ii, 8) that, "As the type, according to which the creature is fashioned, is in the Word of God before the creature which is fashioned, so the knowledge of the same type exists first in the intellectual creature, and is afterwards the very fashioning of the creature."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. lit. ii), such things as pre-existed from eternity in the Word of God, came forth from Him in two ways: first, into the angelic mind; and secondly, so as to subsist in their own natures. They proceeded into the angelic mind in such a way, that God impressed upon the angelic mind the images of the things which He produced in their own natural being. Now in the Word of God from eternity there existed not only the forms of corporeal things, but likewise the forms of all spiritual creatures. So in every one of these spiritual creatures, the forms of all things, both corporeal and spiritual, were impressed by the Word of God; yet so that in every angel there was impressed the form of his own species according to both its natural and its intelligible condition, so that he should subsist in the nature of his species, and understand himself by it; while the forms of other spiritual and corporeal natures were impressed in him only according to their intelligible natures, so that by such impressed species he might know corporeal and spiritual creatures.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, intellectual vision is only of such things as exist within the soul by their essence, as is said in the gloss [*On 2 Cor. 12:2, taken from Augustine (Gen. ad lit. xii. 28)]. But the material things cannot enter by their essence into man's soul, nor into the angel's mind. Therefore they cannot be known by intellectual vision, but only by imaginary vision, whereby the images of bodies are apprehended, and by sensible vision, which regards bodies in themselves. Now there is neither imaginary nor sensible vision in the angels, but only intellectual. Therefore the angels cannot know material things.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Sense does not apprehend the essences of things, but only their outward accidents. In like manner neither does the imagination; for it apprehends only the images of bodies. The intellect alone apprehends the essences of things. Hence it is said (De Anima iii, text. 26) that the object of the intellect is "what a thing is," regarding which it does not err; as neither does sense regarding its proper sensible object. So therefore the essences of material things are in the intellect of man and angels, as the thing understood is in him who understands, and not according to their real natures. But some things are in an intellect or in the soul according to both natures; and in either case there is intellectual vision.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: It is not according to their nature that the angels are likened to material things, as one thing resembles another by agreement in genus, species, or accident; but as the higher bears resemblance to the lower, as the sun does to fire. Even in this way there is in God a resemblance of all things, as to both matter and form, in so far as there pre-exists in Him as in its cause whatever is to be found in things. For the same reason, the species in the angel's intellect, which are images drawn from the Divine essence, are the images of things not only as to their form, but also as to their matter.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Angels know singulars by universal forms, which nevertheless are the images of things both as to their universal, and as to their individuating principles. How many things can be known by the same species, has been already stated above (506Q55, A3, ad 3).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the ideas of our intellect resemble the angel more than do the images in our imagination; because the former are actually understood, while the latter are understood only potentially. But the images in our imagination can be known by an angel as corporeal things are known: because the imagination is a corporeal faculty. Therefore it seems that an angel can know the thoughts of the intellect.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the angels know mysteries of grace. For, the mystery of the Incarnation is the most excellent of all mysteries. But the angels knew of it from the beginning; for Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. v, 19): "This mystery was hidden in God through the ages, yet so that it was known to the princes and powers in heavenly places." And the Apostle says (1 Tim. 3:16): "That great mystery of godliness appeared unto angels*." [*Vulg.: 'Great is the mystery of godliness, which . . . appeared unto angels.'] Therefore the angels know the mysteries of grace.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, speech is a sign of the intellect. But in speaking to men, angels use affirmative and negative expressions, which are signs of composition and of division in the intellect; as is manifest from many passages of Sacred Scripture. Therefore it seems that the angel understands by composing and dividing.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the angels were created before the corporeal world. For Jerome says (In Ep. ad Tit. i, 2): "Six thousand years of our time have not yet elapsed; yet how shall we measure the time, how shall we count the ages, in which the Angels, Thrones, Dominations, and the other orders served God?" Damascene also says (De Fide Orth. ii): "Some say that the angels were begotten before all creation; as Gregory the Theologian declares, He first of all devised the angelic and heavenly powers, and the devising was the making thereof."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, there must be many intervals between things which are far apart. But the beatific state of the angels is very far remote from their natural condition: while merit comes midway between. Therefore the angel would have to pass through many stages of merit in order to reach beatitude.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Nothing entirely new was afterwards made by God, but all things subsequently made had in a sense been made before in the work of the six days. Some things, indeed, had a previous experience materially, as the rib from the side of Adam out of which God formed Eve; whilst others existed not only in matter but also in their causes, as those individual creatures that are now generated existed in the first of their kind. Species, also, that are new, if any such appear, existed beforehand in various active powers; so that animals, and perhaps even new species of animals, are produced by putrefaction by the power which the stars and elements received at the beginning. Again, animals of new kinds arise occasionally from the connection of individuals belonging to different species, as the mule is the offspring of an ass and a mare; but even these existed previously in their causes, in the works of the six days. Some also existed beforehand by way of similitude, as the souls now created. And the work of the Incarnation itself was thus foreshadowed, for as we read (Phil. 2:7), The Son of God "was made in the likeness of men." And again, the glory that is spiritual was anticipated in the angels by way of similitude; and that of the body in the heaven, especially the empyrean. Hence it is written (Eccles. 1:10), "Nothing under the sun is new, for it hath already gone before, in the ages that were before us."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: The Commentator held that this union is through the intelligible species, as having a double subject, in the possible intellect, and in the phantasms which are in the corporeal organs. Thus through the intelligible species the possible intellect is linked to the body of this or that particular man. But this link or union does not sufficiently explain the fact, that the act of the intellect is the act of Socrates. This can be clearly seen from comparison with the sensitive faculty, from which Aristotle proceeds to consider things relating to the intellect. For the relation of phantasms to the intellect is like the relation of colors to the sense of sight, as he says De Anima iii, 5,7. Therefore, as the species of colors are in the sight, so are the species of phantasms in the possible intellect. Now it is clear that because the colors, the images of which are in the sight, are on a wall, the action of seeing is not attributed to the wall: for we do not say that the wall sees, but rather that it is seen. Therefore, from the fact that the species of phantasms are in the possible intellect, it does not follow that Socrates, in whom are the phantasms, understands, but that he or his phantasms are understood.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Again we must observe that if an animal were moved by pleasing and disagreeable things only as affecting the sense, there would be no need to suppose that an animal has a power besides the apprehension of those forms which the senses perceive, and in which the animal takes pleasure, or from which it shrinks with horror. But the animal needs to seek or to avoid certain things, not only because they are pleasing or otherwise to the senses, but also on account of other advantages and uses, or disadvantages: just as the sheep runs away when it sees a wolf, not on account of its color or shape, but as a natural enemy: and again a bird gathers together straws, not because they are pleasant to the sense, but because they are useful for building its nest. Animals, therefore, need to perceive such intentions, which the exterior sense does not perceive. And some distinct principle is necessary for this; since the perception of sensible forms comes by an immutation caused by the sensible, which is not the case with the perception of those intentions.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 6: Augustine calls that vision spiritual which is effected by the images of bodies in the absence of bodies. Whence it is clear that it is common to all interior apprehensions.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: The intellectual soul is indeed actually immaterial, but it is in potentiality to determinate species. On the contrary, phantasms are actual images of certain species, but are immaterial in potentiality. Wherefore nothing prevents one and the same soul, inasmuch as it is actually immaterial, having one power by which it makes things actually immaterial, by abstraction from the conditions of individual matter: which power is called the "active intellect"; and another power, receptive of such species, which is called the "passive intellect" by reason of its being in potentiality to such species.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the soul understands corporeal things through its essence. For Augustine says (De Trin. x, 5) that the soul "collects and lays hold of the images of bodies which are formed in the soul and of the soul: for in forming them it gives them something of its own substance." But the soul understands bodies by images of bodies. Therefore the soul knows bodies through its essence, which it employs for the formation of such images, and from which it forms them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Augustine in that passage is speaking of an imaginary vision, which takes place through the image of bodies. To the formation of such images the soul gives part of its substance, just as a subject is given in order to be informed by some form. In this way the soul makes such images from itself; not that the soul or some part of the soul be turned into this or that image; but just as we say that a body is made into something colored because of its being informed with color. That this is the sense, is clear from what follows. For he says that the soul "keeps something"---namely, not informed with such image---"which is able freely to judge of the species of these images": and that this is the "mind" or "intellect." And he says that the part which is informed with these images---namely, the imagination---is "common to us and beasts."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Since form is the principle of action, a thing must be related to the form which is the principle of an action, as it is to that action: for instance, if upward motion is from lightness, then that which only potentially moves upwards must needs be only potentially light, but that which actually moves upwards must needs be actually light. Now we observe that man sometimes is only a potential knower, both as to sense and as to intellect. And he is reduced from such potentiality to act---through the action of sensible objects on his senses, to the act of sensation---by instruction or discovery, to the act of understanding. Wherefore we must say that the cognitive soul is in potentiality both to the images which are the principles of sensing, and to those which are the principles of understanding. For this reason Aristotle (De Anima iii, 4) held that the intellect by which the soul understands has no innate species, but is at first in potentiality to all such species.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: But since that which has a form actually, is sometimes unable to act according to that form on account of some hindrance, as a light thing may be hindered from moving upwards; for this reason did Plato hold that naturally man's intellect is filled with all intelligible species, but that, by being united to the body, it is hindered from the realization of its act. But this seems to be unreasonable. First, because, if the soul has a natural knowledge of all things, it seems impossible for the soul so far to forget the existence of such knowledge as not to know itself to be possessed thereof: for no man forgets what he knows naturally; that, for instance, the whole is larger than the part, and such like. And especially unreasonable does this seem if we suppose that it is natural to the soul to be united to the body, as we have established above (673Q76 , A1): for it is unreasonable that the natural operation of a thing be totally hindered by that which belongs to it naturally. Secondly, the falseness of this opinion is clearly proved from the fact that if a sense be wanting, the knowledge of what is apprehended through that sense is wanting also: for instance, a man who is born blind can have no knowledge of colors. This would not be the case if the soul had innate images of all intelligible things. We must therefore conclude that the soul does not know corporeal things through innate species.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Some have held that the intelligible species of our intellect are derived from certain separate forms or substances. And this in two ways. For Plato, as we have said 675(A1), held that the forms of sensible things subsist by themselves without matter; for instance, the form of a man which he called "per se" man, and the form or idea of a horse which is called "per se" horse, and so forth. He said therefore that these forms are participated both by our soul and by corporeal matter; by our soul, to the effect of knowledge thereof, and by corporeal matter to the effect of existence: so that, just as corporeal matter by participating the idea of a stone, becomes an individuating stone, so our intellect, by participating the idea of a stone, is made to understand a stone. Now participation of an idea takes place by some image of the idea in the participator, just as a model is participated by a copy. So just as he held that the sensible forms, which are in corporeal matter, are derived from the ideas as certain images thereof: so he held that the intelligible species of our intellect are images of the ideas, derived therefrom. And for this reason, as we have said above 676(A1), he referred sciences and definitions to those ideas.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: When, therefore, the question is asked: Does the human soul know all things in the eternal types? we must reply that one thing is said to be known in another in two ways. First, as in an object itself known; as one may see in a mirror the images of things reflected therein. In this way the soul, in the present state of life, cannot see all things in the eternal types; but the blessed who see God, and all things in Him, thus know all things in the eternal types. Secondly, on thing is said to be known in another as in a principle of knowledge: thus we might say that we see in the sun what we see by the sun. And thus we must needs say that the human soul knows all things in the eternal types, since by participation of these types we know all things. For the intellectual light itself which is in us, is nothing else than a participated likeness of the uncreated light, in which are contained the eternal types. Whence it is written (Ps. 4:6,7), "Many say: Who showeth us good things?" which question the Psalmist answers, "The light of Thy countenance, O Lord, is signed upon us," as though he were to say: By the seal of the Divine light in us, all things are made known to us.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, On this point the philosophers held three opinions. For Democritus held that "all knowledge is caused by images issuing from the bodies we think of and entering into our souls," as Augustine says in his letter to Dioscorus (cxviii, 4). And Aristotle says (De Somn. et Vigil.) that Democritus held that knowledge is cause by a "discharge of images." And the reason for this opinion was that both Democritus and the other early philosophers did not distinguish between intellect and sense, as Aristotle relates (De Anima iii, 3). Consequently, since the sense is affected by the sensible, they thought that all our knowledge is affected by this mere impression brought about by sensible things. Which impression Democritus held to be caused by a discharge of images.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: In this passage Augustine speaks not of intellectual but of imaginary knowledge. And since, according to the opinion of Plato, the imagination has an operation which belongs to the soul only, Augustine, in order to show that corporeal images are impressed on the imagination, not by bodies but by the soul, uses the same argument as Aristotle does in proving that the active intellect must be separate, namely, because "the agent is more noble than the patient." And without doubt, according to the above opinion, in the imagination there must needs be not only a passive but also an active power. But if we hold, according to the opinion of Aristotle, that the action of the imagination, is an action of the "composite," there is no difficulty; because the sensible body is more noble than the organ of the animal, in so far as it is compared to it as a being in act to a being in potentiality; even as the object actually colored is compared to the pupil which is potentially colored. It may, however, be said, although the first impression of the imagination is through the agency of the sensible, since "fancy is movement produced in accordance with sensation" (De Anima iii, 3), that nevertheless there is in man an operation which by synthesis and analysis forms images of various things, even of things not perceived by the senses. And Augustine's words may be taken in this sense.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: The senses are suspended in the sleeper through certain evaporations and the escape of certain exhalations, as we read in De Somn. et Vigil. iii. And, therefore, according to the amount of such evaporation, the senses are more or less suspended. For when the amount is considerable, not only are the senses suspended, but also the imagination, so that there are no phantasms; thus does it happen, especially when a man falls asleep after eating and drinking copiously. If, however, the evaporation be somewhat less, phantasms appear, but distorted and without sequence; thus it happens in a case of fever. And if the evaporation be still more attenuated, the phantasms will have a certain sequence: thus especially does it happen towards the end of sleep in sober men and those who are gifted with a strong imagination. If the evaporation be very slight, not only does the imagination retain its freedom, but also the common sense is partly freed; so that sometimes while asleep a man may judge that what he sees is a dream, discerning, as it were, between things, and their images. Nevertheless, the common sense remains partly suspended; and therefore, although it discriminates some images from the reality, yet is it always deceived in some particular. Therefore, while man is asleep, according as sense and imagination are free, so is the judgment of his intellect unfettered, though not entirely. Consequently, if a man syllogizes while asleep, when he wakes up he invariably recognizes a flaw in some respect.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, The Philosopher says (De Anima iii, 4) that "things are intelligible in proportion as they are separate from matter." Therefore material things must needs be understood according as they are abstracted from matter and from material images, namely, phantasms.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Colors, as being in individual corporeal matter, have the same mode of existence as the power of sight: therefore they can impress their own image on the eye. But phantasms, since they are images of individuals, and exist in corporeal organs, have not the same mode of existence as the human intellect, and therefore have not the power of themselves to make an impression on the passive intellect. This is done by the power of the active intellect which by turning towards the phantasm produces in the passive intellect a certain likeness which represents, as to its specific conditions only, the thing reflected in the phantasm. It is thus that the intelligible species is said to be abstracted from the phantasm; not that the identical form which previously was in the phantasm is subsequently in the passive intellect, as a body transferred from one place to another.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: But since it is connatural to our intellect to know things, not thus, but by receiving its knowledge from the senses; it is not natural for the soul to know the future when withdrawn from the senses: rather does it know the future by the impression of superior spiritual and corporeal causes; of spiritual causes, when by Divine power the human intellect is enlightened through the ministry of angels, and the phantasms are directed to the knowledge of future events; or, by the influence of demons, when the imagination is moved regarding the future known to the demons, as explained above (703Q57, A3). The soul is naturally more inclined to receive these impressions of spiritual causes when it is withdrawn from the senses, as it is then nearer to the spiritual world, and freer from external distractions. The same may also come from superior corporeal causes. For it is clear that superior bodies influence inferior bodies. Hence, in consequence of the sensitive faculties being acts of corporeal organs, the influence of the heavenly bodies causes the imagination to be affected, and so, as the heavenly bodies cause many future events, the imagination receives certain images of some such events. These images are perceived more at night and while we sleep than in the daytime and while we are awake, because, as stated in De Somn. et Vigil. ii [*De Divinat. per somn. ii.], "impressions made by day are evanescent. The night air is calmer, when silence reigns, hence bodily impressions are made in sleep, when slight internal movements are felt more than in wakefulness, and such movements produce in the imagination images from which the future may be foreseen."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Augustine (Confess. x, 17) says of the soul's affections that "they are known neither by images as bodies are known; nor by their presence, like the arts; but by certain notions." Now it does not seem that there can be in the soul any other notions of things but either the essences of things known or the likenesses thereof. Therefore it seems impossible for the intellect to known such affections of the soul as the acts of the will.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Since the human intellect in the present state of life cannot understand even immaterial created substances 722(A1), much less can it understand the essence of the uncreated substance. Hence it must be said simply that God is not the first object of our knowledge. Rather do we know God through creatures, according to the Apostle (Rom. 1:20), "the invisible things of God are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made": while the first object of our knowledge in this life is the "quiddity of a material thing," which is the proper object of our intellect, as appears above in many passages (723Q84, A7; 724Q85, A8; 725Q87, A2, ad 2)


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: The Prophet speaks of bodily images made by man. Therefore he says pointedly: "What image will you make for Him?" But God made a spiritual image to Himself in man.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the image of God is to be found in irrational creatures. For Dionysius says (Div. Nom. ii): "Effects are contingent images of their causes." But God is the cause not only of rational, but also of irrational creatures. Therefore the image of God is to be found in irrational creatures.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Everything imperfect is a participation of what is perfect. Therefore even what falls short of the nature of an image, so far as it possesses any sort of likeness to God, participates in some degree the nature of an image. So Dionysius says that effects are "contingent images of their causes"; that is, as much as they happen contingit to be so, but not absolutely.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. xii, 2) that, in sleep the soul adheres to the images of things as if they were the things themselves. But in the state of innocence man would have eaten and consequently have slept and dreamed. Therefore he would have been deceived, adhering to images as to realities.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: This is clear also from the very rectitude of the primitive state, by virtue of which, while the soul remained subject to God, the lower faculties in man were subject to the higher, and were no impediment to their action. And from what has preceded (795Q85, A6), it is clear that as regards its proper object the intellect is ever true; and hence it is never deceived of itself; but whatever deception occurs must be ascribed to some lower faculty, such as the imagination or the like. Hence we see that when the natural power of judgment is free we are not deceived by such images, but only when it is not free, as is the case in sleep. Therefore it is clear that the rectitude of the primitive state was incompatible with deception of the intellect.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: The corruptible body is a load upon the soul, because it hinders the use of reason even in those matters which belong to man at all ages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: This objection considers principality on the part of the ruler, inasmuch as a multitude is best ruled by one ruler, as the Philosopher asserts in those passages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. xii, 12): "One spirit by intermingling with another can communicate his knowledge to the other spirit by these images, so that the latter either understands it himself, or accepts it as understood by the other." But it does not seem that an angel can be mingled with the human imagination, nor that the imagination can receive the knowledge of an angel. Therefore it seems that an angel cannot change the imagination.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: An angel causing an imaginative vision, sometimes enlightens the intellect at the same time, so that it knows what these images signify; and then there is not deception. But sometimes by the angelic operation the similitudes of things only appear in the imagination; but neither then is deception caused by the angel, but by the defect in the intellect to whom such things appear. Thus neither was Christ a cause of deception when He spoke many things to the people in parables, which He did not explain to them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, The angels who overturned Sodom, "struck the people of Sodom with blindness or {aorasia}, so that they could not find the door" (Gn. 19:11). [*It is worth noting that these are the only two passages in the Greek version where the word {aorasia} appears. It expresses, in fact, the effect produced on the people of Sodom---namely, dazzling (French version, "eblouissement"), which the Latin "caecitas" (blindness) does not necessarily imply.] The same is recorded of the Syrians whom Eliseus led into Samaria (4 Kings 6:18).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: The flesh and the world are said to tempt as the instruments or matter of temptations; inasmuch as one can know what sort of man someone is, according as he follows or resists the desires of the flesh, and according as he despises worldly advantages and adversity: of which things the devil also makes use in tempting.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Now this may happen in two ways. Firstly, from within; in this way a demon can work on man's imagination and even on his corporeal senses, so that something seems otherwise that it is, as explained above (933Q111, AA3,4). It is said indeed that this can be done sometimes by the power of certain bodies. Secondly, from without: for just as he can from the air form a body of any form and shape, and assume it so as to appear in it visibly: so, in the same way he can clothe any corporeal thing with any corporeal form, so as to appear therein. This is what Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xviii, 18): "Man's imagination, which whether thinking or dreaming, takes the forms of an innumerable number of things, appears to other men's senses, as it were embodied in the semblance of some animal." This not to be understood as though the imagination itself or the images formed therein were identified with that which appears embodied to the senses of another man: but that the demon, who forms an image in a man's imagination, can offer the same picture to another man's senses.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Augustine (Gen. ad lit. v, 19) thus explains this passage of the Apostle, who in the preceding verses says: "To me, the least of all the saints, is given this grace . . . to enlighten all men, that they may see what is the dispensation of the mystery which hath been hidden from eternity in God. Hidden, yet so that the multiform wisdom of God was made known to the principalities and powers in the heavenly places---that is, through the Church." As though he were to say: This mystery was hidden from men, but not from the Church in heaven, which is contained in the principalities and powers who knew it "from all ages, but not before all ages: because the Church was at first there, where after the resurrection this Church composed of men will be gathered together."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that man cannot attain happiness. For just as the rational is above the sensible nature, so the intellectual is above the rational, as Dionysius declares (Div. Nom. iv, vi, vii) in several passages. But irrational animals that have the sensitive nature only, cannot attain the end of the rational nature. Therefore neither can man, who is of rational nature, attain the end of the intellectual nature, which is Happiness.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. xi, 4,8,9) that "the intention of the will unites the sight to the object seen; and the images retained in the memory, to the penetrating gaze of the soul's inner thought." Therefore intention is an act of the will.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that sorrow is not most harmful to the body. For sorrow has a spiritual existence in the soul. But those things which have only a spiritual existence do not cause a transmutation in the body: as is evident with regard to the images of colors, which images are in the air and do not give color to bodies. Therefore sorrow is not harmful to the body.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Since the soul naturally moves the body, the spiritual movement of the soul is naturally the cause of bodily transmutation. Nor is there any parallel with spiritual images, because they are not naturally ordained to move such other bodies as are not naturally moved by the soul.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that not every pleasure assuages every pain or sorrow. For pleasure does not assuage sorrow, save in so far as it is contrary to it: for "remedies work by contraries" (Ethic. ii, 3). But not every pleasure is contrary to every sorrow; as stated above (1327Q35, A4 ). Therefore not every pleasure assuages every sorrow.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, that which causes sorrow does not assuage it. But some pleasures cause sorrow; since, as stated in Ethic. ix, 4, "the wicked man feels pain at having been pleased." Therefore not every pleasure assuages sorrow.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, Augustine says (Confess. iv, 7) that he fled from his country, where he had been wont to associate with his friend, now dead: "for so should his eyes look for him less, where they were not wont to see him." Hence we may gather that those things which united us to our dead or absent friends, become burdensome to us when we mourn their death or absence. But nothing united us more than the pleasures we enjoyed in common. Therefore these very pleasures become burdensome to us when we mourn. Therefore not every pleasure assuages every sorrow.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Tears and groans naturally assuage sorrow: and this for two reasons. First, because a hurtful thing hurts yet more if we keep it shut up, because the soul is more intent on it: whereas if it be allowed to escape, the soul's intention is dispersed as it were on outward things, so that the inward sorrow is lessened. This is why men, burdened with sorrow, make outward show of their sorrow, by tears or groans or even by words, their sorrow is assuaged. Secondly, because an action, that befits a man according to his actual disposition, is always pleasant to him. Now tears and groans are actions befitting a man who is in sorrow or pain; and consequently they become pleasant to him. Since then, as stated above 1330(A1), every pleasure assuages sorrow or pain somewhat, it follows that sorrow is assuaged by weeping and groans.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, When one is in pain, it is natural that the sympathy of a friend should afford consolation: whereof the Philosopher indicates a twofold reason (Ethic. ix, 11). The first is because, since sorrow has a depressing effect, it is like a weight whereof we strive to unburden ourselves: so that when a man sees others saddened by his own sorrow, it seems as though others were bearing the burden with him, striving, as it were, to lessen its weight; wherefore the load of sorrow becomes lighter for him: something like what occurs in the carrying of bodily burdens. The second and better reason is because when a man's friends condole with him, he sees that he is loved by them, and this affords him pleasure, as stated above (Q32, A5). Consequently, since every pleasure assuages sorrow, as stated above 1331(A1), it follows that sorrow is mitigated by a sympathizing friend.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As stated above (Q3, A5), the greatest of all pleasures consists in the contemplation of truth. Now every pleasure assuages pain as stated above 1332(A1): hence the contemplation of truth assuages pain or sorrow, and the more so, the more perfectly one is a lover of wisdom. And therefore in the midst of tribulations men rejoice in the contemplation of Divine things and of future Happiness, according to James kjv@1:2: "My brethren, count it all joy, when you shall fall into divers temptations": and, what is more, even in the midst of bodily tortures this joy is found; as the "martyr Tiburtius, when he was walking barefoot on the burning coals, said: Methinks, I walk on roses, in the name of Jesus Christ." [*Cf. Dominican Breviary, August 11th, commemoration of St. Tiburtius.]


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As stated above (1334Q37, A4), sorrow, by reason of its specific nature, is repugnant to the vital movement of the body; and consequently whatever restores the bodily nature to its due state of vital movement, is opposed to sorrow and assuages it. Moreover such remedies, from the very fact that they bring nature back to its normal state, are causes of pleasure; for this is precisely in what pleasure consists, as stated above (1335Q31, A1). Therefore, since every pleasure assuages sorrow, sorrow is assuaged by such like bodily remedies.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: The normal disposition of the body, so far as it is felt, is itself a cause of pleasure, and consequently assuages sorrow.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: As stated above (1336Q31, A8), one pleasure hinders another; and yet every pleasure assuages sorrow. Consequently it is not unreasonable that sorrow should be assuaged by causes which hinder one another.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As stated above 1381(A2), fear regards a future evil which surpasses the power of him that fears, so that it is irresistible. Now man's evil, like his good, may be considered either in his action or in external things. In his action he has a twofold evil to fear. First, there is the toil that burdens his nature: and hence arises "laziness," as when a man shrinks from work for fear of too much toil. Secondly, there is the disgrace which damages him in the opinion of others. And thus, if disgrace is feared in a deed that is yet to be done, there is "shamefacedness"; if, however, it be a deed already done, there is "shame."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Now this opinion contains some truth, and some error. For it is manifest from what we have said (1461Q49, A4) that only a being in potentiality is the subject of habit. So the above-mentioned commentators considered that angels are immaterial substances, and that there is no material potentiality in them, and on that account, excluded from them habit and any kind of accident. Yet since though there is no material potentiality in angels, there is still some potentiality in them (for to be pure act belongs to God alone), therefore, as far as potentiality is found to be in them, so far may habits be found in them. But because the potentiality of matter and the potentiality of intellectual substance are not of the same kind. Whence, Simplicius says in his Commentary on the Predicaments that: "The habits of the intellectual substance are not like the habits here below, but rather are they like simple and immaterial images which it contains in itself."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the fruits of the Holy Ghost, enumerated by the Apostle (Gal. 5:22,23), are not acts. For that which bears fruit, should not itself be called a fruit, else we should go on indefinitely. But our actions bear fruit: for it is written (Wis. 3:15): "The fruit of good labor is glorious," and (Jn. 4:36): "He that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life everlasting." Therefore our actions are not to be called fruits.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (7) Whether they differ according to their various stages?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that sins are unfittingly divided into sins of thought, word, and deed. For Augustine (De Trin. xii, 12) describes three stages of sin, of which the first is "when the carnal sense offers a bait," which is the sin of thought; the second stage is reached "when one is satisfied with the mere pleasure of thought"; and the third stage, "when consent is given to the deed." Now these three belong to the sin of thought. Therefore it is unfitting to reckon sin of thought as one kind of sin.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: All sins of thought have the common note of secrecy, in respect of which they form one degree, which is, however, divided into three stages, viz. of cogitation, pleasure, and consent.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Sins of words and deed are both done openly, and for this reason Gregory (Moral. iv, 25) reckons them under one head: whereas Jerome (in commenting on Ezech. 43:23) distinguishes between them, because in sins of word there is nothing but manifestation which is intended principally; while in sins of deed, it is the consummation of the inward thought which is principally intended, and the outward manifestation is by way of sequel. Habit and despair are stages following the complete species of sin, even as boyhood and youth follow the complete generation of a man.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As the Philosopher says in speaking of habits of virtue (Ethic. ii, 1,2), "it is natural for a thing to be increased by that which causes it." Now it is evident that a sin is caused by a defect in some circumstance: because the fact that a man departs from the order of reason is due to his not observing the due circumstances in his action. Wherefore it is evident that it is natural for a sin to be aggravated by reason of its circumstances. This happens in three ways. First, in so far as a circumstance draws a sin from one kind to another: thus fornication is the intercourse of a man with one who is not his wife: but if to this be added the circumstance that the latter is the wife of another, the sin is drawn to another kind of sin, viz. injustice, in so far as he usurps another's property; and in this respect adultery is a more grievous sin than fornication. Secondly, a circumstance aggravates a sin, not by drawing it into another genus, but only by multiplying the ratio of sin: thus if a wasteful man gives both when he ought not, and to whom he ought not to give, he commits the same kind of sin in more ways than if he were to merely to give to whom he ought not, and for that very reason his sin is more grievous; even as that sickness is the graver which affects more parts of the body. Hence Cicero says (Paradox. iii) that "in taking his father's life a man commits many sins; for he outrages one who begot him, who fed him, who educated him, to whom he owes his lands, his house, his position in the republic." Thirdly, a circumstance aggravates a sin by adding to the deformity which the sin derives from another circumstance: thus, taking another's property constitutes the sin of theft; but if to this be added the circumstance that much is taken of another's property, the sin will be more grievous; although in itself, to take more or less has not the character of a good or of an evil act.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, "the higher reason is intent on contemplating and consulting the eternal law," as Augustine states (De Trin. xii, 7). [*'Rationes aeternae,' cf. 1754FP, Q15, AA2,3 where as in similar passages 'ratio' has been rendered by the English 'type,' because St. Thomas was speaking of the Divine 'idea' as the archetype of the creature. Hence the type or idea is a rule of conduct, and is identified with the eternal law, (cf. A8, OBJ1; A9)]. But sometimes consent is given to an act, without consulting the eternal law: since man does not always think about Divine things, whenever he consents to an act. Therefore the sin of consent to the act is not always in the higher reason.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Both the passages quoted should, seemingly, be referred to temporal or bodily punishments, in so far as children are the property of their parents, and posterity, of their forefathers. Else, if they be referred to spiritual punishments, they must be understood in reference to the imitation of sin, wherefore in Exodus these words are added, "Of them that hate Me," and in the chapter quoted from Matthew (verse 32) we read: "Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers." The sins of the fathers are said to be punished in their children, because the latter are the more prone to sin through being brought up amid their parents' crimes, both by becoming accustomed to them, and by imitating their parents' example, conforming to their authority as it were. Moreover they deserve heavier punishment if, seeing the punishment of their parents, they fail to mend their ways. The text adds, "to the third and fourth generation," because men are wont to live long enough to see the third and fourth generation, so that both the children can witness their parents' sins so as to imitate them, and the parents can see their children's punishments so as to grieve for them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 6: Further, the Lord commanded (Ex. 20:4) that they should "not make . . . a graven thing, nor the likeness of anything." It was therefore unfitting for graven images of the cherubim to be set up in the tabernacle or temple. In like manner, the ark, the propitiatory, the candlestick, the table, the two altars, seem to have been placed there without reasonable cause.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 6: Both literal and figurative reasons may be assigned for the things contained in the tabernacle. The literal reason is in connection with the divine worship. And because, as already observed (ad 4), the inner tabernacle, called the Holy of Holies, signified the higher world of spiritual substances, hence that tabernacle contained three things, viz. "the ark of the testament in which was a golden pot that had manna, and the rod of Aaron that had blossomed, and the tables" (Heb. kjv@9:4) on which were written the ten commandments of the Law. Now the ark stood between two "cherubim" that looked one towards the other: and over the ark was a table, called the "propitiatory," raised above the wings of the cherubim, as though it were held up by them; and appearing, to the imagination, to be the very seat of God. For this reason it was called the "propitiatory," as though the people received propitiation thence at the prayers of the high-priest. And so it was held up, so to speak, by the cherubim, in obedience, as it were, to God: while the ark of the testament was like the foot-stool to Him that sat on the propitiatory. These three things denote three things in that higher world: namely, God Who is above all, and incomprehensible to any creature. Hence no likeness of Him was set up; to denote His invisibility. But there was something to represent his seat; since, to wit, the creature, which is beneath God, as the seat under the sitter, is comprehensible. Again in that higher world there are spiritual substances called angels. These are signified by the two cherubim, looking one towards the other, to show that they are at peace with one another, according to Job 25:2: "Who maketh peace in . . . high places." For this reason, too, there was more than one cherub, to betoken the multitude of heavenly spirits, and to prevent their receiving worship from those who had been commanded to worship but one God. Moreover there are, enclosed as it were in that spiritual world, the intelligible types of whatsoever takes place in this world, just as in every cause are enclosed the types of its effects, and in the craftsman the types of the works of his craft. This was betokened by the ark, which represented, by means of the three things it contained, the three things of greatest import in human affairs. These are wisdom, signified by the tables of the testament; the power of governing, betokened by the rod of Aaron; and life, betokened by the manna which was the means of sustenance. Or else these three things signified the three Divine attributes, viz. wisdom, in the tables; power, in the rod; goodness, in the manna---both by reason of its sweetness, and because it was through the goodness of God that it was granted to man, wherefore it was preserved as a memorial of the Divine mercy. Again, these three things were represented in Isaias' vision. For he "saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and elevated"; and the seraphim standing by; and that the house was filled with the glory of the Lord; wherefrom the seraphim cried out: "All the earth is full of His glory" (Is. kjv@6:1, 3). And so the images of the seraphim were set up, not to be worshipped, for this was forbidden by the first commandment; but as a sign of their function, as stated above.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 6: Further, just as a workman offers his work for hire, so do men let houses and so forth. But there is no need for the tenant to pay his rent as soon as he takes a house. Therefore it seems an unnecessarily hard prescription (Lev. 19:13) that "the wages of him that hath been hired by thee shall not abide with thee until morning."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 6: Further, the Lord forbade them (Dt. kjv@7:3, seqq.) to make marriages with strange nations; and commanded the dissolution of such as had been contracted (1 Esdras 10). Therefore it was unfitting to allow them to marry captive women from strange nations (Dt. 21:10, seqq.).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Man without grace may be looked at in two states, as was said above (2241Q109, A2): the first, a state of perfect nature, in which Adam was before his sin; the second, a state of corrupt nature, in which we are before being restored by grace. Therefore, if we speak of man in the first state, there is only one reason why man cannot merit eternal life without grace, by his purely natural endowments, viz. because man's merit depends on the Divine pre-ordination. Now no act of anything whatsoever is divinely ordained to anything exceeding the proportion of the powers which are the principles of its act; for it is a law of Divine providence that nothing shall act beyond its powers. Now everlasting life is a good exceeding the proportion of created nature; since it exceeds its knowledge and desire, according to 1 Cor. kjv@2:9: "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man." And hence it is that no created nature is a sufficient principle of an act meritorious of eternal life, unless there is added a supernatural gift, which we call grace. But if we speak of man as existing in sin, a second reason is added to this, viz. the impediment of sin. For since sin is an offense against God, excluding us from eternal life, as is clear from what has been said above (2242Q71, A6;2243 Q113, A2), no one existing in a state of mortal sin can merit eternal life unless first he be reconciled to God, through his sin being forgiven, which is brought about by grace. For the sinner deserves not life, but death, according to Rom. kjv@6:23: "The wages of sin is death."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, on Rom. kjv@6:23, "The grace of God, life everlasting," a gloss says: "He might have truly said: 'The wages of justice, life everlasting'; but He preferred to say 'The grace of God, life everlasting,' that we may know that God leads us to life everlasting of His own mercy and not by our merits." Now when anyone merits something condignly he receives it not from mercy, but from merit. Hence it would seem that a man with grace cannot merit life everlasting condignly.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that grace is not the principle of merit through charity rather than the other virtues. For wages are due to work, according to Mat. 20:8: "Call the laborers and pay them their hire." Now every virtue is a principle of some operation, since virtue is an operative habit, as stated above (2244Q55, A2). Hence every virtue is equally a principle of merit.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, that would seem to fall under merit, which God bestows on anyone for a service done. But God sometimes bestows temporal goods on men for services done for Him. For it is written (Ex. 1:21): "And because the midwives feared God, He built them houses"; on which a gloss of Gregory (Moral. xviii, 4) says that "life everlasting might have been awarded them as the fruit of their goodwill, but on account of their sin of falsehood they received an earthly reward." And it is written (Ezech. 29:18): "The King of Babylon hath made his army to undergo hard service against Tyre . . . and there hath been no reward given him," and further on: "And it shall be wages for his army . . . I have given him the land of Egypt because he hath labored for me." Therefore temporal goods fall under merit.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, It is written (Dt. 7:2,3): "Thou shalt make no league with them, nor show mercy to them; neither shalt thou make marriages with them": and a gloss on Lev. 15:19, "The woman who at the return of the month," etc. says: "It is so necessary to shun idolatry, that we should not come in touch with idolaters or their disciples, nor have any dealings with them."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, Gregory [*Regist. xi, Ep. 15: cf. Decret., dist. xlv, can., Qui sincera] says, speaking of the Jews: "They should be allowed to observe all their feasts, just as hitherto they and their fathers have for ages observed them."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The word blasphemy seems to denote the disparagement of some surpassing goodness, especially that of God. Now God, as Dionysius says (Div. Nom. i), is the very essence of true goodness. Hence whatever befits God, pertains to His goodness, and whatever does not befit Him, is far removed from the perfection of goodness which is His Essence. Consequently whoever either denies anything befitting God, or affirms anything unbefitting Him, disparages the Divine goodness.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: He that speaks against God, with the intention of reviling Him, disparages the Divine goodness, not only in respect of the falsehood in his intellect, but also by reason of the wickedness of his will, whereby he detests and strives to hinder the honor due to God, and this is perfect blasphemy.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As stated above (2411FS, Q72, A5), a mortal sin is one whereby a man is severed from the first principle of spiritual life, which principle is the charity of God. Therefore whatever things are contrary to charity, are mortal sins in respect of their genus. Now blasphemy, as to its genus, is opposed to Divine charity, because, as stated above 2412(A1), it disparages the Divine goodness, which is the object of charity. Consequently blasphemy is a mortal sin, by reason of its genus.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Since, however, when once the Law has been given, it is for a wise man to induce men not only to observe the precepts, but also, and much more, to safeguard the foundation of the Law, therefore, after the first promulgation of the Law, Holy Writ holds out to man many inducements to hope, even by way of warning or command, and not merely by way of promise, as in the Law; for instance, in the Ps. 61:9: "Hope Douay: 'Trust' in Him all ye congregation of the people," and in many other passages of the Scriptures.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, By mortal sin man becomes deserving of eternal death, according to Rom. kjv@6:23: "The wages of sin is death." On the other hand whoever has charity is deserving of eternal life, for it is written (Jn. 14:21): "He that loveth Me, shall be loved by My Father: and I will love Him, and will manifest Myself to him," in which manifestation everlasting life consists, according to Jn. 17:3: "This is eternal life; that they may know Thee the . . . true God, and Jesus Christ Whom Thou hast sent." Now no man can be worthy, at the same time, of eternal life and of eternal death. Therefore it is impossible for a man to have charity with a mortal sin. Therefore charity is destroyed by one mortal sin.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: A tyrannical government is not just, because it is directed, not to the common good, but to the private good of the ruler, as the Philosopher states (Polit. iii, 5; Ethic. viii, 10). Consequently there is no sedition in disturbing a government of this kind, unless indeed the tyrant's rule be disturbed so inordinately, that his subjects suffer greater harm from the consequent disturbance than from the tyrant's government. Indeed it is the tyrant rather that is guilty of sedition, since he encourages discord and sedition among his subjects, that he may lord over them more securely; for this is tyranny, being conducive to the private good of the ruler, and to the injury of the multitude.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Augustine is speaking of wisdom as to its cause, whence also wisdom sapientia takes its name, in so far as it denotes a certain sweetness saporem. Hence the Reply to the Second Objection is evident, that is if this be the true meaning of the text quoted. For, apparently this is not the case, because such an exposition of the text would only fit the Latin word for wisdom, whereas it does not apply to the Greek and perhaps not in other languages. Hence it would seem that in the text quoted wisdom stands for the renown of doctrine, for which it is praised by all.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: There are four things whereby a man perfects his memory. First, when a man wishes to remember a thing, he should take some suitable yet somewhat unwonted illustration of it, since the unwonted strikes us more, and so makes a greater and stronger impression on the mind; the mind; and this explains why we remember better what we saw when we were children. Now the reason for the necessity of finding these illustrations or images, is that simple and spiritual impressions easily slip from the mind, unless they be tied as it were to some corporeal image, because human knowledge has a greater hold on sensible objects. For this reason memory is assigned to the sensitive part of the soul. Secondly, whatever a man wishes to retain in his memory he must carefully consider and set in order, so that he may pass easily from one memory to another. Hence the Philosopher says (De Memor. et Remin. ii): "Sometimes a place brings memories back to us: the reason being that we pass quickly from the one to the other." Thirdly, we must be anxious and earnest about the things we wish to remember, because the more a thing is impressed on the mind, the less it is liable to slip out of it. Wherefore Tully says in his Rhetoric [*Ad Herenn. de Arte Rhet. iii.] that "anxiety preserves the figures of images entire." Fourthly, we should often reflect on the things we wish to remember. Hence the Philosopher says (De Memoria i) that "reflection preserves memories," because as he remarks (De Memoria ii) "custom is a second nature": wherefore when we reflect on a thing frequently, we quickly call it to mind, through passing from one thing to another by a kind of natural order.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Right judgment consists in the cognitive power apprehending a thing just as it is in reality, and this is due to the right disposition of the apprehensive power. Thus if a mirror be well disposed the forms of bodies are reflected in it just as they are, whereas if it be ill disposed, the images therein appear distorted and misshapen. Now that the cognitive power be well disposed to receive things just as they are in reality, is radically due to nature, but, as to its consummation, is due to practice or to a gift of grace, and this in two ways. First directly, on the part of the cognitive power itself, for instance, because it is imbued, not with distorted, but with true and correct ideas: this belongs to {synesis} (judging well according to common law) which in this respect is a special virtue. Secondly indirectly, through the good disposition of the appetitive power, the result being that one judges well of the objects of appetite: and thus a good judgment of virtue results from the habits of moral virtue; but this judgment is about the ends, whereas {synesis} (judging well according to common law) is rather about the means.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Our Lord did not forbid us to take thought, when we have the opportunity, about what we ought to do or say, but, in the words quoted, He encourages His disciples, so that when they had no opportunity of taking thought, either through lack of knowledge or through a sudden call, they should trust in the guidance of God alone, because "as we know not what to do, we can only turn our eyes to God," according to 2 Paral 20:12: else if man, instead of doing what he can, were to be content with awaiting God's assistance, he would seem to tempt God.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, no one can be unjustly deprived of what he is not bound to give. Now a judge justly deprives a thief of more than the amount of his theft, under the head of damages. Therefore a man is bound to pay it, and consequently it is not sufficient to restore the exact amount.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: By condemning the man justly, the judge can exact more by way of damages; and yet this was not due before the sentence.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, All matters of restitution seem to come under one head. Now a man who hires the services of a wage-earner, must not delay compensation, as appears from Lev. 19:13, "The wages of him that hath been hired by thee shall not abide with thee until the morning." Therefore neither is it lawful, in other cases of restitution, to delay, and restitution should be made at once.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that one ought not to suffer oneself to be reviled. For he that suffers himself to be reviled, encourages the reviler. But one ought not to do this. Therefore one ought not to suffer oneself to be reviled, but rather reply to the reviler.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Clerics should abstain not only from things that are evil in themselves, but even from those that have an appearance of evil. This happens in trading, both because it is directed to worldly gain, which clerics should despise, and because trading is open to so many vices, since "a merchant is hardly free from sins of the lips" [*'A merchant is hardly free from negligence, and a huckster shall not be justified from the sins of the lips'] (Ecclus. 26:28). There is also another reason, because trading engages the mind too much with worldly cares, and consequently withdraws it from spiritual cares; wherefore the Apostle says (2 Tim. 2:4): "No man being a soldier to God entangleth himself with secular businesses." Nevertheless it is lawful for clerics to engage in the first mentioned kind of exchange, which is directed to supply the necessaries of life, either by buying or by selling.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Human laws leave certain things unpunished, on account of the condition of those who are imperfect, and who would be deprived of many advantages, if all sins were strictly forbidden and punishments appointed for them. Wherefore human law has permitted usury, not that it looks upon usury as harmonizing with justice, but lest the advantage of many should be hindered. Hence it is that in civil law [*Inst. II, iv, de Usufructu] it is stated that "those things according to natural reason and civil law which are consumed by being used, do not admit of usufruct," and that "the senate did not (nor could it) appoint a usufruct to such things, but established a quasi-usufruct," namely by permitting usury. Moreover the Philosopher, led by natural reason, says (Polit. i, 3) that "to make money by usury is exceedingly unnatural."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 6: Further, a man may accept a pledge for money lent, the use of which pledge he might sell for a price: as when a man mortgages his land or the house wherein he dwells. Therefore it is lawful to receive interest for money lent.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Just as the sin of transgression is opposed to negative precepts which regard the avoidance of evil, so the sin of omission is opposed to affirmative precepts, which regard the doing of good. Now affirmative precepts bind not for always, but for a fixed time, and at that time the sin of omission begins. But it may happen that then one is unable to do what one ought, and if this inability is without any fault on his part, he does not omit his duty, as stated above (ad 2; 2978FS, Q71, A5). On the other hand if this inability is due to some previous fault of his (for instance, if a man gets drunk at night, and cannot get up for matins, as he ought to), some say that the sin of omission begins when he engages in an action that is illicit and incompatible with the act to which he is bound. But this does not seem to be true, for supposing one were to rouse him by violence and that he went to matins, he would not omit to go, so that, evidently, the previous drunkenness was not an omission, but the cause of an omission. Consequently, we must say that the omission begins to be imputed to him as a sin, when the time comes for the action; and yet this is on account of a preceding cause by reason of which the subsequent omission becomes voluntary.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, adoration belongs to religion. Now adoration is paid to images under one aspect, and under another aspect to God Himself. Since, then, a difference of aspect distinguishes virtues, it would seem that religion is not one virtue.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The worship of religion is paid to images, not as considered in themselves, nor as things, but as images leading us to God incarnate. Now movement to an image as image does not stop at the image, but goes on to the thing it represents. Hence neither "latria" nor the virtue of religion is differentiated by the fact that religious worship is paid to the images of Christ.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, According to Valerius Maximus [*Fact. et Dict. Memor. vii, 2], "Socrates deemed that we should ask the immortal gods for nothing else but that they should grant us good things, because they at any rate know what is good for each one whereas when we pray we frequently ask for what it had been better for us not to obtain." This opinion is true to a certain extent, as to those things which may have an evil result, and which man may use ill or well, such as "riches, by which," as stated by the same authority (Fact. et Dict. Memor. vii, 2), "many have come to an evil end; honors, which have ruined many; power, of which we frequently witness the unhappy results; splendid marriages, which sometimes bring about the total wreck of a family." Nevertheless there are certain goods which man cannot ill use, because they cannot have an evil result. Such are those which are the object of beatitude and whereby we merit it: and these the saints seek absolutely when they pray, as in Ps. 79:4, "Show us Thy face, and we shall be saved," and again in Ps. 118:35, "Lead me into the path of Thy commandments."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer are not fittingly assigned. It is useless to ask for that to be hallowed which is always holy. But the name of God is always holy, according to Lk. kjv@1:49, "Holy is His name." Again, His kingdom is everlasting, according to Ps. 144:13, "Thy kingdom is a kingdom of all ages." Again, God's will is always fulfilled, according to Isa 46:10, "All My will shall be done." Therefore it is useless to ask for "the name of God to be hallowed," for "His kingdom to come," and for "His will to be done."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, man cannot pay except what is in his power. Now a man does not always remain in possession of all his profit from land and stock, since sometimes he loses them by theft or robbery; sometimes they are transferred to another person by sale; sometimes they are due to some other person, thus taxes are due to princes, and wages due to workmen. Therefore one ought not to pay tithes on such like things.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: A man is not bound to pay tithes on what he has lost by theft or robbery, before he recovers his property: unless he has incurred the loss through his own fault or neglect, because the Church ought not to be the loser on that account. If he sell wheat that has not been tithed, the Church can command the tithes due to her, both from the buyer who has a thing due to the Church, and from the seller, because so far as he is concerned he has defrauded the Church: yet if one pays, the other is not bound. Tithes are due on the fruits of the earth, in so far as these fruits are the gift of God. Wherefore tithes do not come under a tax, nor are they subject to workmen's wages. Hence it is not right to deduct one's taxes and the wages paid to workmen, before paying tithes: but tithes must be paid before anything else on one's entire produce.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Now just as this divine worship was given to sensible creatures by means of sensible signs, such as sacrifices, games, and the like, so too was it given to a creature represented by some sensible form or shape, which is called an "idol." Yet divine worship was given to idols in various ways. For some, by means of a nefarious art, constructed images which produced certain effects by the power of the demons: wherefore they deemed that the images themselves contained something God-like, and consequently that divine worship was due to them. This was the opinion of Hermes Trismegistus [*De Natura Deorum, ad Asclep], as Augustine states (De Civ. Dei viii, 23): while others gave divine worship not to the images, but to the creatures represented thereby. The Apostle alludes to both of these (Rom. kjv@1:23, 25). For, as regards the former, he says: "They changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of four-footed beasts, and of creeping things," and of the latter he says: "Who worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: These latter were of three ways of thinking. For some deemed certain men to have been gods, whom they worshipped in the images of those men: for instance, Jupiter, Mercury, and so forth. Others again deemed the whole world to be one god, not by reason of its material substance, but by reason of its soul, which they believed to be God, for they held God to be nothing else than a soul governing the world by movement and reason: even as a man is said to be wise in respect not of his body but of his soul. Hence they thought that divine worship ought to be given to the whole world and to all its parts, heaven, air, water, and to all such things: and to these they referred the names of their gods, as Varro asserted, and Augustine relates (De Civ. Dei vii, 5). Lastly, others, namely, the Platonists, said that there is one supreme god, the cause of all things. After him they placed certain spiritual substances created by the supreme god. These they called "gods," on account of their having a share of the godhead; but we call them "angels." After these they placed the souls of the heavenly bodies, and beneath these the demons which they stated to be certain animal denizens of the air, and beneath these again they placed human souls, which they believed to be taken up into the fellowship of the gods or of the demons by reason of the merit of their virtue. To all these they gave divine worship, as Augustine relates (De Civ . . Dei xviii, 14).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: The last two opinions were held to belong to "natural theology" which the philosophers gathered from their study of the world and taught in the schools: while the other, relating to the worship of men, was said to belong to "mythical theology" which was wont to be represented on the stage according to the fancies of poets. The remaining opinion relating to images was held to belong to "civil theology," which was celebrated by the pontiffs in the temples [*De Civ. Dei vi, 5].


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The saying of the Apostle that "an idol is nothing in the world" means that those images which were called idols, were not animated, or possessed of a divine power, as Hermes maintained, as though they were composed of spirit and body. In the same sense we must understand the saying that "what is offered in sacrifice to idols is not anything," because by being thus sacrificed the sacrificial flesh acquired neither sanctification, as the Gentiles thought, nor uncleanness, as the Jews held.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: It was owing to the general custom among the Gentiles of worshipping any kind of creature under the form of images that the term "idolatry" was used to signify any worship of a creature, even without the use of images.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that idolatry is not a sin. Nothing is a sin that the true faith employs in worshipping God. Now the true faith employs images for the divine worship: since both in the Tabernacle were there images of the cherubim, as related in Ex. 25, and in the Church are images set up which the faithful worship. Therefore idolatry, whereby idols are worshipped, is not a sin.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, It is written (Ex. 20:5): "Thou shalt not adore them," i.e. outwardly, "nor serve them," i.e. inwardly, as a gloss explains it: and it is a question of graven things and images. Therefore it is a sin to worship idols whether outwardly or inwardly.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Neither in the Tabernacle or Temple of the Old Law, nor again now in the Church are images set up that the worship of latria may be paid to them, but for the purpose of signification, in order that belief in the excellence of angels and saints may be impressed and confirmed in the mind of man. It is different with the image of Christ, to which latria is due on account of His Divinity, as we shall state in the 3104TP, Q25, A3.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Idolatry had a twofold cause. One was a dispositive cause; this was on the part of man, and in three ways. First, on account of his inordinate affections, forasmuch as he gave other men divine honor, through either loving or revering them too much. This cause is assigned (Wis. 14:15): "A father being afflicted with bitter grief, made to himself the image of his son, who was quickly taken away: and him who then had died as a man he began to worship as a god." The same passage goes on to say (Wis. 14:21) that "men serving either their affection, or their kings, gave the incommunicable name [Vulg.: 'names']," i.e. of the Godhead, "to stones and wood." Secondly, because man takes a natural pleasure in representations, as the Philosopher observes (Poet. iv), wherefore as soon as the uncultured man saw human images skillfully fashioned by the diligence of the craftsman, he gave them divine worship; hence it is written (Wis. 13:11-17): "If an artist, a carpenter, hath cut down a tree, proper for his use, in the wood . . . and by the skill of his art fashioneth it, and maketh it like the image of a man . . . and then maketh prayer to it, inquiring concerning his substance, and his children, or his marriage." Thirdly, on account of their ignorance of the true God, inasmuch as through failing to consider His excellence men gave divine worship to certain creatures, on account of their beauty or power, wherefore it is written (Wis. 13:1,2): "All men . . . neither by attending to the works have acknowledged who was the workman, but have imagined either the fire, or the wind, or the swift air, or the circle of the stars, or the great water, or the sun and the moon, to be the gods that rule the world."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: According to Augustine (Ad Simplic. ii, 3), "there is nothing absurd in believing that the spirit of the just man, being about to smite the king with the divine sentence, was permitted to appear to him, not by the sway of magic art or power, but by some occult dispensation of which neither the witch nor Saul was aware. Or else the spirit of Samuel was not in reality aroused from his rest, but some phantom or mock apparition formed by the machinations of the devil, and styled by Scripture under the name of Samuel, just as the images of things are wont to be called by the names of those things."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: In like manner the outward cause of dreams is twofold, corporal and spiritual. It is corporal in so far as the sleeper's imagination is affected either by the surrounding air, or through an impression of a heavenly body, so that certain images appear to the sleeper, in keeping with the disposition of the heavenly bodies. The spiritual cause is sometimes referable to God, Who reveals certain things to men in their dreams by the ministry of the angels, according Num. 12:6, "If there be among you a prophet of the Lord, I will appear to him in a vision, or I will speak to him in a dream." Sometimes, however, it is due to the action of the demons that certain images appear to persons in their sleep, and by this means they, at times, reveal certain future things to those who have entered into an unlawful compact with them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Yet this may happen to be sinful in four ways. First, if one have recourse to lots without any necessity: for this would seem to amount to tempting God. Hence Ambrose, commenting on the words of Lk. kjv@1:8, says: "He that is chosen by lot is not bound by the judgment of men." Secondly, if even in a case of necessity one were to have recourse to lots without reverence. Hence, on the Acts of the Apostles, Bede says (Super Act. Apost. i): "But if anyone, compelled by necessity, thinks that he ought, after the apostles' example, to consult God by casting lots, let him take note that the apostles themselves did not do so, except after calling together the assembly of the brethren and pouring forth prayer to God." Thirdly, if the Divine oracles be misapplied to earthly business. Hence Augustine says (ad inquisit. Januar. ii; Ep. lv): "Those who tell fortunes from the Gospel pages, though it is to be hoped that they do so rather than have recourse to consulting the demons, yet does this custom also displease me, that anyone should wish to apply the Divine oracles to worldly matters and to the vain things of this life." Fourthly, if anyone resort to the drawing of lots in ecclesiastical elections, which should be carried out by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. Wherefore, as Bede says (Super Act. Apost. i): "Before Pentecost the ordination of Matthias was decided by lot," because as yet the fulness of the Holy Ghost was not yet poured forth into the Church: "whereas the same deacons were ordained not by lot but by the choice of the disciples." It is different with earthly honors, which are directed to the disposal of earthly things: in elections of this kind men frequently have recourse to lots, even as in the distribution of earthly possessions.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, artificial bodies are subject to the heavenly bodies, just as natural bodies are. Now natural bodies acquire certain occult forces resulting from their species through the influence of the heavenly bodies. Therefore artificial bodies, e.g. images, also acquire from the heavenly bodies a certain occult force for the production of certain effects. Therefore it is not unlawful to make use of them and of such like things.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Wherefore those images called astronomical also derive their efficacy from the actions of the demons: a sign of this is that it is requisite to inscribe certain characters on them which do not conduce to any effect naturally, since shape is not a principle of natural action. Yet astronomical images differ from necromantic images in this, that the latter include certain explicit invocations and trickery, wherefore they come under the head of explicit agreements made with the demons: whereas in the other images there are tacit agreements by means of tokens in certain shapes or characters.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, it is unreasonable to deny that which nearly everybody experiences. Now nearly everyone experiences that certain times, or places, hearing of certain words meetings of men or animals, uncanny or ungainly actions, are presages of good or evil to come. Therefore it seems not unlawful to observe these things.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, human actions and occurrences are disposed by divine providence in a certain order: and this order seems to require that precedent events should be signs of subsequent occurrences: wherefore, according to the Apostle (1 Cor. 10:6), the things that happened to the fathers of old are signs of those that take place in our time. Now it is not unlawful to observe the order that proceeds from divine providence. Therefore it is seemingly not unlawful to observe these presages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: In like manner the third species of sacrilege, which is committed against other sacred things, has various degrees, according to the differences of sacred things. Among these the highest place belongs to the sacraments whereby man is sanctified: chief of which is the sacrament of the Eucharist, for it contains Christ Himself. Wherefore the sacrilege that is committed against this sacrament is the gravest of all. The second place, after the sacraments, belongs to the vessels consecrated for the administration of the sacraments; also sacred images, and the relics of the saints, wherein the very persons of the saints, so to speak, are reverenced and honored. After these come things connected with the apparel of the Church and its ministers; and those things, whether movable or immovable, that are deputed to the upkeep of the ministers. And whoever sins against any one of the aforesaid incurs the crime of sacrilege.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: The passages quoted refer to the mischievous lie, as a gloss explains the words of Ps. kjv@5:7, "Thou wilt destroy all that speak a lie."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As stated above (3232Q112, A2), a mortal sin is one that is contrary to charity. Now flattery is sometimes contrary to charity and sometimes not. It is contrary to charity in three ways. First, by reason of the very matter, as when one man praises another's sin: for this is contrary to the love of God, against Whose justice he speaks, and contrary to the love of his neighbor, whom he encourages to sin. Wherefore this is a mortal sin, according to Is. kjv@5:20. "Woe to you that call evil good." Secondly, by reason of the intention, as when one man flatters another, so that by deceiving him he may injure him in body or in soul; this is also a mortal sin, and of this it is written (Prov. 27:6): "Better are the wounds of a friend than the deceitful kisses of an enemy." Thirdly, by way of occasion, as when the praise of a flatterer, even without his intending it, becomes to another an occasion of sin. In this case it is necessary to consider, whether the occasion were given or taken, and how grievous the consequent downfall, as may be understood from what has been said above concerning scandal (3233Q43, AA3,4). If, however, one man flatters another from the mere craving to please others, or again in order to avoid some evil, or to acquire something in a case of necessity, this is not contrary to charity. Consequently it is not a mortal but a venial sin.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: The passages quoted speak of the flatterer who praises another's sin. Flattery of this kind is said to harm more than the sword of the persecutor, since it does harm to goods that are of greater consequence. namely, spiritual goods. Yet it does not harm so efficaciously, since the sword of the persecutor slays effectively, being a sufficient cause of death; whereas no one by flattering can be a sufficient cause of another's sinning, as was shown above (Q43, A1, ad 3; 3234FS, Q73, A8, ad 3; 3235FS, Q80, A1).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: People worshiped strange gods in two ways. For some served certain creatures as gods without having recourse to images. Hence Varro says that for a long time the ancient Romans worshiped gods without using images: and this worship is first forbidden by the words, "Thou shalt not have strange gods." Among others the worship of false gods was observed by using certain images: and so the very making of images was fittingly forbidden by the words, "Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven thing," as also the worship of those same images, by the words, "Thou shalt not adore them," etc.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, Ambrose says (De Offic. i): "Fortitude is not lacking in courage, for alone she defends the honor of the virtues and guards their behests. She it is that wages an inexorable war on all vice, undeterred by toil, brave in face of dangers, steeled against pleasures, unyielding to lusts, avoiding covetousness as a deformity that weakens virtue"; and he says the same further on in connection with other vices. Now this cannot apply to any special virtue. Therefore fortitude is not a special virtue.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: The passages quoted refer to inordinate fear in its generic acceptation, which can be opposed to various virtues.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, the acts of the gift remain in heaven, as stated above (3416FS, Q68, A6). But the act of fortitude does not remain in heaven: for Gregory says (Moral. i) that "fortitude encourages the fainthearted against hardships, which will be altogether absent from heaven." Therefore fortitude is not a gift.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, spiritual things should be preferred to temporal, and necessary things to those that are not necessary. Now bodily works are directed to temporal gain; and pilgrimages, though directed to spiritual things, are not a matter of necessity. Therefore, since fasting is directed to a spiritual gain, and is made a necessary thing by the commandment of the Church, it seems that the fasts of the Church ought not to be omitted on account of a pilgrimage, or bodily works.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Apparently a distinction should be made with regard to pilgrims and working people. For if the pilgrimage or laborious work can be conveniently deferred or lessened without detriment to the bodily health and such external conditions as are necessary for the upkeep of bodily or spiritual life, there is no reason for omitting the fasts of the Church. But if one be under the necessity of starting on the pilgrimage at once, and of making long stages, or of doing much work, either for one's bodily livelihood, or for some need of the spiritual life, and it be impossible at the same time to keep the fasts of the Church, one is not bound to fast: because in ordering fasts the Church would not seem to have intended to prevent other pious and more necessary undertakings. Nevertheless, in such cases one ought seemingly, to seek the superior's dispensation; except perhaps when the above course is recognized by custom, since when superiors are silent they would seem to consent.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, Jerome says [*Contra Jovin. i] that "after the deluge wine and flesh were sanctioned: but Christ came in the last of the ages and brought back the end into line with the beginning." Therefore it seems unlawful to use wine under the Christian law.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Nocturnal pollution may be considered in two ways. First, in itself; and thus it has not the character of a sin. For every sin depends on the judgment of reason, since even the first movement of the sensuality has nothing sinful in it, except in so far as it can be suppressed by reason; wherefore in the absence of reason's judgment, there is no sin in it. Now during sleep reason has not a free judgment. For there is no one who while sleeping does not regard some of the images formed by his imagination as though they were real, as stated above in the 3539FP, Q84, A8, ad 2. Wherefore what a man does while he sleeps and is deprived of reason's judgment, is not imputed to him as a sin, as neither are the actions of a maniac or an imbecile.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, to do a person an injury would seem to pertain to injustice rather than to lust. Now the seducer does an injury to another, namely the violated maiden's father, who "can take the injury as personal to himself" [*Gratian, ad can. Lex illa], and sue the seducer for damages. Therefore seduction should not be reckoned a species of lust.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: These passages speak of prophecy in reference to the third point just mentioned, which regards the proof of prophecy.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Some, however, wishing to discriminate between prophetic knowledge and the knowledge of the blessed, have maintained that the prophets see the very essence of God (which they call the "mirror of eternity") [*Cf. De Veritate, xii, 6; Sent. II, D, XI, part 2, art. 2, ad 4], not, however, in the way in which it is the object of the blessed, but as containing the types [*Cf. FP, Q15] of future events. But this is altogether impossible. For God is the object of bliss in His very essence, according to the saying of Augustine (Confess. v, 4): "Happy whoso knoweth Thee, though he know not these," i.e. creatures. Now it is not possible to see the types of creatures in the very essence of God without seeing It, both because the Divine essence is Itself the type of all things that are made---the ideal type adding nothing to the Divine essence save only a relationship to the creature---and because knowledge of a thing in itself---and such is the knowledge of God as the object of heavenly bliss---precedes knowledge of that thing in its relation to something else---and such is the knowledge of God as containing the types of things. Consequently it is impossible for prophets to see God as containing the types of creatures, and yet not as the object of bliss. Therefore we must conclude that the prophetic vision is not the vision of the very essence of God, and that the prophets do not see in the Divine essence Itself the things they do see, but that they see them in certain images, according as they are enlightened by the Divine light.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Wherefore Dionysius (Coel. Hier. iv), in speaking of prophetic visions, says that "the wise theologian calls that vision divine which is effected by images of things lacking a bodily form through the seer being rapt in divine things." And these images illumined by the Divine light have more of the nature of a mirror than the Divine essence: since in a mirror images are formed from other things, and this cannot be said of God. Yet the prophet's mind thus enlightened may be called a mirror, in so far as a likeness of the truth of the Divine foreknowledge is formed therein, for which reason it is called the "mirror of eternity," as representing God's foreknowledge, for God in His eternity sees all things as present before Him, as stated above (3681Q172, A1).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, according to Augustine (Gen. ad lit. xii, 9), "it is not imaginative but intellective vision that makes the prophet"; wherefore it is declared (Dan. 10:1) that "there is need of understanding in a vision." Now intellective vision, as stated in the same book (Gen. ad lit. xii, 6) is not effected by means of images, but by the very truth of things. Therefore it would seem that prophetic revelation is not effected by impressing species on the soul.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Now sensible forms are divinely presented to the prophet's mind, sometimes externally by means of the senses---thus Daniel saw the writing on the wall (Dan. 5:25)---sometimes by means of imaginary forms, either of exclusively Divine origin and not received through the senses (for instance, if images of colors were imprinted on the imagination of one blind from birth), or divinely coordinated from those derived from the senses---thus Jeremiah saw the "boiling caldron . . . from the face of the north" (Jer. 1:13)---or by the direct impression of intelligible species on the mind, as in the case of those who receive infused scientific knowledge or wisdom, such as Solomon or the apostles.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: As stated above, sometimes in prophetic revelation imaginary species previously derived from the senses are divinely coordinated so as to accord with the truth to be revealed, and then previous experience is operative in the production of the images, but not when they are impressed on the mind wholly from without.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Intellectual vision is not effected by means of bodily and individual images, but by an intelligible image. Hence Augustine says (De Trin. ix, 11) that "the soul possesses a certain likeness of the species known to it." Sometimes this intelligible image is, in prophetic revelation, imprinted immediately by God, sometimes it results from pictures in the imagination, by the aid of the prophetic light, since a deeper truth is gathered from these pictures in the imagination by means of the enlightenment of the higher light.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As stated in the foregoing Article, the prophetic revelation takes place in four ways: namely, by the infusion of an intelligible light, by the infusion of intelligible species, by impression or coordination of pictures in the imagination, and by the outward presentation of sensible images. Now it is evident that there is no abstraction from the senses, when something is presented to the prophet's mind by means of sensible species---whether these be divinely formed for this special purpose, as the bush shown to Moses (Ex. 3:2), and the writing shown to Daniel (Dan. 5:)---or whether they be produced by other causes; yet so that they are ordained by Divine providence to be prophetically significant of something, as, for instance, the Church was signified by the ark of Noah.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: When, however, prophetic revelation is conveyed by images in the imagination, abstraction from the senses is necessary lest the things thus seen in imagination be taken for objects of external sensation. Yet this abstraction from the senses is sometimes complete, so that a man perceives nothing with his senses; and sometimes it is incomplete, so that he perceives something with his senses, yet does not fully discern the things he perceives outwardly from those he sees in imagination. Hence Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. xii, 12): "Those images of bodies which are formed in the soul are seen just as bodily things themselves are seen by the body, so that we see with our eyes one who is present, and at the same time we see with the soul one who is absent, as though we saw him with our eyes."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the prophecy which has intellective and imaginative vision is more excellent than that which is accompanied by intellective vision alone. For Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. xii, 9): "He is less a prophet, who sees in spirit nothing but the signs representative of things, by means of the images of things corporeal: he is more a prophet, who is merely endowed with the understanding of these signs; but most of all is he a prophet, who excels in both ways," and this refers to the prophet who has intellective together with imaginative vision. Therefore this kind of prophecy is more excellent.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: When a particular supernatural truth has to be revealed by means of corporeal images, he that has both, namely the intellectual light and the imaginary vision, is more a prophet than he that has only one, because his prophecy is more perfect; and it is in this sense that Augustine speaks as quoted above. Nevertheless the prophecy in which the bare intelligible truth is revealed is greater than all.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Prophecy denotes vision of some supernatural truth as being far remote from us. This happens in two ways. First, on the part of the knowledge itself, because, to wit, the supernatural truth is not known in itself, but in some of its effects; and this truth will be more remote if it be known by means of images of corporeal things, than if it be known in its intelligible effects; and such most of all is the prophetic vision, which is conveyed by images and likenesses of corporeal things. Secondly, vision is remote on the part of the seer, because, to wit, he has not yet attained completely to his ultimate perfection, according to 2 Cor. kjv@5:6, "While we are in the body, we are absent from the Lord."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (1) Whether by the grace of tongues a man acquires the knowledge of all languages?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It seems that those who received the gift of tongues did not speak in every language. For that which is granted to certain persons by the divine power is the best of its kind: thus our Lord turned the water into good wine, as stated in Jn. kjv@2:10. Now those who had the gift of tongues spoke better in their own language; since a gloss on Heb. 1, says that "it is not surprising that the epistle to the Hebrews is more graceful in style than the other epistles, since it is natural for a man to have more command over his own than over a strange language. For the Apostle wrote the other epistles in a foreign, namely the Greek, idiom; whereas he wrote this in the Hebrew tongue." Therefore the apostles did not receive the knowledge of all languages by a gratuitous grace.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, nature does not employ many means where one is sufficient; and much less does God Whose work is more orderly than nature's. Now God could make His disciples to be understood by all, while speaking one tongue: hence a gloss on Acts kjv@2:6, "Every man heard them speak in his own tongue," says that "they spoke in every tongue, or speaking in their own, namely the Hebrew language, were understood by all, as though they spoke the language proper to each." Therefore it would seem that they had not the knowledge to speak in all languages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, all graces flow from Christ to His body, which is the Church, according to Jn. kjv@1:16, "Of His fullness we all have received." Now we do not read that Christ spoke more than one language, nor does each one of the faithful now speak save in one tongue. Therefore it would seem that Christ's disciples did not receive the grace to the extent of speaking in all languages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: As it is written (1 Cor. 12:7), "the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man unto profit"; and consequently both Paul and the other apostles were divinely instructed in the languages of all nations sufficiently for the requirements of the teaching of the faith. But as regards the grace and elegance of style which human art adds to a language, the Apostle was instructed in his own, but not in a foreign tongue. Even so they were sufficiently instructed in wisdom and scientific knowledge, as required for teaching the faith, but not as to all things known by acquired science, for instance the conclusions of arithmetic and geometry.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Christ in His own person purposed preaching to only one nation, namely the Jews. Consequently, although without any doubt He possessed most perfectly the knowledge of all languages, there was no need for Him to speak in every tongue. And therefore, as Augustine says (Tract. xxxii in Joan.), "whereas even now the Holy Ghost is received, yet no one speaks in the tongues of all nations, because the Church herself already speaks the languages of all nations: since whoever is not in the Church, receives not the Holy Ghost."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, Gregory says (Moral. vi, 37) that "contemplative men withdraw within themselves in order to explore spiritual things, nor do they ever carry with them the shadows of things corporeal, or if these follow them they prudently drive them away: but being desirous of seeing the incomprehensible light, they suppress all the images of their limited comprehension, and through longing to reach what is above them, they overcome that which they are." Now man is not hindered from seeing the Divine essence, which is the incomprehensible light, save by the necessity of turning to corporeal phantasms. Therefore it would seem that the contemplation of the present life can extend to the vision of the incomprehensible light in its essence.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Thirdly, according to the exposition of Chrysostom [*Hom. ii in Rom. xvi, 3], we are to understand that our Lord laid these commands on His disciples in reference to the mission on which they were sent to preach to the Jews, so that they might be encouraged to trust in His power, seeing that He provided for their wants without their having means of their own. But it does not follow from this that they, or their successors, were obliged to preach the Gospel without having means of their own: since we read of Paul (2 Cor. 11:8) that he "received wages" of other churches for preaching to the Corinthians, wherefore it is clear that he possessed something sent to him by others. And it seems foolish to say that so many holy bishops as Athanasius, Ambrose, and Augustine would have disobeyed these commandments if they believed themselves bound to observe them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: And there are very many other advantages which accrued, above man's apprehension.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The gift of tongues was bestowed on the apostles, because they were sent to teach all nations; but Christ wished to preach personally only in the one nation of the Jews, as He Himself says (Mat. 15:24): "I was not sent but to the sheep that are lost of the house of Israel"; and the Apostle says (Rom. 15:8): "I say that Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcision." And hence it was not necessary for Him to speak several languages. Yet was a knowledge of all languages not wanting to Him, since even the secrets of hearts, of which all words are signs, were not hidden from Him, as will be shown (3944Q10, A2). Nor was this knowledge uselessly possessed. just as it is not useless to have a habit, which we do not use when there is no occasion.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The holy Fathers made use of the legal sacraments, not as realities, but as images and shadows of what was to come. Now it is the same motion to an image as image, and to the reality, as is clear from the Philosopher (De Memor. et Remin. ii). Hence the ancient Fathers, by observing the legal sacraments, were borne to Christ by the same faith and love whereby we also are borne to Him, and hence the ancient Fathers belong to the same Church as we.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, it seems that nothing should be done in the Divine worship that is not instituted by God; wherefore the Apostle (1 Cor. 11:23) when about to lay down the doctrine of the sacrifice of the Church, says: "I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you." But Scripture does not lay down anything concerning the adoration of images. Therefore Christ's image is not to be adored with the adoration of "latria."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: This commandment does not forbid the making of any graven thing or likeness, but the making thereof for the purpose of adoration, wherefore it is added: "Thou shalt not adore them nor serve them." And because, as stated above, the movement towards the image is the same as the movement towards the thing, adoration thereof is forbidden in the same way as adoration of the thing whose image it is. Wherefore in the passage quoted we are to understand the prohibition to adore those images which the Gentiles made for the purpose of venerating their own gods, i.e. the demons, and so it is premised: "Thou shalt not have strange gods before Me." But no corporeal image could be raised to the true God Himself, since He is incorporeal; because, as Damascene observes (De Fide Orth. iv, 16): "It is the highest absurdity and impiety to fashion a figure of what is Divine." But because in the New Testament God was made man, He can be adored in His corporeal image.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: The Apostle forbids us to have anything in common with the "unfruitful works" of the Gentiles, but not with their useful works. Now the adoration of images must be numbered among the unfruitful works in two respects. First, because some of the Gentiles used to adore the images themselves, as things, believing that there was something Divine therein, on account of the answers which the demons used to give in them, and on account of other such like wonderful effects. Secondly on account of the things of which they were images; for they set up images to certain creatures, to whom in these images they gave the veneration of "latria." Whereas we give the adoration of "latria" to the image of Christ, Who is true God, not for the sake of the image, but for the sake of the thing whose image it is, as stated above.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Augustine thus (Contra Faust. xxiii) replies to Faustus, who urged this objection; "By no means," says he, "does the Catholic Faith, which believes that Christ the Son of God was born of a virgin, according to the flesh, suppose that the same Son of God was so shut up in His Mother's womb, as to cease to be elsewhere, as though He no longer continued to govern heaven and earth, and as though He had withdrawn Himself from the Father. But you, Manicheans, being of a mind that admits of nought but material images, are utterly unable to grasp these things." For, as he again says (Ep. ad Volus. cxxxvii), "it belongs to the sense of man to form conceptions only through tangible bodies, none of which can be entire everywhere, because they must of necessity be diffused through their innumerable parts in various places . . . Far otherwise is the nature of the soul from that of the body: how much more the nature of God, the Creator of soul and body! . . . He is able to be entire everywhere, and to be contained in no place. He is able to come without moving from the place where He was; and to go without leaving the spot whence He came."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Thirdly, because thus the reality of His human nature would have come into doubt. Whence Augustine says (Ep. ad Volusianum cxxxvii): "If He had not passed through the different stages of age from babyhood to youth, had neither eaten nor slept, would He not have strengthened an erroneous opinion, and made it impossible for us to believe that He had become true man? And while He is doing all things wondrously, would He have taken away that which He accomplished in mercy?"


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, It is written (Dan. 2:21): "He changes time and ages." Consequently the time of the manifestation of Christ's birth seems to have been arranged in a suitable order.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: As Augustine says (De Trin. ii), the Holy Ghost is said to have descended on Christ in a bodily shape, as a dove, not because the very substance of the Holy Ghost was seen, for He is invisible: nor as though that visible creature were assumed into the unity of the Divine Person; since it is not said that the Holy Ghost was the dove, as it is said that the Son of God is man by reason of the union. Nor, again, was the Holy Ghost seen under the form of a dove, after the manner in which John saw the slain Lamb in the Apocalypse (5:6): "For the latter vision took place in the spirit through spiritual images of bodies; whereas no one ever doubted that this dove was seen by the eyes of the body." Nor, again, did the Holy Ghost appear under the form of a dove in the sense in which it is said (1 Cor. 10:4): "'Now, the rock was Christ': for the latter had already a created existence, and through the manner of its action was called by the name of Christ, whom it signified: whereas this dove came suddenly into existence, to fulfil the purpose of its signification, and afterwards ceased to exist, like the flame which appeared in the bush to Moses."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: As to the miracles worked by others, Christ did greater still. Hence on Jn. 15:24: "If I had not done in Douay: 'among' them the works that no other men hath done," etc., Augustine says: "None of the works of Christ seem to be greater than the raising of the dead: which thing we know the ancient prophets also did . . . Yet Christ did some works 'which no other man hath done.' But we are told in answer that others did works which He did not, and which none other did . . . But to heal with so great a power so many defects and ailments and grievances of mortal men, this we read concerning none soever of the men of old. To say nothing of those, each of whom by His bidding, as they came in His way, He made whole . . . Mark saith (6:56): 'Whithersoever He entered, into towns or into villages or into cities, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought Him that they might touch but the hem of His garment: and as many as touched Him were made whole.' These things none other did in them; for when He saith 'In them,' it is not to be understood to mean 'Among them,' or 'In their presence,' but wholly 'In them,' because He healed them . . . Therefore whatever works He did in them are works that none ever did; since if ever any other man did any one of them, by His doing he did it; whereas these works He did, not by their doing, but by Himself."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Secondly, because the virtue of His Passion was to be spread over the whole world, He wished to suffer in the center of the habitable world---that is, in Jerusalem. Accordingly it is written (Ps. 73:12): "But God is our King before ages: He hath wrought salvation in the midst of the earth"---that is, in Jerusalem, which is called "the navel of the earth" [*Cf. Jerome's comment on Ezech. 5:5].


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, death is a punishment of sin, according to Rom. kjv@6:23: "The wages of sin is death." But men still die after Christ's Passion. Therefore it seems that we have not been delivered from the debt of punishment.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, Damascene says (De Fide Orth. iv): that "what we style as the Father's right hand, is the glory and honor of the Godhead, wherein the Son of God existed before ages as God and as consubstantial with the Father."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Christ's humanity according to the conditions of His nature has not the glory or honor of the Godhead, which it has nevertheless by reason of the Person with whom it is united. Hence Damascene adds in the passage quoted: "In which," that is, in the glory of the Godhead, "the Son of God existing before ages, as God and consubstantial with the Father, sits in His conglorified flesh; for, under one adoration the one hypostasis, together with His flesh, is adored by every creature."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Though the same thing can be signified by divers signs, yet to determine which sign must be used belongs to the signifier. Now it is God Who signifies spiritual things to us by means of the sensible things in the sacraments, and of similitudes in the Scriptures. And consequently, just as the Holy Ghost decides by what similitudes spiritual things are to be signified in certain passages of Scripture, so also must it be determined by Divine institution what things are to be employed for the purpose of signification in this or that sacrament.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As stated above 4496(A1), man is spiritually advanced by this sacrament to perfect age. Now the intention of nature is that everyone born corporally, should come to perfect age: yet this is sometimes hindered by reason of the corruptibility of the body, which is forestalled by death. But much more is it God's intention to bring all things to perfection, since nature shares in this intention inasmuch as it reflects Him: hence it is written (Dt. 32:4): "The works of God are perfect." Now the soul, to which spiritual birth and perfect spiritual age belong, is immortal; and just as it can in old age attain to spiritual birth, so can it attain to perfect (spiritual) age in youth or childhood; because the various ages of the body do not affect the soul. Therefore this sacrament should be given to all.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Some have fallen into various errors about the matter of this sacrament. Some, known as the Artotyrytae, as Augustine says (De Haeres. xxviii), "offer bread and cheese in this sacrament, contending that oblations were celebrated by men in the first ages, from fruits of the earth and sheep." Others, called Cataphrygae and Pepuziani, "are reputed to have made their Eucharistic bread with infants' blood drawn from tiny punctures over the entire body, and mixed with flour." Others, styled Aquarii, under guise of sobriety, offer nothing but water in this sacrament.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Now it is evident that the whole nature of a substance is under every part of the dimensions under which it is contained; just as the entire nature of air is under every part of air, and the entire nature of bread under every part of bread; and this indifferently, whether the dimensions be actually divided (as when the air is divided or the bread cut), or whether they be actually undivided, but potentially divisible. And therefore it is manifest that the entire Christ is under every part of the species of the bread, even while the host remains entire, and not merely when it is broken, as some say, giving the example of an image which appears in a mirror, which appears as one in the unbroken mirror, whereas when the mirror is broken, there is an image in each part of the broken mirror: for the comparison is not perfect, because the multiplying of such images results in the broken mirror on account of the various reflections in the various parts of the mirror; but here there is only one consecration, whereby Christ's body is in this sacrament.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 9: The Evangelists did not intend to hand down the forms of the sacraments, which in the primitive Church had to be kept concealed, as Dionysius observes at the close of his book on the ecclesiastical hierarchy; their object was to write the story of Christ. Nevertheless nearly all these words can be culled from various passages of the Scriptures. Because the words, "This is the chalice," are found in Lk. 22:20, and 1 Cor. 11:25, while Matthew says in chapter 26:28: "This is My blood of the New Testament, which shall be shed for many unto the remission of sins." The words added, namely, "eternal" and "mystery of faith," were handed down to the Church by the apostles, who received them from our Lord, according to 1 Cor. 11:23: "I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: But such a view cannot hold good, because then these words would not be applied to the corporeal matter present, and consequently the sacrament would not be valid: for Augustine says (Tract. lxxx in Joan.): "The word is added to the element, and this becomes a sacrament." Moreover this solution ignores entirely the difficulty which this question presents: for there is still the objection in regard to the first uttering of these words by Christ; since it is evident that then they were employed, not materially, but significatively. And therefore it must be said that even when spoken by the priest they are taken significatively, and not merely materially. Nor does it matter that the priest pronounces them by way of recital, as though they were spoken by Christ, because owing to Christ's infinite power, just as through contact with His flesh the regenerative power entered not only into the waters which came into contact with Christ, but into all waters throughout the whole world and during all future ages, so likewise from Christ's uttering these words they derived their consecrating power, by whatever priest they be uttered, as if Christ present were saying them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: The sin of the fornicator receiving Christ's body is likened to Judas kissing Christ, as to the resemblance of the sin, because each outrages Christ with the sign of friendship. but not as to the extent of the sin, as was observed above (ad 1). And this resemblance in crime applies no less to other sinners than to fornicators: because by other mortal sins, sinners act against the charity of Christ, of which this sacrament is the sign, and all the more according as their sins are graver. But in a measure the sin of fornication makes one more unfit for receiving this sacrament, because thereby especially the spirit becomes enslaved by the flesh, which is a hindrance to the fervor of love required for this sacrament.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Conjugal intercourse, if it be without sin, (for instance, if it be done for the sake of begetting offspring, or of paying the marriage debt), does not prevent the receiving of this sacrament for any other reason than do those movements in question which happen without sin, as stated above; namely, on account of the defilement to the body and distraction to the mind. On this account Jerome expresses himself in the following terms in his commentary on Matthew (Epist. xxviii, among St. Jerome's works): "If the loaves of Proposition might not be eaten by them who had known their wives carnally, how much less may this bread which has come down from heaven be defiled and touched by them who shortly before have been in conjugal embraces? It is not that we condemn marriages, but that at the time when we are going to eat the flesh of the Lamb, we ought not to indulge in carnal acts." But since this is to be understood in the sense of decency, and not of necessity, Gregory says that such a person "is to be left to his own judgment." "But if," as Gregory says (Regist. xi), "it be not desire of begetting offspring, but lust that prevails," then such a one should be forbidden to approach this sacrament.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 5: Various statutes have emanated according to the various ages of the Church. In the primitive Church, when the devotion of the Christian faith was more flourishing, it was enacted that the faithful should communicate daily: hence Pope Anaclete says (Ep. i): "When the consecration is finished, let all communicate who do not wish to cut themselves off from the Church; for so the apostles have ordained, and the holy Roman Church holds." Later on, when the fervor of faith relaxed, Pope Fabian (Third Council of Tours, Canon 1) gave permission "that all should communicate, if not more frequently, at least three times in the year, namely, at Easter, Pentecost, and Christmas." Pope Soter likewise (Second Council of Chalon, Canon xlvii) declares that Communion should be received "on Holy Thursday," as is set forth in the Decretals (De Consecratione, dist. 2). Later on, when "iniquity abounded and charity grew cold" (Mat. 24:12), Pope Innocent III commanded that the faithful should communicate "at least once a year," namely, "at Easter." However, in De Eccles. Dogmat. xxiii, the faithful are counseled "to communicate on all Sundays."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The celebration of this sacrament is called a sacrifice for two reasons. First, because, as Augustine says (Ad Simplician. ii), "the images of things are called by the names of the things whereof they are the images; as when we look upon a picture or a fresco, we say, 'This is Cicero and that is Sallust.'" But, as was said above (4695Q79, A1), the celebration of this sacrament is an image representing Christ's Passion, which is His true sacrifice. Accordingly the celebration of this sacrament is called Christ's sacrifice. Hence it is that Ambrose, in commenting on Heb. 10:1, says: "In Christ was offered up a sacrifice capable of giving eternal salvation; what then do we do? Do we not offer it up every day in memory of His death?" Secondly it is called a sacrifice, in respect of the effect of His Passion: because, to wit, by this sacrament, we are made partakers of the fruit of our Lord's Passion. Hence in one of the Sunday Secrets (Ninth Sunday after Pentecost) we say: "Whenever the commemoration of this sacrifice is celebrated, the work of our redemption is enacted." Consequently, according to the first reason, it is true to say that Christ was sacrificed, even in the figures of the Old Testament: hence it is stated in the Apocalypse (13:8): "Whose names are not written in the Book of Life of the Lamb, which was slain from the beginning of the world." But according to the second reason, it is proper to this sacrament for Christ to be sacrificed in its celebration.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The priest, in celebrating the mass, makes use of the sign of the cross to signify Christ's Passion which was ended upon the cross. Now, Christ's Passion was accomplished in certain stages. First of all there was Christ's betrayal, which was the work of God, of Judas, and of the Jews; and this is signified by the triple sign of the cross at the words, "These gifts, these presents, these holy unspotted sacrifices."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Those things which are done outwardly in the sacraments are the signs of what takes place inwardly: wherefore confession, whereby a man subjects himself to a priest, is a sign of the inward submission, whereby one submits to God. Now God hides the sins of those who submit to Him by Penance; wherefore this also should be signified in the sacrament of Penance, and consequently the sacrament demands that the confession should remain hidden, and he who divulges a confession sins by violating the sacrament. Besides this there are other advantages in this secrecy, because thereby men are more attracted to confession, and confess their sins with greater simplicity.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the suffrages of the Church are more efficacious than works done without charity. But, according to Augustine (Enchiridion cx), "the suffrages of the Church do not profit the damned in hell." Much less therefore are those pains mitigated by works done without charity.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 5: Further, pilgrimages and scourgings are also enjoined as works of satisfaction, and are not included among the above. Therefore they are not sufficiently enumerated.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that excommunication is unsuitably defined by some thus: "Excommunication is separation from the communion of the Church, as to fruit and general suffrages." For the suffrages of the Church avail for those for whom they are offered. But the Church prays for those who are outside the Church, as, for instance, for heretics and pagans. Therefore she prays also for the excommunicated, since they are outside the Church, and so the suffrages of the Church avail for them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, no one loses the suffrages of the Church except by his own fault. Now excommunication is not a fault, but a punishment. Therefore excommunication does not deprive a man of the general suffrages of the Church.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the fruit of the Church seems to be the same as the Church's suffrages, for it cannot mean the fruit of temporal goods, since excommunication does not deprive a man of these. Therefore there is no reason for mentioning both.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, there is a kind of excommunication called minor*, by which man is not deprived of the suffrages of the Church. [*Minor excommunication is no longer recognized by Canon Law.] Therefore this definition is unsuitable.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, stands the common custom of the Church in granting indulgences for pilgrimages and almsgiving.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: A man cannot exercise an act of jurisdiction on himself, but a prelate can avail himself of those things which are granted to others by the authority of his jurisdiction, both in temporal and in spiritual matters: thus also a priest gives himself the Eucharist which he gives to others. And so a bishop too can apply to himself the suffrages of the Church which he dispenses to others, the immediate effect of which suffrages, and not of his jurisdiction, is the remission of punishment by means of indulgences.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: The angels differ specifically [*Cf. 4909FP, Q50, A4]: for this reason it is possible for them to have various modes of receiving Divine things, and hence also they are divided into various hierarchies. But in men there is only one hierarchy, because they have only one mode of receiving Divine things, which results from the human species, namely through the images of sensible objects. Consequently the distinction of orders in the angels cannot bear any relation to a sacrament as it is with us, but only a relation to the hierarchical actions which among them each Order exercises on the Orders below. In this respect our Orders correspond to theirs; since in our hierarchy there are three Orders, distinguished according to the three hierarchical actions, even as in each angelic hierarchy.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The episcopal power stands in the same relation to the power of the lower Orders, as political science, which seeks the common good, to the lower acts and virtues which seek some special good, as appears from what was said above (4911Q37, A1). Now political science, as stated in Ethic. i, 2, lays down the law to lower sciences, namely what science each one ought to cultivate, and how far he should pursue it and in what way. Wherefore it belongs to a bishop to assign others to places in all the Divine services. Hence he alone confirms, because those who are confirmed receive the office, as it were, of confessing the faith; again he alone blesses virgins who are images of the Church, Christ's spouse, the care of which is entrusted chiefly to him; and he it is who consecrates the candidates for ordination to the ministry of Orders, and, by his consecration, appoints the vessels that they are to use; even as secular offices in various cities are allotted by him who holds the highest power, for instance by the king.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: Further, that which is of natural law is found in all men with regard to their every state. But matrimony was not in every state of man, for as Tully says (De Inv. Rhet.), "at the beginning men were savages and then no man knew his own children, nor was he bound by any marriage tie," wherein matrimony consists. Therefore it is not natural.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Nature inclines to marriage with a certain good in view, which good varies according to the different states of man, wherefore it was necessary for matrimony to be variously instituted in the various states of man in reference to that good. Consequently matrimony as directed to the begetting of children, which was necessary even when there was no sin, was instituted before sin; according as it affords a remedy for the wound of sin, it was instituted after sin at the time of the natural law; its institution belongs to the Mosaic Law as regards personal disqualifications; and it was instituted in the New Law in so far as it represents the mystery of Christ's union with the Church, and in this respect it is a sacrament of the New Law. As regards other advantages resulting from matrimony, such as the friendship and mutual services which husband and wife render one another, its institution belongs to the civil law. Since, however, a sacrament is essentially a sign and a remedy, it follows that the nature of sacrament applies to matrimony as regards the intermediate institution; that it is fittingly intended to fulfill an office of nature as regards the first institution; and. as regards the last-mentioned institution, that it is directed to fulfill an office of society.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: In the next place we must consider matrimony absolutely; and here we must treat (1) of the betrothal; (2) of the nature of matrimony; (3) of its efficient cause, namely the consent; (4) of its blessings; (5) of the impediments thereto; (6) of second marriages; (7) of certain things annexed to marriage.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: By this promise one party is bound to the other in respect of contracting marriage; and he who fulfills not his promise sins mortally, unless a lawful impediment arise; and the Church uses compulsion in the sense that she enjoins a penance for the sin. But he is not compelled by sentence of the court, because compulsory marriages are wont to have evil results; unless the parties be bound by oath, for then he ought to be compelled, in the opinion of some, although others think differently on account of the reason given above, especially if there be fear of one taking the other's life.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, there can be marriage between persons who are unable to express their mutual consent in words, through being dumb or of different languages. Therefore expression of the consent by words is not required for matrimony.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the Church does not forbid baptism to be given secretly, since one may baptize either privately or publicly. But the Church does forbid the celebration of clandestine marriages (cap. Cum inhibitio, De clandest. despons.). Therefore they cannot be done secretly.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, marriage cannot be contracted by those who are related in the second degree, because the Church has forbidden it. But the Church has also forbidden clandestine marriages. Therefore they cannot be valid marriages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Just as in the other sacraments certain things are essential to the sacrament, and if they are omitted there is no sacrament, while certain things belong to the solemnization of the sacrament, and if these be omitted the sacrament is nevertheless validly performed, although it is a sin to omit them; so, too, consent expressed in words of the present between persons lawfully qualified to contract makes a marriage, because these two conditions are essential to the sacrament; while all else belongs to the solemnization of the sacrament, as being done in order that the marriage may be more fittingly performed. Hence if these be omitted it is a true marriage, although the contracting parties sin, unless they have a lawful motive for being excused. [*Clandestine marriages have since been declared invalid by the Council of Trent (sess. xxiv). It must be borne in mind that throughout the treatise on marriage St. Thomas gives the Canon Law of his time.]


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: It is also forbidden to receive baptism otherwise than from a priest, except in a case of necessity. But matrimony is not a necessary sacrament: and consequently the comparison fails. However, clandestine marriages are forbidden on account of the evil results to which they are liable, since it often happens that one of the parties is guilty of fraud in such marriages; frequently, too, they have recourse to other nuptials when they repent of having married in haste; and many other evils result therefrom, besides which there is something disgraceful about them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: Clandestine marriages are not forbidden as though they were contrary to the essentials of marriage, in the same way as the marriages of unlawful persons, who are undue matter for this sacrament; and hence there is no comparison.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, no one should promise, especially with an oath, for one whom he cannot compel to keep the promise. Now parents promise future marriages for their children, and even confirm their promise by oath. Therefore they can compel their children to keep that promise.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: OF THE MARRIAGE GOODS* (SIX ARTICLES) [*"Bona matrimonii," variously rendered marriage goods, marriage blessings, and advantages of marriage.]


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: The contracting of a marriage between blood relations is annulled by the commandment forbidding such marriages, not precisely because it is a commandment of God or of the Church, but because it makes it impossible for the body of a kinswoman to be transferred into the power of her kinsman: whereas the commandment forbidding marriage after a simple vow has not this effect, as already stated. Hence the argument is void for it assigns as a cause that which is not cause.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, an ordinance of positive law should have some reasonable cause, since it is for this reasonable cause that it proceeds from the natural law. But the causes that are assigned for the number of degrees seem altogether unreasonable, since they bear no relation to their effect; for instance, that consanguinity be an impediment as far as the fourth degree on account of the four elements as far as the sixth degree on account of the six ages of the world, as far as the seventh degree on account of the seven days of which all time is comprised. Therefore seemingly this prohibition is of no force.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Further, even as of old the marriages of pagans were controlled by the civil law, so now is marriage controlled by the laws of the Church. Now formerly the civil law decided which degrees of consanguinity impede marriage, and which do not. Therefore this can be done now by a commandment of the Church.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (9) Whether marriages of persons related to one another by consanguinity or affinity should always be dissolved by divorce?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (10) Whether the process for the dissolution of like marriages should always be by way of accusation?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, In marriage there is a contract whereby one is bound to pay the other the marital debt: wherefore just as in other contracts, the bond is unfitting if a person bind himself to what he cannot give or do, so the marriage contract is unfitting, if it be made by one who cannot pay the marital debt. This impediment is called by the general name of impotence as regards coition, and can arise either from an intrinsic and natural cause, or from an extrinsic and accidental cause, for instance spell, of which we shall speak later 4984(A2). If it be due to a natural cause, this may happen in two ways. For either it is temporary, and can be remedied by medicine, or by the course of time, and then it does not void a marriage: or it is perpetual and then it voids marriage, so that the party who labors under this impediment remains for ever without hope of marriage, while the other may "marry to whom she will . . . in the Lord" (1 Cor. 7:39). In order to ascertain whether the impediment be perpetual or not, the Church has appointed a fixed time, namely three years, for putting the matter to a practical proof: and if after three years, during which both parties have honestly endeavored to fulfil their marital intercourse, the marriage remain unconsummated, the Church adjudges the marriage to be dissolved. And yet the Church is sometimes mistaken in this, because three years are sometimes insufficient to prove impotence to be perpetual. Wherefore if the Church find that she has been mistaken, seeing that the subject of the impediment has completed carnal copulation with another or with the same person, she reinstates the former marriage and dissolves the subsequent one, although the latter has been contracted with her permission. [*"Nowadays it is seldom necessary to examine too closely into this matter, as all cases arising from it are treated as far as possible under the form of dispensations of non-consummated marriages." Cf. Catholic Encyclopedia, article Canonical Impediments.]


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Since marriage is effected by way of a contract, it comes under the ordinance of positive law like other contracts. Consequently according to law (cap. Tua, De sponsal. impub.) it is determined that marriage may not be contracted before the age of discretion when each party is capable of sufficient deliberation about marriage, and of mutual fulfilment of the marriage debt, and that marriages otherwise contracted are void. Now for the most part this age is the fourteenth year in males and the twelfth year in women: but since the ordinances of positive law are consequent upon what happens in the majority of cases, if anyone reach the required perfection before the aforesaid age, so that nature and reason are sufficiently developed to supply the lack of age, the marriage is not annulled. Wherefore if the parties who marry before the age of puberty have marital intercourse before the aforesaid age, their marriage is none the less perpetually indissoluble.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that a believer can marry an unbeliever. For Joseph married an Egyptian woman, and Esther married Assuerus: and in both marriages there was disparity of worship, since one was an unbeliever and the other a believer. Therefore disparity of worship previous to marriage is not an impediment thereto.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Bodily fornication and unbelief have a special contrariety to the goods of marriage, as stated above 4997(A3). Hence they are specially effective in dissolving marriages. Nevertheless it must be observed that marriage is dissolved in two ways. In one way as to the marriage tie, and thus marriage cannot be dissolved after it is ratified, neither by unbelief nor by adultery. But if it be not ratified, the tie is dissolved, if the one party remain in unbelief, and the other being converted to the faith has married again. On the other hand the aforesaid tie is not dissolved by adultery, else the unbeliever would be free to give a bill of divorce to his adulterous wife, and having put her away, could take another wife, which is false. In another way marriage is dissolved as to the act, and thus it can be dissolved on account of either unbelief or fornication. But marriage cannot be dissolved even as to the act on account of other sins, unless perchance the husband wish to cease from intercourse with his wife in order to punish her by depriving her of the comfort of his presence.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, no one should be debarred from being present at such things as are becoming and lawful. Yet priests are debarred from being present at second marriages, as stated in the text (Sent. iv, D, 42). Therefore they are unlawful.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Further, the Apostle says (1 Tim. 5:14): "I will . . . that the younger," namely widows, "should marry, bear children." Therefore second marriages are lawful.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The marriage tie lasts only until death (Rom. 7:2), wherefore at the death of either spouse the marriage tie ceases: and consequently when one dies the other is not hindered from marrying a second time on account of the previous marriage. Therefore not only second marriages are lawful, but even third and so on.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Men who are consecrated to Divine things are debarred not only from unlawful things, but even from things which have any appearance of turpitude; and consequently they are debarred from second marriages, which lack the decorum which was in a first marriage.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, asking for the marriage debt is more unbecoming on feast days than the celebration of marriage. Yet the debt may be asked for on those days. Therefore also marriages may be solemnized.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, marriages that are contracted in despite of the law of the Church ought to be dissolved. Yet marriages are not dissolved if they be contracted at those times. Therefore it should not be forbidden by a commandment of the Church.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, When the newly married spouse is given to her husband, the minds of husband and wife are taken up with carnal preoccupations by reason of the very newness of things, wherefore weddings are wont to be signalized by much unrestrained rejoicing. On this account it is forbidden to celebrate marriages at those times when men ought especially to arise to spiritual things. Those times are from Advent until the Epiphany because of the Communion which, according to the ancient Canons, is wont to be made at Christmas (as was observed in its proper place, 5010TP, Q30), from Septuagesima until the octave day of Easter, on account of the Easter Communion, and from the three days before the Ascension until the octave day of Pentecost, on account of the preparation for Communion to be received at that time.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 5: The offspring, considered as one of the marriage goods, includes the keeping of faith with God, because the reason why it is reckoned a marriage good is because it is awaited with a view to its being brought up in the worship of God. Now the faith to be kept with God is of greater import than the faith to be kept with a wife, which is reckoned a marriage good, and than the signification which pertains to the sacrament, since the signification is subordinate to the knowledge of faith. Hence it is not unfitting if something is taken from the two other goods for the sake of the good of the offspring. Nor are they entirely done away, since there remains faith towards several wives; and the sacrament remains after a fashion, for though it did not signify the union of Christ with the Church as one, nevertheless the plurality of wives signified the distinction of degrees in the Church, which distinction is not only in the Church militant but also in the Church triumphant. Consequently their marriages signified somewhat the union of Christ not only with the Church militant, as some say, but also with the Church triumphant where there are "many mansions" [*Jn. 19:2].


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, Chrysostom [*Hom. xxxii in the Opus Imperfectum falsely ascribed to St. John Chrysostom] says that even as the apostles permitted second marriages, so Moses allowed the bill of divorce. But second marriages are not sinful. Therefore neither was it sinful under the Mosaic law to divorce a wife.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Among the things which precede the resurrection we must consider (1) the places appointed for the reception of bodies after death; (2) the quality of separated souls, and the punishment inflicted on them by fire; (3) the suffrages whereby the souls of the departed are assisted by the living; (4) the prayers of the saints in heaven; (5) the signs preceding the general judgment; (6) the fire of the world's final conflagration which will precede the appearance of the Judge.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, There are two ways of understanding a person to leave hell or heaven. First, that he goes from thence simply, so that heaven or hell be no longer his place: and in this way no one who is finally consigned to hell or heaven can go from thence, as we shall state further on (5028Q71, A5, ad 5). Secondly, they may be understood to go forth for a time: and here we must distinguish what befits them according to the order of nature, and what according to the order of Divine providence; for as Augustine says (De Cura pro Mort. xvi): "Human affairs have their limits other than have the wonders of the Divine power, nature's works differ from those which are done miraculously." Consequently, according to the natural course, the separated souls consigned to their respective abodes are utterly cut off from communication with the living. For according to the course of nature men living in mortal bodies are not immediately united to separate substances, since their entire knowledge arises from the senses: nor would it be fitting for them to leave their abode for any purpose other than to take part in the affairs of the living. Nevertheless, according to the disposition of Divine providence separated souls sometimes come forth from their abode and appear to men, as Augustine, in the book quoted above, relates of the martyr Felix who appeared visibly to the people of Nola when they were besieged by the barbarians. It is also credible that this may occur sometimes to the damned, and that for man's instruction and intimidation they be permitted to appear to the living; or again in order to seek our suffrages, as to those who are detained in purgatory, as evidenced by many instances related in the fourth book of the Dialogues. There is, however, this difference between the saints and the damned, that the saints can appear when they will to the living, but not the damned; for even as the saints while living in the flesh are able by the gifts of gratuitous grace to heal and work wonders, which can only be done miraculously by the Divine power, and cannot be done by those who lack this gift, so it is not unfitting for the souls of the saints to be endowed with a power in virtue of their glory, so that they are able to appear wondrously to the living, when they will: while others are unable to do so unless they be sometimes permitted.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, to see images of bodies, as occurs in sleep, belongs to imaginary vision which is in the sensitive part. Now it happens that the separated soul sees images of bodies in the same way as when we sleep. Thus Augustine says (Gen. ad lit. xii): "For I see not why the soul has an image of its own body when, the body lying senseless, yet not quite dead, it sees some things which many have related after returning to life from this suspended animation and yet has it not when it has left the body through death having taken place." For it is unintelligible that the soul should have an image of its body, except in so far as it sees that image: wherefore he said before of those who lie senseless that "they have a certain image of their own body, by which they are able to be borne to corporeal places and by means of sensible images to take cognizance of such things as they see." Therefore the separated soul can exercise the acts of the sensitive powers.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: Augustine speaks there as nearly throughout that book, as one inquiring and not deciding. For it is clear that there is no comparison between the soul of a sleeper and the separated soul: since the soul of the sleeper uses the organ of imagination wherein corporeal images are impressed; which cannot be said of the separated soul. Or we may reply that images of things are in the soul, both as to the sensitive and imaginative power and as to the intellective power, with greater or lesser abstraction from matter and material conditions. Wherefore Augustine's comparison holds in this respect that just as the images of corporeal things are in the soul of the dreamer or of one who is carried out of his mind, imaginatively, so are they in the separated soul intellectively: but not that they are in the separated soul imaginatively.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Hence others have said that although a corporeal fire cannot burn the soul, the soul nevertheless apprehends it as hurtful to itself, and in consequence of this apprehension is seized with fear and sorrow, in fulfillment of Ps. 13:5, "They have trembled for fear, where there was no fear." Hence Gregory says (Dial. iv, 29) that "the soul burns through seeing itself aflame." But this, again, seems insufficient, because in this case the soul would suffer from the fire, not in reality but only in apprehension: for although a real passion of sorrow or pain may result from a false imagination, as Augustine observes (Gen. ad lit. xii), it cannot be said in relation to that passion that one really suffers from the thing, but from the image of the thing that is present to one's fancy. Moreover, this kind of suffering would be more unlike real suffering than that which results from imaginary vision, since the latter is stated to result from real images of things, which images the soul carries about with it, whereas the former results from false fancies which the erring soul imagines: and furthermore, it is not probable that separated souls or demons, who are endowed with keen intelligence, would think it possible for a corporeal fire to hurt them, if they were nowise distressed thereby.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: We must now consider the suffrages for the dead. Under this head there are fourteen points of inquiry:


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (1) Whether suffrages performed by one person can profit others?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (3) Whether the suffrages of sinners profit the dead?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (4) Whether suffrages for the dead profit those who perform them?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (5) Whether suffrages profit those who are in hell?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (12) Whether suffrages for one dead person profit that person more than others?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (13) Whether suffrages for many avail each one as much as if they were offered for each individual?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: (14) Whether general suffrages avail those for whom special suffrages are not offered, as much as special and general suffrages together avail those for whom they are offered?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether the suffrages of one person can profit others?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that the suffrages of one person cannot profit others. For it is written (Gal. 6:8): "What things a man shall sow, those also shall he reap." Now if one person reaped fruit from the suffrages of another, he would reap from another's sowing. Therefore a person receives no fruit from the suffrages of others.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, it belongs only to one who is on the way to advance on account of some deed. Now after death men are no longer wayfarers, because to them the words of Job 19:8, refer: "He hath hedged in my path round about, and I cannot pass." Therefore the dead cannot be assisted by a person's suffrages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, no one is assisted by the deed of another, unless there be some community of life between them. Now there is no community between the dead and the living, as the Philosopher says (Ethic. i, 11). Therefore the suffrages of the living do not profit the dead.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary are the words of 2 Macc. 12:46: "It is . . . a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead that they may be loosed from sins." But this would not be profitable unless it were a help to them. Therefore the suffrages of the living profit the dead.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Further, Augustine says (De Cure pro Mort. i): "Of no small weight is the authority of the Church whereby she clearly approves of the custom whereby a commendation of the dead has a place in the prayers which the priests pour forth to the Lord God at His altar." This custom was established by the apostles themselves according to the Damascene in a sermon on suffrages for the dead [*De his qui in fide dormierunt, 3], where he expresses himself thus: "Realizing the nature of the Mysteries the disciples of the Saviour and His holy apostles sanctioned a commemoration of those who had died in the faith, being made in the awe-inspiring and life-giving Mysteries." This is also confirmed by the authority of Dionysius (Hier. Eccl.), where he mentions the rite of the Early Church in praying for the dead, and, moreover, asserts that the suffrages of the living profit the dead. Therefore we must believe this without any doubt.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Charity, which is the bond uniting the members of the Church, extends not only to the living, but also to the dead who die in charity. For charity which is the life of the soul, even as the soul is the life of the body, has no end: "Charity never falleth away" (1 Cor. 13:8). Moreover, the dead live in the memory of the living: wherefore the intention of the living can be directed to them. Hence the suffrages of the living profit the dead in two ways even as they profit the living, both on account of the bond of charity and on account of the intention being directed to them. Nevertheless, we must not believe that the suffrages of the living profit them so as to change their state from unhappiness to happiness or "vice versa"; but they avail for the diminution of punishment or something of the kind that involves no change in the state of the dead.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Or we may reply, according to John Damascene, in the sermon quoted above, that these words refer to the retribution which will be made at the final judgment, of eternal glory or eternal unhappiness: for then each one will receive only according as he himself has done in the body. Meanwhile, however, he can be assisted by the suffrages of the living.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages performed by sinners profit the dead?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that suffrages performed by sinners do not profit the dead. For, according to Jn. kjv@9:31, "God doth not hear sinners." Now if their prayers were to profit those for whom they pray, they would be heard by God. Therefore the suffrages performed by them do not profit the dead.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, Gregory says (Pastoral i, 11) that "when an offensive person is sent to intercede, the wrath of the angered party is provoked to harsher measures." Now every sinner is offensive to God. Therefore God is not inclined to mercy by the suffrages of sinners, and consequently their suffrages are of no avail.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 5: On the contrary, No man can know for certain about another man whether the latter be in a state of sin or of grace. If, therefore, only those suffrages were profitable that are done by those who are in a state of grace, a man could not know of whom to ask suffrages for his dead, and consequently many would be deterred from obtaining suffrages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 6: Further, according to Augustine (Enchiridion cix), as quoted in the text (Sent. iv, D, 45), the dead are assisted by suffrages according as while living they merited to be assisted after death. Therefore the worth of suffrages is measured according to the disposition of the person for whom they are performed. Therefore it would appear that it differs not whether they be performed by good or by wicked persons.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Two things may be considered in the suffrages performed by the wicked. First, the deed done, for instance the sacrifice of the altar. And since our sacraments have their efficacy from themselves independently of the deed of the doer, and are equally efficacious by whomsoever they are performed, in this respect the suffrages of the wicked profit the departed. Secondly, we may consider the deed of the doer, and then we must draw a distinction; because the deed of a sinner who offers suffrage may be considered---in one way in so far as it is his own deed, and thus it can nowise be meritorious either to himself or to another; in another way in so far as it is another's deed, and this happens in two ways. First, when the sinner, offering suffrages, represents the whole Church; for instance a priest when he performs the burial service in church. And since one in whose name or in whose stead a thing is done is understood to do it himself as Dionysius asserts (Coel. Hier. xiii), it follows that the suffrages of that priest, albeit a sinner, profit the departed. Secondly, when he acts as the instrument of another: for the work of the instrument belongs more to the principal agent. Wherefore, although he who acts as the instrument of another be not in a state of merit, his act may be meritorious on account of the principal agent: for instance if a servant being in sin do any work of mercy at the command of his master who has charity. Hence, if a person dying in charity command suffrages to be offered for him, or if some other person having charity prescribe them, those suffrages avail for the departed, even though the persons by whom they are performed be in sin. Nevertheless they would avail more if those persons were in charity, because then those works would be meritorious on two counts.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The reason why the sinner who performs these suffrages gains nothing thereby is because he is not capable of profiting by reason of his own indisposition. Nevertheless, as stated above, it may in some way profit another, who is disposed.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Since, however, the arguments in the contrary sense would seem to show that it matters not whether one obtain suffrages from good or from evil persons, we must reply to them also.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 6: In order that suffrage avail another, it is requisite that the one for whom it is performed be capable of availing by it: and a man has become capable of this by his own works which he did in his life-time. This is what Augustine means to say. Nevertheless, those works must be such that they can profit him, and this depends not on the person for whom the suffrage is performed, but rather on the one who offers the suffrages whether by performing them or by commanding them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages offered by the living for the dead profit those who offer them?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that suffrages offered by the living for the dead do not profit those who offer them. For according to human justice a man is not absolved from his own debt if he pay a debt for another man. Therefore a man is not absolved from his own debt for the reason that by offering suffrages he has paid the debt of the one for whom he offered them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, whatever a man does, he should do it as best he can. Now it is better to assist two than one. Therefore if one who by suffrages has paid the debt of a dead person is freed from his own debt, it would seem that one ought never to satisfy for oneself, but always for another.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, It is written (Ps. 34:13): "My prayer shall be turned into my bosom." Therefore, in like manner, suffrages that are offered for others profit those who satisfy.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages profit those who are in hell?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that suffrages profit those who are in hell. For it is written (2 Macc. 12:40): "They found under the coats of the slain some of the donaries of the idols . . . which the law forbiddeth to the Jews," and yet we read further on (2 Macc. 12:43) that Judas "sent twelve thousand drachms of silver to Jerusalem . . . to be offered for the sins of the dead." Now it is clear that they sinned mortally through acting against the Law, and consequently that they died in mortal sin, and were taken to hell. Therefore suffrages profit those who are in hell.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, the text (Sent. iv, D, 45) quotes the saying of Augustine (Enchiridion cx) that "those whom suffrages profit gain either entire forgiveness, or at least an abatement of their damnation." Now only those who are in hell are said to be damned. Therefore suffrages profit even those who are in hell.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, Dionysius says (Eccl. Hier.): "If here the prayers of the righteous avail those who are alive, how much more do they, after death, profit those alone who are worthy of their holy prayers?" Hence we may gather that suffrages are more profitable to the dead than to the living. Now they profit the living even though they be in mortal sin, for the Church prays daily for sinners that they be converted to God. Therefore suffrages avail also for the dead who are in mortal sin.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, in the Lives of the Fathers (iii, 172; vi, 3) we read, and the Damascene relates in his sermon [*De his qui in fide dormierunt] that Macarius discovered the skull of a dead man on the road, and that after praying he asked whose head it was, and the head replied that it had belonged to a pagan priest who was condemned to hell; and yet he confessed that he and others were assisted by the prayers of Macarius. Therefore the suffrages of the Church profit even those who are in hell.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 5: Further, the Damascene in the same sermon relates that Gregory, while praying for Trajan, heard a voice from heaven saying to him: "I have heard thy voice, and I pardon Trajan": and of this fact the Damascene adds in the same sermon, "the whole East and West are witnesses." Yet it is clear that Trajan was in hell, since "he put many martyrs to a cruel death" [*De his qui fide dormierunt]. Therefore the suffrages of the Church avail even for those who are in hell.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, Dionysius says (Eccl. Hier. vii): "The high priest prays not for the unclean, because by so doing he would act counter to the Divine order," and consequently he says (Eccl. Hier. vii) that "he prays not that sinners be forgiven, because his prayer for them would not be heard." Therefore suffrages avail not those who are in hell.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Further, the text (Sent. iv, D, 45) quotes the words of Augustine (De Verb. A post. Serm. xxxii): "If a man depart this life without the faith that worketh by charity and its sacraments, in vain do his friends have recourse to such like acts of kindness." Now all the damned come under that head. Therefore suffrages profit them not.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, There have been three opinions about the damned. For some have said that a twofold distinction must be made in this matter. First, as to time; for they said that after the judgment day no one in hell will be assisted by any suffrage, but that before the judgment day some are assisted by the suffrages of the Church. Secondly, they made a distinction among those who are detained in hell. Some of these, they said, are very bad, those namely who have died without faith and the sacraments, and these, since they were not of the Church, neither "by grace nor, by name" [*Cf. Oratio ad Vesperas, Fer. ii, post Dom. Pass.] can the suffrages of the Church avail; while others are not very bad, those namely who belonged to the Church as actual members, who had the faith, frequented the sacraments and performed works generically good, and for these the suffrages of the Church ought to avail. Yet they were confronted with a difficulty which troubled them, for it would seem to follow from this (since the punishment of hell is finite in intensity although infinite in duration) that a multiplicity of suffrages would take away that punishment altogether, which is the error of Origen (Peri Archon. i; cf. Gregory, Moral. xxxiv): and consequently endeavored in various ways to avoid this difficulty.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Praepositivus [*Gilbert Prevostin, Chancellor of the See of Paris, A.D. 1205-9] said that suffrages for the damned can be so multiplied that they are entirely freed from punishment, not absolutely as Origen maintained, but for a time, namely till the judgment day: for their souls will be reunited to their bodies, and will be cast back into the punishments of hell without hope of pardon. But this opinion seems incompatible with Divine providence, which leaves nothing inordinate in the world. For guilt cannot be restored to order save by punishment: wherefore it is impossible for punishment to cease, unless first of all guilt be expiated: so that, as guilt remains for ever in the damned, their punishment will nowise be interrupted.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: For this reason the followers of Gilbert de la Porree devised another explanation. These said that the process in the diminution of punishments by suffrages is as the process in dividing a line, which though finite, is indefinitely divisible, and is never destroyed by division, if it be diminished not by equal but by proportionate quantities, for instance if we begin by taking away a quarter of the whole, and secondly, a quarter of that quarter, and then a quarter of this second quarter, and so on indefinitely. In like manner, they say by the first suffrage a certain proportion of the punishment is taken away, and by the second an equally proportionate part of the remainder. But this explanation is in many ways defective. First, because it seems that indefinite division which is applicable to continuous quantity cannot be transferred to spiritual quantity: secondly, because there is no reason why the second suffrage, if it be of equal worth, should diminish the punishment less than the first: thirdly, because punishment cannot be diminished unless guilt be diminished, even as it cannot be done away unless the guilt be done away: fourthly, because in the division of a line we come at length to something which is not sensible, for a sensible body is not indefinitely divisible: and thus it would follow that after many suffrages the remaining punishment would be so little as not to be felt, and thus would no longer be a punishment.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Hence others found another explanation. For Antissiodorensis [*William of Auxerre, Archdeacon of Beauvais] (Sent. iv, Tract. 14) said that suffrages profit the damned not by diminishing or interrupting their punishment, but by fortifying the person punished: even as a man who is carrying a heavy load might bathe his face in water, for thus he would be enabled to carry it better, and yet his load would be none the lighter. But this again is impossible, because according to Gregory (Moral. ix) a man suffers more or less from the eternal fire according as his guilt deserves; and consequently some suffer more, some less, from the same fire. wherefore since the guilt of the damned remains unchanged, it cannot be that he suffers less punishment. Moreover, the aforesaid opinion is presumptuous, as being in opposition to the statements of holy men, and groundless as being based on no authority. It is also unreasonable. First, because the damned in hell are cut off from the bond of charity in virtue of which the departed are in touch with the works of the living. Secondly, because they have entirely come to the end of life, and have received the final award for their merits, even as the saints who are in heaven. For the remaining punishment or glory of the body does not make them to be wayfarers, since glory essentially and radically resides in the soul. It is the same with the unhappiness of the damned, wherefore their punishment cannot be diminished as neither can the glory of the saints be increased as to the essential reward.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: However, we may admit, in a certain measure, the manner in which, according to some, suffrages profit the damned, if it be said that they profit neither by diminishing nor interrupting their punishment, nor again by diminishing their sense of punishment, but by withdrawing from the damned some matter of grief, which matter they might have if they knew themselves to be so outcast as to be a care to no one; and this matter of grief is withdrawn from them when suffrages are offered for them. Yet even this is impossible according to the general law, because as Augustine says (De Cura pro Mort. xiii)---and this applies especially to the damned---"the spirits of the departed are where they see nothing of what men do or of what happens to them in this life," and consequently they know not when suffrages are offered for them, unless this relief be granted from above to some of the damned in spite of the general law. This, however, is a matter of great uncertainty; wherefore it is safer to say simply that suffrages profit not the damned, nor does the Church intend to pray for them, as appears from the authors quoted above.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: The donaries to the idols were not found on those dead so that they might be taken as a sign that they were carried off in reverence to the idols: but they took them as conquerors because they were due to them by right of war. They sinned, however, venially by covetousness: and consequently they were not damned in hell, and thus suffrages could profit them. or we may say, according to some, that in the midst of fighting, seeing they were in danger, they repented of their sin, according to Ps. 77:34, "When He slew them, then they sought Him": and this is a probable opinion. Wherefore the offering was made for them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: In these words damnation is taken in a broad sense for any kind of punishment, so as to include also the punishment of purgatory which is sometimes entirely expiated by suffrages, and sometimes not entirety, but diminished.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Or we may say with some that Trajan's soul was not simply freed from the debt of eternal punishment, but that his punishment was suspended for a time, that is, until the judgment day. Nor does it follow that this is the general result of suffrages, because things happen differently in accordance with the general law from that which is permitted in particular cases and by privilege. Even so the bounds of human affairs differ from those of the miracles of the Divine power as Augustine says (De Cura pro Mort. xvi).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages profit those who are in purgatory?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that suffrages do not profit even those who are in purgatory. For purgatory is a part of hell. Now "there is no redemption in hell" [*Office of the Dead, Resp. vii], and it is written (Ps. 6:6), "Who shall confess to Thee in hell?" Therefore suffrages do not profit those who are in purgatory.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, the punishment of purgatory is finite. Therefore if some of the punishment is abated by suffrages, it would be possible to have such a great number of suffrages, that the punishment would be entirely remitted, and consequently the sin entirely unpunished: and this would seem incompatible with Divine justice.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, souls are in purgatory in order that they may be purified there, and being pure may come to the kingdom. Now nothing can be purified, unless something be done to it. Therefore suffrages offered by the living do not diminish the punishment of purgatory.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 4: Further, if suffrages availed those who are in purgatory, those especially would seem to avail them which are offered at their behest. Yet these do not always avail: for instance, if a person before dying were to provide for so many suffrages to be offered for him that if they were offered they would suffice for the remission of his entire punishment. Now supposing these suffrages to be delayed until he is released from punishment, they will profit him nothing. For it cannot be said that they profit him before they are discharged; and after they are fulfilled, he no longer needs them, since he is already released. Therefore suffrages do not avail those who are in purgatory.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, As quoted in the text (Sent. iv, D, 45), Augustine says (Enchiridion cx): "Suffrages profit those who are not very good or not very bad." Now such are those who are detained in purgatory. Therefore, etc.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The punishment of purgatory is intended to supplement the satisfaction which was not fully completed in the body. Consequently, since, as stated above (5036AA1,2; Q13, A2), the works of one person can avail for another's satisfaction, whether the latter be living or dead, the suffrages of the living, without any doubt, profit those who are in purgatory.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: It is not unreasonable that the punishment of those who are in purgatory be entirely done away by the multiplicity of suffrages. But it does not follow that the sins remain unpunished, because the punishment of one undertaken in lieu of another is credited to that other.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: Suffrages avail on two counts, namely the action of the agent [*"Ex opere operante" and "ex opere operato"] and the action done. By action done I mean not only the sacrament of the Church, but the effect incidental to that action---thus from the giving of alms there follow the relief of the poor and their prayer to God for the deceased. In like manner the action of the agent may be considered in relation either to the principal agent or to the executor. I say, then, that the dying person, as soon as he provides for certain suffrages to be offered for him, receives the full meed of those suffrages, even before they are discharged, as regards the efficacy of the suffrages that results from the action as proceeding from the principal agent. But as regards the efficacy of the suffrages arising from the action done or from the action as proceeding from the executor, he does not receive the fruit before the suffrages are discharged. And if, before this, he happens to be released from his punishment, he will in this respect be deprived of the fruit of the suffrages, and this will fall back upon those by whose fault he was then defrauded. For it is not unreasonable that a person be defrauded in temporal matters by another's fault---and the punishment of purgatory is temporal---although as regards the eternal retribution none can be defrauded save by his own fault.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages avail the children who are in limbo?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that suffrages avail the children who are in limbo. For they are not detained there except for another's sin. Therefore it is most becoming that they should be assisted by the suffrages of others.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, in the text (Sent. iv, D, 45) the words of Augustine (Enchiridion cx) are quoted: "The suffrages of the Church obtain forgiveness for those who are not very bad." Now children are not reckoned among those who are very bad, since their punishment is very light. Therefore the suffrages of the Church avail them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, The text (Sent. iv, D, 45) quotes Augustine as saying (Serm. xxxii, De Verb Ap.) that "suffrages avail not those who have departed hence without the faith that works by love." Now the children departed thus. Therefore suffrages avail them not.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Unbaptized children are not detained in limbo save because they lack the state of grace. Hence, since the state of the dead cannot be changed by the works of the living, especially as regards the merit of the essential reward or punishment, the suffrages of the living cannot profit the children in limbo.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages profit the saints in heaven?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that in some way suffrages profit the saints in heaven; on account of the words of the Collect in the Mass [*Postcommunion, Feast of St. Andrew, Apostle]: "Even as they" (i.e. the sacraments) "avail thy saints unto glory, so may they profit us unto healing." Now foremost among all suffrages is the sacrifice of the altar. Therefore suffrages profit the saints in heaven.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, the sacraments cause what they signify. Now the third part of the host, that namely which is dropped into the chalice, signifies those who lead a happy life in heaven. Therefore the suffrages of the Church profit those who are in heaven.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the saints rejoice in heaven not only in their own goods, but also in the goods of others: hence it is written (Lk. 15:10): "There is [Vulg.: 'shall be'] joy before the angels of God upon one sinner doing penance." Therefore the joy of the saints in heaven increases on account of the good works of the living: and consequently our suffrages also profit them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Further, to be assisted belongs to one who is in need. But the saints in heaven are without any need whatever. Therefore they are not assisted by the suffrages of the Church.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, Suffrage by its very nature implies the giving of some assistance, which does not apply to one who suffers no default: since no one is competent to be assisted except he who is in need. Hence, as the saints in heaven are free from all need, being inebriated with the plenty of God's house (Ps. 35:10), they are not competent to be assisted by suffrages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: The sense is not that an increase of meed or reward accrues to the saint from the suffrages offered by a person, but that this accrues to the offerer. Or we may reply that the blessed departed may derive a reward from suffrages through having, while living, provided for suffrage to be offered for himself, and this was meritorious for him.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 5: Further, in different Masses there is the same Sacrifice of the altar. If, therefore, sacrifice, and not the Mass, be reckoned among the suffrages, it would seem that the effect would be the same whatever Mass be said for a deceased person, whether in honor of the Blessed Virgin or of the Holy Ghost, or any other. Yet this seems contrary to the ordinance of the Church which has appointed a special Mass for the dead.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 6: Further, the Damascene (Serm.: De his qui in fide dormierunt) teaches that candles and oil should be offered for the dead. Therefore not only the offering of the sacrifice of the altar, but also other offerings should be reckoned among suffrages for the dead.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The suffrages of the living profit the dead in so far as the latter are united to the living in charity, and in so far as the intention of the living is directed to the dead. Consequently those whose works are by nature best adapted to assist the dead, which pertain chiefly to the communication of charity, or to the directing of one's intention to another person. Now the sacrament of the Eucharist belongs chiefly to charity, since it is the sacrament of ecclesiastical unity, inasmuch as it contains Him in Whom the whole Church is united and incorporated, namely Christ: wherefore the Eucharist is as it were the origin and bond of charity. Again, chief among the effects of charity is the work of almsgiving: wherefore on the part of charity these two, namely the sacrifice of the Church and almsgiving are the chief suffrages for the dead. But on the part of the intention directed to the dead the chief suffrage is prayer, because prayer by its very nature implies relation not only to the person who prays, even as other works do, but more directly still to that which we pray for. Hence these three are reckoned the principal means of succoring the dead, although we must allow that any other goods whatsoever that are done out of charity for the dead are profitable to them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: It is true that fasting can profit the departed by reason of charity, and on account of the intention being directed to the departed. Nevertheless, fasting does not by its nature contain anything pertaining to charity or to the directing of the intention, and these things are extrinsic thereto as it were, and for this reason Augustine did not reckon, while Gregory did reckon, fasting among the suffrages for the dead.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the indulgences of the Church profit those who are members of the Church. Now those who are in purgatory are members of the Church, else the suffrages of the Church would not profit them. Therefore it would seem that indulgences profit the departed.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, An indulgence may profit a person in two ways: in one way, principally; in another, secondarily. It profits principally the person who avails himself of an indulgence, who, namely, does that for which the indulgence is granted, for instance one who visits the shrine of some saint. Hence since the dead can do none of those things for which indulgences are granted, indulgences cannot avail them directly. However, they profit secondarily and indirectly the person for whom one does that which is the cause of the indulgence. This is sometimes feasible and sometimes not, according to the different forms of indulgence. For if the form of indulgence be such as this: "Whosoever does this or that shall gain so much indulgence," he who does this cannot transfer the fruit of the indulgence to another, because it is not in his power to apply to a particular person the intention of the Church who dispenses the common suffrages whence indulgences derive their value, as stated above (5040Q27, A3, ad 2). If, however, the indulgence be granted in this form: "Whosoever does this or that, he, his father, or any other person connected with him and detained in purgatory, will gain so much indulgence," an indulgence of this kind will avail not only a living but also a deceased person. For there is no reason why the Church is able to transfer the common merits, whereon indulgences are based, to the living and not to the dead. Nor does it follow that a prelate of the Church can release souls from purgatory just as he lists, since for indulgences to avail there must be a fitting cause for granting them, as stated above (5041Q26, A3).


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: That, moreover, burial in a sacred place profits the dead, does not result from the action done, but rather from the action itself of the doer: when, to wit, the dead person himself, or another, arranges for his body to be buried in a sacred place, and commends him to the patronage of some saint, by whose prayers we must believe that he is assisted, as well as to the suffrages of those who serve the holy place, and pray more frequently and more specially for those who are buried in their midst. But such things as are done for the display of the obsequies are profitable to the living, as being a consolation to them; and yet they can also profit the dead, not directly but indirectly, in so far as men are aroused to pity thereby and consequently to pray, or in so far as the outlay on the burial brings either assistance to the poor or adornment to the church: for it is in this sense that the burial of the dead is reckoned among the works of mercy.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 4: As Augustine says (De Cura pro Mort. iv), the devotion of the faithful is not fruitless when they arrange for their friends to be buried in holy places, since by so doing they commend their dead to the suffrages of the saints, as stated above.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages offered for one deceased person profit the person for whom they are offered more than others?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that suffrages offered for one deceased person are not more profitable to the one for whom they are offered, than to others. For spiritual light is more communicable than a material light. Now a material light, for instance of a candle, though kindled for one person only, avails equally all those who are gathered together, though the candle be not lit for them. Therefore, since suffrages are a kind of spiritual light, though they be offered for one person in particular, do not avail him any more than the others who are in purgatory.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 2: Further, as stated in the text (Sent. iv, D, 45), suffrages avail the dead "in so far as during this life they merited that they might avail them afterwards" [*St. Augustine, Enchiridion cx]. Now some merited that suffrages might avail them more than those for whom they are offered. Therefore they profit more by those suffrages, else their merits would be rendered unavailing.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the poor have not so many suffrages given them as the rich. Therefore if the suffrages offered for certain people profit them alone, or profit them more than others, the poor would be worse off: yet this is contrary to our Lord's saying (Lk. 6:20): "Blessed are ye poor, for yours is the kingdom of God."


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, Human justice is copied from Divine justice. But if a person pay another's debt human justice releases the latter alone. Therefore since he who offers suffrages for another pays the debt, in a sense, of the person for whom he offers them, they profit this person alone.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Further, just as a man by offering suffrages satisfies somewhat for a deceased person, so, too, sometimes a person can satisfy for a living person. Now where one satisfies for a living person the satisfaction counts only for the person for whom it is offered. Therefore one also who offers suffrages profits him alone for whom he offers them.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, There have been two opinions on this question. Some, like Praepositivus, have said that suffrages offered for one particular person do avail chiefly, not the person for whom they are offered, but those who are most worthy. And they instanced a candle which is lit for a rich man and profits those who are with him no less than the rich man himself, and perhaps even more, if they have keener sight. They also gave the instance of a lesson which profits the person to whom it is given no more than others who listen with him, but perhaps profits these others more, if they be more intelligent. And if it were pointed out to them that in this case the Church's ordinance in appointing certain special prayers for certain persons is futile, they said that the Church did this to excite the devotion of the faithful, who are more inclined to offer special than common suffrages, and pray more fervently for their kinsfolk than for strangers.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Others, on the contrary, said that suffrages avail more those for whom they are offered. Now both opinions have a certain amount of truth: for the value of suffrages may be gauged from two sources. For their value is derived in the first place from the virtue of charity, which makes all goods common, and in this respect they avail more the person who is more full of charity, although they are not offered specially for him. In this way the value of suffrages regards more a certain inward consolation by reason of which one who is in charity rejoices in the goods of another after death in respect of the diminution of punishment; for after death there is no possibility of obtaining or increasing grace, whereas during life the works of others avail for this purpose by the virtue of charity. In the second place suffrages derive their value from being applied to another person by one's intention. In this way the satisfaction of one person counts for another, and there can be no doubt that thus they avail more the person for whom they are offered: in fact, they avail him alone in this way, because satisfaction, properly speaking, is directed to the remission of punishment. Consequently, as regards the remission of punishment, suffrages avail chiefly the person for whom they are offered, and accordingly there is more truth in the second opinion than in the first.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Suffrages avail, after the manner of a light, in so far as they reach the dead, who thereby receive a certain amount of consolation: and this is all the greater according as they are endowed with a greater charity. But in so far as suffrages are a satisfaction applied to another by the intention of the offerer, they do not resemble a light, but rather the payment of a debt: and it does not follow, if one person's debt be paid, that the debt of others is paid likewise.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Such a merit is conditional, for in this way they merited that suffrages would profit them if offered for them, and this was merely to render themselves fit recipients of those suffrages. It is therefore clear that they did not directly merit the assistance of those suffrages, but made themselves fit by their preceding merits to receive the fruit of suffrages. Hence it does not follow that their merit is rendered unavailing.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether suffrages offered for several are of as much value to each one as if they had been offered for each in particular?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that suffrages offered for several are of as much value to each one as if they had been offered for each in particular. For it is clear that if one person receives a lesson he loses nothing if others receive the lesson with him. Therefore in like manner a person for whom a suffrage is offered loses nothing if some one else is reckoned together with him: and consequently if it be offered for several, it is of as much value to each one as if it were offered for each in particular.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, suffrages, especially of prayers, rely on the Divine power. But with God, just as it makes no difference whether He helps by means of many or by means of a few, so it differs not whether He assists many or a few. Therefore if the one same prayer be said for many, each one of them will receive as much assistance as one person would if that same prayer were said for him alone.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, If the value of suffrages be considered according as it is derived from the virtue of charity uniting the members of the Church together, suffrages offered for several persons avail each one as much as if they were offered for one alone, because charity is not diminished if its effect be divided among many, in fact rather is it increased; and in like manner joy increases through being shared by many, as Augustine says (Confess. viii). Consequently many in purgatory rejoice in one good deed no less than one does. On the other hand, if we consider the value of suffrages, inasmuch as they are a kind of satisfaction applied to the dead by the intention of the person offering them, then the suffrage for some person in particular avails him more than that which is offered for him in common with many others; for in this case the effect of the suffrages is divided in virtue of Divine justice among those for whom the suffrages are offered. Hence it is evident that this question depends on the first; and, moreover, it is made clear why special suffrages are appointed to be offered in the Church.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: Suffrages considered as works of satisfaction do not profit after the manner of an action as teaching does; for teaching, like any other action, produces its effect according to the disposition of the recipient. But they profit after the manner of the payment of a debt, as stated above (A12, ad 1); and so the comparison fails.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Since suffrages offered for one person avail others in a certain way, as stated 5042(A1), it follows that when Mass is said for one person, it is not unfitting for prayers to be said for others also. For these prayers are said, not that the satisfaction offered by one suffrage be applied to those others chiefly, but that the prayer offered for them in particular may profit them also.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Whether general suffrages avail those for whom special suffrages are not offered, as much as special suffrages avail those for whom they are offered in addition to general suffrages?


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 1: It would seem that general suffrages avail those for whom special suffrages are not offered, as much as special suffrages avail those for whom they are offered in addition to general suffrages. For in the life to come each one will be rewarded according to his merits. Now a person for whom no suffrages are offered merited to be assisted after death as much as one for whom special suffrages are offered. Therefore the former will be assisted by general suffrages as much as the latter by special and general suffrages.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 3: Further, the Eucharist is the chief of the suffrages of the Church. Now the Eucharist, since it contains Christ whole, has infinite efficacy so to speak. Therefore one offering of the Eucharist for all in general is of sufficient value to release all who are in purgatory: and consequently general suffrages alone afford as much assistance as special and general suffrages together.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: On the contrary, Two goods are more eligible than one. Therefore special suffrages, together with general suffrages, are more profitable to the person for whom they are offered than general suffrages alone.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The reply to this question depends on that which is given to the twelfth inquiry 5043(A12): for if the suffrages offered for one person in particular avail indifferently for all, then all suffrages are common; and consequently one for whom the special suffrages are not offered will be assisted as much as the one for whom they are offered, if he be equally worthy. On the other hand, if the suffrages offered for a person do not profit all indifferently, but those chiefly for whom they are offered, then there is no doubt that general and special suffrages together avail a person more than general suffrages alone. Hence the Master, in the text (Sent. iv, D, 45), mentions two opinions: one, when he says that a rich man derives from general, together with special suffrages, an equal profit to that which a poor man derives from special suffrages alone; for although the one receives assistance from more sources than the other, he does not receive a greater assistance: the other opinion he mentions when he says that a person for whom special suffrages are offered obtains a more speedy but not a more complete release, because each will be finally released from all punishment.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 1: As stated above (A12, ad 2) the assistance derived from suffrages is not directly and simply an object of merit, but conditionally as it were: hence the argument does not prove.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Although the power of Christ Who is contained in the Sacrament of the Eucharist is infinite, yet there is a definite effect to which that sacrament is directed. Hence it does not follow that the whole punishment of those who are in purgatory is expiated by one sacrifice of the altar: even so, by the one sacrifice which a man offers, he is not released from the whole satisfaction due for his sins, wherefore sometimes several Masses are enjoined in satisfaction for one sin. Nevertheless, if any thing from special suffrages be left over for those for whom they are offered (for instance if they need them not) we may well believe that by God's mercy this is granted to others for whom those suffrages are not offered, if they need them: as affirmed by Damascene (Serm.: De his qui in fide dormierunt) who says: "Truly God, forasmuch as He is just will adapt ability to the disabled, and will arrange for an exchange of deficiencies": and this exchange is effected when what is lacking to one is supplied by another.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 6: Further, the prayers of the whole heavenly court, if they could obtain anything, would be more efficacious than all the petitions of the Church here below. Now if the suffrages of the Church here below for some one in purgatory were to be multiplied, he would be wholly delivered from punishment. Since then the saints in heaven pray for those who are in purgatory on the same account as for us, if they obtain anything for us, their prayers would deliver entirely from punishment those who are in purgatory. But this is not true because, then the Church's suffrages for the dead would be unnecessary.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, The saints are said to pray for us in two ways. First, by "express" prayer, when by their prayers they seek a hearing of the Divine clemency on our behalf: secondly, by "interpretive" prayer, namely by their merits which, being known to God, avail not only them unto glory, but also us as suffrages and prayers, even as the shedding of Christ's blood is said to ask pardon for us. In both ways the saints' prayers considered in themselves avail to obtain what they ask, yet on our part they may fail so that we obtain not the fruit of their prayers, in so far as they are said to pray for us by reason of their merits availing on our behalf. But in so far as they pray for us by asking something for us in their prayers, their prayers are always granted, since they will only what God wills, nor do they ask save for what they will to be done; and what God wills is always fulfilled---unless we speak of His "antecedent" will, whereby "He wishes all men to be saved" [*Cf. 5047FP, Q19, A6, ad 1]. For this will is not always fulfilled; wherefore no wonder if that also which the saints will according to this kind of will be not fulfilled sometimes.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 6: The suffrages of the Church for the dead are as so many satisfactions of the living in lieu of the dead: and accordingly they free the dead from the punishment which the latter have not paid. But the saints in heaven are not in the state of making satisfaction; and consequently the parallel fails between their prayers and the suffrages of the Church.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, As Augustine says (Qq. lxxxiii, qu. 58) "as to the last age of the human race, which begins from our Lord's coming and lasts until the end of the world, it is uncertain of how many generations it will consist: even so old age, which is man's last age, has no fixed time according to the measure of the other ages, since sometimes alone it lasts as long a time as all the others." The reason of this is because the exact length of future time cannot be known except either by revelation or by natural reason: and the time until the resurrection cannot be reckoned by natural reason, because the resurrection and the end of the heavenly movement will be simultaneous as stated above 5060(A1). And all things that are foreseen by natural reason to happen at a fixed time are reckoned by movement: and it is impossible from the movement of the heaven to reckon its end, for since it is circular, it is for this very reason able by its nature to endure for ever: and consequently the time between this and the resurrection cannot be reckoned by natural reason. Again it cannot be known by revelation, so that all may be on the watch and ready to meet Christ: and for this reason when the apostles asked Him about this, Christ answered (Acts 1:7): "It is not for you to know the times or moments which the Father hath put in His own power," whereby, as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xviii, 53): "He scatters the fingers of all calculators and bids them be still." For what He refused to tell the apostles, He will not reveal to others: wherefore all those who have been misled to reckon the aforesaid time have so far proved to be untruthful; for some, as Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xviii, 53), stated that from our Lord's Ascension to His last coming 400 years would elapse, others 500, others 1,000. The falseness of these calculators is evident, as will likewise be the falseness of those who even now cease not to calculate.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, It is not possible to come to any certain conclusion about the truth of this question. It is, however, the more probable opinion that the whole of this judgment, whether as regards the inquiry, or as regards the accusation of the wicked and the approval of the good or again as regards the sentence on both, will take place mentally. For if the deeds of each individual were to be related by word of mouth, this would require an inconceivable length of time. Thus Augustine says (De Civ. Dei xx) that "if we suppose the book, from the pages of which all will be judged according to Apoc. 20, to be a material book, who will be able to conceive its size and length? or the length of time required for the reading of a book that contains the entire life of every individual?" Nor is less time requisite for telling by word of mouth the deeds of each individual, than for reading them if they were written in a material book. Hence, probably we should understand that the details set forth in Mat. 25 will be fulfilled not by word of mouth but mentally.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 3: The statement, "It is the last hour" and similar expressions that are to be found in Scripture do not enable us to know the exact length of time. For they are not intended to indicate a short length of time, but to signify the last state of the world, which is the last age of all, and it is not stated definitely how long this will last. Thus neither is fixed duration appointed to old age, which is the last age of man, since sometimes it is seen to last as long as or even longer than all the previous ages, as Augustine remarks (Qq. 83, qu. lviii). Hence also the Apostle (2 Thess. kjv@2:2) disclaims the false signification which some had given to his words, by believing that the day of the Lord was already at hand.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: But this reasoning is seemingly inconclusive. First, because the quiddity of the material substance, which the intellect abstracts, is not of the same nature as the quiddity of the separate substances, and consequently from the fact that our intellect abstracts the quiddities of material substances and knows them, it does not follow that it knows the quiddity of a separate substance, especially of the Divine essence, which more than any other is of a different nature from any created quiddity. Secondly, because granted that it be of the same nature, nevertheless the knowledge of a composite thing would not lead to the knowledge of a separate substance, except in the point of the most remote genus, namely substance: and such a knowledge is imperfect unless it reach to the properties of a thing. For to know a man only as an animal is to know him only in a restricted sense and potentially: and much less is it to know only the nature of substance in him. Hence to know God thus, or other separate substances, is not to see the essence of God or the quiddity of a separate substance, but to know Him in His effect and in a mirror as it were. For this reason Avicenna in his Metaphysics. propounds another way of understanding separate substances, to wit that separate substances are understood by us by means of intentions of their quiddities, such intentions being images of their substances, not indeed abstracted therefrom, since they are immaterial, but impressed thereby on our souls. But this way also seems inadequate to the Divine vision which we seek. For it is agreed that "whatever is received into any thing is therein after the mode of the recipient": and consequently the likeness of the Divine essence impressed on our intellect will be according to the mode of our intellect: and the mode of our intellect falls short of a perfect reception of the Divine likeness. Now the lack of perfect likeness may occur in as many ways, as unlikeness may occur. For in one way there is a deficient likeness, when the form is participated according to the same specific nature, but not in the same measure of perfection: such is the defective likeness in a subject that has little whiteness in comparison with one that has much. In another way the likeness is yet more defective, when it does not attain to the same specific nature but only to the same generic nature: such is the likeness of an orange-colored or yellowish object in comparison with a white one. In another way, still more defective is the likeness when it does not attain to the same generic nature, but only to a certain analogy or proportion: such is the likeness of whiteness to man, in that each is a being: and in this way every likeness received into a creature is defective in comparison with the Divine essence. Now in order that the sight know whiteness, it is necessary for it to receive the likeness of whiteness according to its specific nature, although not according to the same manner of being because the form has a manner of being in the sense other from that which it has in the thing outside the soul: for if the form of yellowness were received into the eye, the eye would not be said to see whiteness. In like manner in order that the intellect understand a quiddity, it is necessary for it to receive its likeness according to the same specific nature, although there may possibly not be the same manner of being on either side: for the form which is in the intellect or sense is not the principle of knowledge according to its manner of being on both sides, but according to its common ratio with the external object. Hence it is clear that by no likeness received in the created intellect can God be understood, so that His essence be seen immediately. And for this reason those who held the Divine essence to be seen in this way alone, said that the essence itself will not be seen, but a certain brightness, as it were a radiance thereof. Consequently neither does this way suffice for the Divine vision that we seek.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 15: There is a threefold medium both in bodily and in intellectual vision. The first is the medium "under which" the object is seen, and this is something perfecting the sight so as to see in general, without determining the sight to any particular object. Such is bodily light in relation to bodily vision; and the light of the active intellect in relation to the passive intellect, in so far as this light is a medium. The second is the light "by which" the object is seen, and this is the visible form whereby either sight is determined to a special object, for instance by the form of a stone to know a stone. The third is the medium "in which" it is seen; and this is something by gazing on which the sight is led to something else: thus by looking in a mirror it is led to see the things reflected in the mirror, and by looking at an image it is led to the thing represented by the image. In this way, too, the intellect from knowing an effect is led to the cause, or conversely. Accordingly in the heavenly vision there will be no third medium, so that, to wit, God be known by the images of other things, as He is known now, for which reason we are said to see now in a glass: nor will there be the second medium, because the essence itself of God will be that whereby our intellect will see God. But there will only be the first medium, which will upraise our intellect so that it will be possible for it to be united to the uncreated substance in the aforesaid manner. Yet this medium will not cause that knowledge to be mediate, because it does not come in between the knower and the thing known, but is that which gives the knower the power to know [*Cf. 5125FP, Q12, A5].


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Objection 5: Further, Gregory, commenting on Job kjv@4:16, "There stood one whose countenance I knew not," says (Moral. v): "Man who, had he been willing to obey the command, would have been spiritual in the flesh, became, by sinning, carnal even in mind." Now through becoming carnal in mind, "he thinks only of those things which he draws to his soul by the images of bodies" (Moral. v). Therefore when he will be spiritual in the flesh (which is promised to the saints after the resurrection), he will be able even in the flesh to see spiritual things. Therefore the same conclusion follows.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: Reply to Objection 2: Although the beauty of the thing seen conduces to the perfection of vision, there may be deformity of the thing seen without imperfection of vision: because the images of things whereby the soul knows contraries are not themselves contrary. Wherefore also God Who has most perfect knowledge sees all things, beautiful and deformed.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, There have been many opinions about the fire of hell. For some philosophers, as Avicenna, disbelieving in the resurrection, thought that the soul alone would be punished after death. And as they considered it impossible for the soul, being incorporeal, to be punished with a corporeal fire, they denied that the fire whereby the wicked are punished is corporeal, and pretended that all statements as to souls being punished in future after death by any corporeal means are to be taken metaphorically. For just as the joy and happiness of good souls will not be about any corporeal object, but about something spiritual, namely the attainment of their end, so will the torment of the wicked be merely spiritual, in that they will be grieved at being separated from their end, the desire whereof is in them by nature. Wherefore, just as all descriptions of the soul's delight after death that seem to denote bodily pleasure---for instance, that they are refreshed, that they smile, and so forth---must be taken metaphorically, so also are all such descriptions of the soul's suffering as seem to imply bodily punishment---for instance, that they burn in fire, or suffer from the stench, and so forth. For as spiritual pleasure and pain are unknown to the majority, these things need to be declared under the figure of corporeal pleasures and pains, in order that men may be moved the more to the desire or fear thereof. Since, however, in the punishment of the damned there will be not only pain of loss corresponding to the aversion that was in their sin, but also pain of sense corresponding to the conversion, it follows that it is not enough to hold the above manner of punishment. For this reason Avicenna himself (Met. ix) added another explanation, by saying that the souls of the wicked are punished after death, not by bodies but by images of bodies; just as in a dream it seems to a man that he is suffering various pains on account of such like images being in his imagination. Even Augustine seems to hold this kind of punishment (Gen. ad lit. xii, 32), as is clear from the text. But this would seem an unreasonable statement. For the imagination is a power that makes use of a bodily organ: so that it is impossible for such visions of the imagination to occur in the soul separated from the body, as in the soul of the dreamer. Wherefore Avicenna also that he might avoid this difficulty, said that the soul separated from the body uses as an organ some part of the heavenly body, to which the human body needs to be conformed, in order to be perfected by the rational soul, which is like the movers of the heavenly body---thus following somewhat the opinion of certain philosophers of old, who maintained that souls return to the stars that are their compeers. But this is absolutely absurd according to the Philosopher's teaching, since the soul uses a definite bodily organ, even as art uses definite instruments, so that it cannot pass from one body to another, as Pythagoras is stated (De Anima i, text. 53) to have maintained. As to the statement of Augustine we shall say below how it is to be answered (ad 2). However, whatever we may say of the fire that torments the separated souls, we must admit that the fire which will torment the bodies of the damned after the resurrection is corporeal, since one cannot fittingly apply a punishment to a body unless that punishment itself be bodily. Wherefore Gregory (Dial. iv) proves the fire of hell to be corporeal from the very fact that the wicked will be cast thither after the resurrection. Again Augustine, as quoted in the text of Sentent. iv, D, 44, clearly admits (De Civ. Dei xxi, 10) that the fire by which the bodies are tormented is corporeal. And this is the point at issue for the present. We have said elsewhere (5157Q70, A3) how the souls of the damned are punished by this corporeal fire.


    SummaTheologicaAquinas
    Found: I answer that, According to Augustine (De Civ. Dei xxi, 20,21), there have been some who predicted a delivery from eternal punishment not for all men, but only for Christians. although they stated the matter in different ways. For some said that whoever received the sacraments of faith would be immune from eternal punishment. But this is contrary to the truth, since some receive the sacraments of faith, and yet have not faith, without which "it is impossible to please God" (Heb. 11:6). Wherefore others said that those alone will be exempt from eternal punishment who have received the sacraments of faith, and professed the Catholic faith. But against this it would seem to be that at one time some people profess the Catholic faith, and afterwards abandon it, and these are deserving not of a lesser but of a greater punishment, since according to 2 Pet. kjv@2:21, "it had been better for them not to have known the way of justice than, after they have known it, to turn back." Moreover it is clear that heresiarchs who renounce the Catholic faith and invent new heresies sin more grievously than those who have conformed to some heresy from the first. And therefore some have maintained that those alone are exempt from eternal punishment, who persevere to the end in the Catholic faith, however guilty they may have been of other crimes. But this is clearly contrary to Holy Writ, for it is written (James 2:20): "Faith without works is dead," and (Mat. kjv@7:21) "Not every one that saith to Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: but he that doth the will of My Father Who is in heaven": and in many other passages Holy Scripture threatens sinners with eternal punishment. Consequently those who persevere in the faith unto the end will not all be exempt from eternal punishment, unless in the end they prove to be free from other crimes.


    GodIs
    Found: nkjv@Romans:6:23 @For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.


    ComdemnationOfLuther1520
    Found: 40. The souls freed from purgatory by the suffrages of the living are less happy than if they had made satisfactions by themselves.


    SolaFide2
    Found: nkjv@Romans:4:4 @ Now to him who works, the wages are not counted as grace but as debt.


    ZoeLife
    Found: kjv@Romans:6:23 @ For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


    ZoeLife
    Found: strkjv@John:4:36 @ And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life G2222 eternal: that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together.


    01FolpfBook
    Found: What I was seeing among many brethren at the street level was an encouraging level of general belief in Jesus Christ being Lord and Savior, but an excruciating lack of influence of that same faith upon their daily affairs and efforts that would get them out from under the types of situations that they were harmfully finding themselves in. Issues even as large as addiction, divorce and failing marriages, intemperate finances, suicidal thought, depressions, obsessive compulsions, hostile anger, continuing victim-hood, pornography, disputes and the like, things that believers in Christ Jesus should by now be making large supernatural strides against. Simply stated, what I fear most is "how can the faith of these multitudes of brethren be of any use to others and our Lord if seemingly it could not be of any use in their own situations"?


    01FolpfBook
    Found: In Peter (and his fellow disciples) however, we have the outline of a man that the majority of us can personally identify with; a man early on as we meet him strong in his convictions and bold in his attitudes and inclinations, a man yet prone to his own clumsy spiritual mistakes. He is a driven man however in the sudden burst of the confusion and despair at Calvary's end that could have gone on one of two directions: his own transformation (as spiritual as it sounded and as best as he himself could figure it all out) or the way soon to be directed for him by the Holy Spirit. Had the images now past and the life altering daily relationship leading to the Cross with his Lord not grabbed him so deeply to his soul he might have slipped from the truer course ahead; the course we too must not fear to consider.


    01FolpfBook
    Found: We need to add into our present consideration of the world's all consuming corruption and the position or proximity of the "like precious" believer to either contrasting extreme. It would be one thing to say that each believer is a new creature in Christ and has escaped the corruption; he/she is in the corruption but not of the corruption. Yet often we see the observable signs of the same corruption gnawing at their marriages, their addiction recoveries, their angers/rages/hostilities/impulses/compulsions/unforgiveness, sanity overwhelming depressions, etc..


    01FolpfBook
    Found:
  • CalledToGloryVirtue - There may not be a polite way to say this, so I will just say it: at present we are neither glorious nor virtuous; even at our best. I would go further to say that any virtue or glory we think that we do currently possess is an image that we alone have manufactured. Let me take it a step further still: it hasn't yet even entered into the mind of man the things that God has in store for those that love HIM. Consider well then the image that we have of ourselves, of others, of the Lord Himself, and the reliance we have upon those images in conducting our daily affairs. They are vulnerable, they are misrepresented, they are faulty, they are vain. A husband and wife barely know each other as to what they truly are let alone what they are in God's eyes. Images are largely error prone and manufactured. Can we say that we are ready to give those images up? Can we say that we've become courageous enough to start those images over from scratch? from God's uncorrupted vantage point? What then is God's vantage point?


  • 01FolpfBook
    Found:
  • ExceedingPromisesPartakersDivineNature - It must be considered that the glory and virtue to which we have been called by God is not proposed in the improvement of our corrupted nature free standing or in the sudden extraction of certain other bad eggs, it is in the each of us individually and corporately partaking of His uncorrupted form to the increasing exclusion (extinction) of ours even in the midst these bad often controlling eggs. This availability has been the promise all along and in the establishment and eventual fulfillment of this promise it has painstakingly had to be made known again and again that our nature just can not help us to get there. This process of disproving ours to reestablish His, generation after generation, has required considerable patience on God's part and on the part of the saints of each of those ages who have been brought to the doorstep of the promise to await it's final complete fulfillment.


  • 01FolpfBook
    Found: kjv@Ephesians:3:5 @ Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;


    01FolpfBook
    Found: kjv@Ephesians:2:7 @ That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.


    01FolpfBook
    Found: kjv@Ephesians:3:21 @ Unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.


    01FolpfBook
    Found: We need to add into our present consideration of the world's all consuming corruption and the position or proximity of the "like precious" believer to either contrasting extreme. It would be one thing to say that each believer is a new creature in Christ and has escaped the corruption; he/she is in the corruption but not of the corruption. Yet often we see the observable signs of the same corruption gnawing at their marriages, their addiction recoveries, their angers/rages/hostilities/impulses/compulsions/unforgiveness, sanity overwhelming depressions, etc..


    01FolpfBook
    Found: kjv@Romans:6:23 @ For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


    KnowledgeOfJesusChrist
    Found:
  • Advantages of


  • HallOfFaith
    Found: You'll notice the use of "worlds" plural. Most people would likely skip over it relying on the notion that all creation/the universe is framed by the word of God (it singularly is of course), but that is not the fullest part of the meaning to be understood. The Hebrew word is actually more likely pointing us to the concept of "ages"; the ages (periods of time) were framed by the word of God. There is not a period of time beginning to end that was not (past tense) framed otherwise. By faith we understand that.


    HallOfFaith
    Found: The good report to be obtained by us through faith from this is that God works HIS good pleasure of HIS unfathomable purposes regardless/despite the condition of man. Man is fallen, all men are of the same condition, yet HIS stated objective has always been to redeem mankind out of this helpless condition, HE has framed the course of these many ages in order to direct us toward just that.


    TheologyTerms
    Found:
    GENERAL REVELATION –– God's revelation of His person, glory, and attributes to all men in all ages through nature, conscience, and history, so that they are without excuse for not worshipping Him correctly and leading righteous lives; unlike special revelation, it is not verbal in character or redemptive in content


    VirtuousFaith
    Found:
  • CalledToGloryVirtue - There may not be a polite way to say this, so I will just say it: at present we are neither glorious nor virtuous; even at our best. I would go further to say that any virtue or glory we think that we do currently possess is an image that we alone have manufactured. Let me take it a step further still: it hasn't yet even entered into the mind of man the things that God has in store for those that love HIM. Consider well then the image that we have of ourselves, of others, of the Lord Himself, and the reliance we have upon those images in conducting our daily affairs. They are vulnerable, they are misrepresented, they are faulty, they are vain. A husband and wife barely know each other as to what they truly are let alone what they are in God's eyes. Images are largely error prone and manufactured. Can we say that we are ready to give those images up? Can we say that we've become courageous enough to start those images over from scratch? from God's uncorrupted vantage point? What then is God's vantage point?


  • DogmasOfTheCatholicChurch
    Found:
  • It is permissible and profitable to venerate images of the Saints.


  • TorreyGodsGrace
    Found: kjv@Ephesians:2:7 @ That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.


    TorreyGodsGrace
    Found: kjv@Ephesians:2:7 @ That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.


    SolaFide2b
    Found: nkjv@Romans:4:4 @ Now to him who works, the wages are not counted as grace but as debt.


    DoxaGlory
    Found: kjv@Ephesians:3:21 @ Unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.


    CouncilOfOrange
    Found: CONCLUSION. And thus according to the passages of holyscripture quoted above or the interpretations of the ancientFathers we must, under the blessing of God, preach andbelieve as follows. The sin of the first man has so impairedand weakened free will that no one thereafter can either loveGod as he ought or believe in God or do good for God's sake,unless the grace of divine mercy has preceded him. Wetherefore believe that the glorious faith which was given toAbel the righteous, and Noah, and Abraham, and Isaac, andJacob, and to all the saints of old, and which the ApostlePaul commends in extolling them kjv@Hebrews:11), was notgiven through natural goodness as it was before to Adam, butwas bestowed by the grace of God. And we know and alsobelieve that even after the coming of our Lord this grace isnot to be found in the free will of all who desire to bebaptized, but is bestowed by the kindness of Christ, as hasalready been frequently stated and as the Apostle Pauldeclares, "For it has been granted to you that for the sakeof Christ you should not only believe in him but also sufferfor his sake" kjv@Philippians:1:29). And again, "He who began a goodwork in you will bring it to completion at the day of JesusChrist" kjv@Philippians:1:6). And again, "For by grace you have beensaved through faith; and it is not your own doing, it is thegift of God" kjv@Ephesians:2:8). And as the Apostle says of himself,"I have obtained mercy to be faithful" ( kjv@1Corinthians:7:25, cf. 1Tim. 1:13). He did not say, "because I was faithful," but"to be faithful." And again, "What have you that you did notreceive?" ( kjv@1Corinthians:4:7). And again, "Every good endowment andevery perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Fatherof lights" kjv@James:1:17). And again, "No one can receiveanything except what is given him from heaven" kjv@John:3:27).There are innumerable passages of holy scripture which can bequoted to prove the case for grace, but they have beenomitted for the sake of brevity, because further exampleswill not really be of use where few are deemed sufficient.


    SolaScriptura
    Found: There is also a difficulty with the traditionalist view in that what is truthfully intended intellectually from the Bishopric does not always equate to the living fulfillment of it out in the public sector. For instance they can insist that the Church does not indulge in idol worship to its saints and fully intend that, but simply saying so doesn't stop any of the assembly from doing just that; in fact it might be reasonably argued that the Church practices encourages it regardless of its stated objective. There are many more of the same examples to be made.


    WestministerConfession
    Found: 8. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; (a) so as in all controversies of religion the Church is finally to appeal unto them. (b) But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God who have right unto, and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded, in the fear of God, to read and search them, (c) therefore they are to be translated into (15) the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come, (d) that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, (e) and, through patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope. (f)


    WestministerConfession
    Found: 6. Although the work of redemption was not actually wrought by Christ till after his incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefits thereof were communicated unto the elect, in all ages successively from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types, and sacrifices, wherein he was revealed, and signified to be the seed of the woman which should bruise the serpent's head, and the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world, being yesterday and today the same, and forever. (a)


    WestministerConfession
    Found: 7. As it is (89) of the law of nature that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his Word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath, to be kept holy unto him:a which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, (b) which in Scripture is called the Lord's day, (c) and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath. (d)


    WestministerConfession
    Found: 4. Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity forbidden (108) in the Word; (a) nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made (109) lawful by any law of man, or consent of parties, so as those persons may live together as man and wife. (b) (110) The man may not marry any of his wife's kindred nearer in blood than he may of his own, nor the woman of her husband's kindred nearer in blood than of her own. (c)


    HeidelbergDisputation
    Found: In the second place, it is clear from the words of the Psalmist kjv@Psalms:143:2), »Enter not into judgment with thy servant«, and kjv@Psalms:32:5, »I said: I will confess my transgressions to the Lord.« etc. But that these are not venial sins is clear because these passages state that confession and repentance are not necessary for venial sins. If, therefore, they are mortal sins and »all the saints intercede for them«, as it is stated in the same place, then the works of the saints are mortal sins. But the works of the saints are good works, wherefore they are meritorious for them only through the fear of their humble confession.


    HeidelbergDisputation
    Found: The second part is clear from what has been said above and from the verse in kjv@Hosea:13:9, »Israel, you are bringing misfortune upon yourself, for your salvation is alone with me,« and from similar passages.


    BelgicConfession
    Found:
    The Belgic Confession was originally composed in 1561 by Guido de Bres for the churches in Flanders and the Netherlands. It was adopted by a Reformed Synod at Emden, in 1571. During the Synod of Dordt in 1618-1619, several editions of the Confession in differing languages (French, Dutch, and Latin) were carefully examined and an official, revised edition was produced. According to Schaff, "It is, upon the whole, the best symbolical statement of the Calvinistic system of doctrine, with the exception of the Westminster Confession." 385



    SumOfSavingKnowledge
    Found: II. The sum of the covenant of redemption is this: God having freely chosen unto life a certain number of lost mankind, for the glory of his rich grace, did give them, before the world began, unto God the Son, appointed Redeemer, that, upon condition he would humble himself so far as to assume the human nature, of a soul and a body, unto personal union with his divine nature, and submit himself to the law, as surety for them, and satisfy justice for them, by giving obedience in their name, even unto the suffering of the cursed death of the cross, he should ransom and redeem them all from sin and death, and purchase unto them righteousness and eternal life, with all saving graces leading thereunto, to be effectually, by means of his own appointment, applied in due time to every one of them. This condition the Son of God (who is Jesus Christ our Lord) did accept before the world began, and in the fulness of time came into the world, was born of the Virgin Mary, subjected himself to the law, and completely paid the ransom on the cross: But by virtue of the foresaid bargain, made before the world began, he is in all ages, since the fall of Adam, still upon the work of applying actually the purchased benefits unto the elect; and that he doth by way of entertaining a covenant of free grace and reconciliation with them, through faith in himself; by which covenant, he makes over to every believer a right and interest to himself, and to all his blessings.


    SumOfSavingKnowledge
    Found: For this end, let these passages of scripture, among many others, serve to make the greatness of the sin of not believing in Christ appear; or, to make the greatness of the sin of refusing of the covenant of grace offered to us, in the offering of Christ unto us appear, let the fair offer of grace be looked upon as it is made, nkjv@Isaiah:55:3. Incline your ear, and come unto me, (saith the kjv@Lord:) hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David. That is, If ye will believe me, and be reconciled to me, I will, by covenant, give unto you Christ, and all saving graces in him: repeated nkjv@Acts:13:34.


    SumOfSavingKnowledge
    Found: 3. That the way of reconciliation was in all ages one and the same in substance, viz. by forgiving the sins of them who do acknowledge their sins and their enmity against God, and do seek reconciliation and remission of sins in Christ: "For God (saith he) was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself," by way of "not imputing their trespasses unto them."


    SumOfSavingKnowledge
    Found: For the first, viz. To convince the believer, in his judgment, of his obligation to keep the moral law, among many passages, take nkjv@Matthew:5:16.


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: To subscribe to ANGLICAN, send the command "subscribe anglican" in the body of a message to "listserv@american.edu". You may then send messages to "anglican@american.edu". Notice that the addresses for sign-on and posting are different.


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: It is a most invaluable part of that blessed "liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free," that in his worship different forms and usages may without offense be allowed, provided the substance of the Faith be kept entire; and that, in every Church, what cannot be clearly determined to belong to Doctrine must be referred to Discipline; and therefore, by common consent and authority, may be altered, abridged, enlarged, amended, or otherwise disposed of, as may seem most convenient for the edification of the people, "according to the various exigency of times and occasions."


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: (Silence may be kept after each Reading. One of the following Canticles, or one of those on pages 85-95 (Canticles 8-21), is sung or said after each Reading. If three Lessons are used, the Lesson from the Gospel is read after the second Canticle.)


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: (Then follows one of these sets of Suffrages)


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: ages A>


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: ages B>


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: (The Officiant begins the service with one or more of the following sentences of Scripture, or of those on pages 37-40;)


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: (or with the Service of Light on pages 109-112, and continuing with theappointed Psalmody;)


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: (Silence may be kept after each Reading. One of the following Canticles, or one of those on pages 47-52, or 85-95, is sung or said after each Reading. If three Lessons are used, the Lesson from the Gospel is read after the second Canticle.)


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: ages B>


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: (silence may be kept after each Reading. One of the following Canticles, or one of those on pages 47-52 (Canticles 1-7), is sung or said after each Reading. If three lessons are used, the Lesson from the Gospel is read after the second Canticle.)


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: For all the powers of heaven sing your praises, * and yours is the glory to ages of ages. Amen.


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found: Your ways are ways of righteousness and truth, * O King of all the ages.


    BookOfCommonPrayer
    Found:
      Then follows one of these sets of Suffrages*


      BookOfCommonPrayer
      Found: ages A>


      BookOfCommonPrayer
      Found: ages B>


      BookOfCommonPrayer
      Found: Almighty God, Father of all mercies,we your unworthy servants give you humble thanksfor all your goodness and loving-kindnessto us and to all whom you have made.We bless you for our creation, preservation,and all the blessings of this life;but above all for your immeasurable lovein the redemption of the world by our Lord Jesus Christ;for the means of grace, and for the hope of glory.And, we pray, give us such an awareness of your mercies,that with truly thankful hearts we may show forth your praise,not only with our lips, but in our lives,by giving up our selves to your service,and by walking before youin holiness and righteousness all our days;through Jesus Christ our Lord,to whom, with you and the Holy Spirit,be honor and glory throughout all ages. =Amen.=


      BookOfCommonPrayer
      Found: Blessed are you, O Lord, the God of our fathers, creatorof the changes of day and night, giving rest to the weary,renewing the strength of those who are spent, bestowingupon us occasions of song in the evening. As you haveprotected us in the day that is past, so be with us in thecoming night; keep us from every sin, every evil, and everyfear; for you are our light and salvation, and the strength ofour life. To you be glory for endless ages. =Amen.=


      BookOfCommonPrayer
      Found: Almighty, everlasting God, let our prayer in your sight be asincense, the lifting up of our hands as the evening sacrifice.Give us grace to behold you, present in your Word andSacraments, and to recognize you in the lives of those aroundus. Stir up in us the flame of that love which burned in theheart of your Son as he bore his passion, and let it burn in usto eternal life and to the ages of ages. =Amen.=


      BookOfCommonPrayer
      Found:
        The Officiant begins the service with one or more of the followingsentences of Scripture, or of those on pages 75-78;*


        BookOfCommonPrayer
        Found:
          or with the Service of Light on pages 109-112, and continuing with theappointed Psalmody;*


          BookOfCommonPrayer
          Found:
            Silence may be kept after each Reading. One of the following Canticles, or one of those on pages 47-52, or 85-95, is sung or said after each Reading. If three lessons are used, the Lesson from the Gospel is read after the second Canticle.*


            BookOfCommonPrayer
            Found:
              Then follows one of these sets of Suffrages*


              BookOfCommonPrayer
              Found: ages A>


              BookOfCommonPrayer
              Found: ages B>


              BookOfCommonPrayer
              Found: Almighty God, Father of all mercies,we your unworthy servants give you humble thanksfor all your goodness and loving-kindnessto us and to all whom you have made.We bless you for our creation, preservation,and all the blessings of this life;but above all for your immeasurable lovein the redemption of the world by our Lord Jesus Christ;for the means of grace, and for the hope of glory.And, we pray, give us such an awareness of your mercies,that with truly thankful hearts we may show forth your praise,not only with our lips, but in our lives,by giving up our selves to your service,and by walking before youin holiness and righteousness all our days;through Jesus Christ our Lord,to whom, with you and the Holy Spirit,be honor and glory throughout all ages. =Amen.=


              BookOfCommonPrayer
              Found:
                The proper antiphons on pages 43-44 and 80-82 may be used as refrainswith either of the invitatory Psalms.*


                BookOfCommonPrayer
                Found:
                  Antiphons drawn from the Psalms themselves, or from the openingsentences given in the Offices, or from other passages of Scripture may be used with the Psalms and biblical Canticles.*


                  BookOfCommonPrayer
                  Found: Almighty God, whose blessed Son our Savior Jesus Christ ascended far above all heavens that he might fill all things: Mercifully give us faith to perceive that, according to his promise, he abides with his Church on earth, even to the end of the ages; through the same Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, in glory everlasting. =Amen.=


                  BookOfCommonPrayer
                  Found: Almighty God, whos blessed Son our Savior Jesus Christascended far above all heavens that he might fill all things:Mercifully give us faith to perceive that, according to hispromise, he abides with his Church on earth, even to the endof the ages; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives andreigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, in gloryeverlasting. =Amen.=


                  BookOfCommonPrayer
                  Found: Almighty and everliving God, who in thy holy Word hast taught us to make prayers, and supplications, and to give thanks for all men: Receive these our prayers which we offer unto thy divine Magesty, beseeching thee to inspire continually the Universal Church with the spirit of truth, unity, and concord; and grant that all those who do confess thy holy Name may agree in the truth of thy holy Word, and live in unity and godly love.


                  BookOfCommonPrayer
                  Found:
                    The Celebrant may begin the Offertory with one of the sentences on pages 343-344, or with some other sentence of Scripture.*


                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                    Found: Through the great shepherd of thy flock, Jesus Christ ourLord; who after his resurrection sent forth his apostles topreach the Gospel and to teach all nations; and promised tobe with them always, even unto the end of the ages.


                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                    Found: Again and again, you called us to return. Through prophets and sages you revealed your righteous Law. And in the fullness of time you sent you only Son, born of a woman, to fulfill your Law, to open for is the way of freedom and peace.=By his blood, he reconciled us.By his wounds, we are healed.=


                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                    Found: And grant that we may find our inheritance with [the Blessed Virgin Mary, with patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and martyrs, (with &mdash.) and] all the saints whe have found favor with you in ages past. We praise you in union with them and give you glory through your Son Jesus Christ our Lord.


                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                    Found: Through the great shepherd of your flock, Jesus Christ our Lord; who after his resurrection sent forth his apostles to preach the Gospel and to teach all nations; and promised to be with them always, even to the end of the ages.


                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                    Found:
                      The petitions on pages 305-306 may be used.*


                      BookOfCommonPrayer
                      Found:
                        Where it is permitted by civil law that deacons may perform marriages, and no priest or bishop is available, a deacon may usefull names of the persons to be married are declared. Subsequently, only their Christian names are used.*


                        BookOfCommonPrayer
                        Found:
                          Then one or more of the following passages from Holy Scripture is read. If there is to be a Communion, a passage from the Gospel always concludes the Readings.*


                          BookOfCommonPrayer
                          Found:
                            The service continues with the Magnificat or one of the Psalms on pages 441-443.*


                            BookOfCommonPrayer
                            Found:
                              One or more of the following or other passages of Scripture are read*


                              BookOfCommonPrayer
                              Found:
                                At the burial of a child, the passages from Lamentations, 1 John, and John 6, together with Psalm 23, are recommended.*


                                BookOfCommonPrayer
                                Found:
                                  One or more of the following passages from Holy Scripture is read. Ifthere is to be a Communion, a passage from the Gospel alwaysconcludes the Readings.*


                                  BookOfCommonPrayer
                                  Found:
                                    If there is not to be a Communion, the Lord's Prayer is said here, and the service continues with the following prayer of intercession, or with one or more suitable prayers (see pages 487-489).*


                                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                                    Found:
                                      At the burial of a child, the passages from Lamentations, 1 John, and John 6, together with Psalm 23, are recommended.*


                                      BookOfCommonPrayer
                                      Found:
                                        One or more of the following passages from Holy Scripture is read. If there is to be a Communion, a passage from the Gospel always concludes the Readings.*


                                        BookOfCommonPrayer
                                        Found:
                                          If there is not to be a Communion, the Lord's Prayer is said here, and the service continues with the Prayers of the People, or with one or more suitable prayers (see pages 503-505).*


                                          BookOfCommonPrayer
                                          Found: Lord Jesus Christ, we commend to you our brother (sister) &N., who was reborn by water and the Spirit in Holy Baptism. Grant that =his= death may recall to us your victory over death, and be an occasion for us to renew our trust in your Father's love. Give us, we pray, the faith to follow where you have led the way; and where you live and reign with the Father and the Holy Spirit, to the ages of ages. =Amen.=


                                          BookOfCommonPrayer
                                          Found:
                                            The following anthem or one of those on pages 491-492 is sung or said*


                                            BookOfCommonPrayer
                                            Found:
                                            4. One or more passages of Holy Scripture are read. Psalms, hymns, or anthems may follow the readings. If there is to be a Communion, the last Reading is from the Gospel.



                                            BookOfCommonPrayer
                                            Found:
                                              Before the Gospel, there may be one or two Readings from Scripture. Any of the Readings, including the Gospel, may be selected from the Proper of the Day, or from the passages cited in the service. Other passages suitable to the circumstances may be substituted. Appropriate selections may be found in the service for the Ordination of a Deacon or in the Lectionary for Various Occasions.*


                                              BookOfCommonPrayer
                                              Found: Through the ages, Almighty God has moved his people to build houses of prayer and praise, and to set apart places for the ministry of his holy Word and Sacraments. With gratitude for the building (rebuilding, or adornment) of (=name of church=), we are now gathered to dedicate and consecrate it in God's Name.


                                              BookOfCommonPrayer
                                              Found: Lord God, hear us. Sanctify this Table dedicated to you. Let it be to us a sign of the heavenly Altar where you saints and angels praise you for ever. Accept here the continual recalling of the sacrifice of your Son. Grant that all who eat and drink at this holy Table may be fed and refreshed by his flesh and blood, be forgiven for their sins, united with one another, and strengthened for your service.=Blessed be your Name, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; now and for endless ages. Amen.=


                                              BookOfCommonPrayer
                                              Found: First Day: Morning Prayer =Beatus vir qui non abiit=1 Happy are they who have not walked in the counsel of/the wicked, nor lingered in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seats of the scornful!2 Their delight is in the law of the LORD, and they meditate on his law day and night.3 They are like trees planted by streams of water,bearing fruit in due season, with leaves that do not wither; * everything they do shall prosper.4 It is not so with the wicked; they are like chaff which the wind blows away.5 Therefore the wicked shall not stand upright when/judgment comes, * nor the sinner in the council of the righteous.6 For the LORD knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked is doomed. =Quare fremuerunt gentes?=1 Why are the nations in an uproar? Why do the peoples mutter empty threats?2 Why do the kings of the earth rise up in revolt,and the princes plot together, against the LORD and against his Anointed?3 "Let us break their yoke," they say; * "let us cast off their bonds from us."4 He whose throne is in heaven is laughing; the Lord has them in derision.5 Then he speaks to them in his wrath, * and his rage fills them with terror.6 "I myself have set my king * upon my holy hill of Zion."7 Let me announce the decree of the LORD: he said to me, "You are my Son; this day have I begotten you.8 Ask of me, and I will give you the nations for/your inheritance and the ends of the earth for your possession.9 You shall crush them with an iron rod and shatter them like a piece of pottery."10 And now, you kings, be wise; be warned, you rulers of the earth.11 Submit to the LORD with fear, and with trembling bow before him;12 Lest he be angry and you perish; * for his wrath is quickly kindled.13 Happy are they all * who take refuge in him! =Domine, quid multiplicati=1 LORD, how many adversaries I have! how many there are who rise up against me!2 How many there are who say of me, "There is no help for him in his God."3 But you, O LORD, are a shield about me; you are my glory, the one who lifts up my head.4 I call aloud upon the LORD, and he answers me from his holy hill;5 I lie down and go to sleep; I wake again, because the LORD sustains me.6 I do not fear the multitudes of people who set themselves against me all around.7 Rise up, O LORD; set me free, O my God; surely, you will strike all my enemies across the face, you will break the teeth of the wicked.8 Deliverance belongs to the LORD. Your blessing be upon your people! =Cum invocarem=1 Answer me when I call, O God, defender of my cause; * you set me free when I am hard-pressed; have mercy on me and hear my prayer.2 "You mortals, how long will you dishonor my glory; * how long will you worship dumb idols and run after false gods?"3 Know that the LORD does wonders for the faithful; * when I call upon the LORD, he will hear me.4 Tremble, then, and do not sin; speak to your heart in silence upon your bed.5 Offer the appointed sacrifices * and put your trust in the LORD.6 Many are saying,"Oh, that we might see better times!" * Lift up the light of your countenance upon us, O LORD.7 You have put gladness in my heart, more than when grain and wine and oil increase.8 I lie down in peace; at once I fall asleep; * for only you, LORD, make me dwell in safety. =Verba mea auribus=1 Give ear to my words, O LORD; consider my meditation.2 Hearken to my cry for help, my King and my God, for I make my prayer to you.3 In the morning, LORD, you hear my voice; early in the morning I make my appeal and watch for you.4 For you are not a God who takes pleasure in wickedness, and evil cannot dwell with you.5 Braggarts cannot stand in your sight; * you hate all those who work wickedness.6 You destroy those who speak lies; * the bloodthirsty and deceitful, O LORD, you abhor.7 But as for me, through the greatness of your mercy I will/go into your house; * I will bow down toward your holy temple in awe of you.8 Lead me, O LORD, in your righteousness,because of those who lie in wait for me; * make your way straight before me.9 For there is no truth in their mouth; * there is destruction in their heart;10 Their throat is an open grave; * they flatter with their tongue.11 Declare them guilty, O God; let them fall, because of their schemes.12 Because of their many transgressions cast them out, for they have rebelled against you.13 But all who take refuge in you will be glad; they will sing out their joy for ever.14 You will shelter them, so that those who love your Name may exult in you.15 For you, O LORD, will bless the righteous; you will defend them with your favor as with a shield.*First Day: Evening Prayer =Domine, ne in furore=1 LORD, do not rebuke me in your anger; * do not punish me in your wrath.2 Have pity on me, LORD, for I am weak; * heal me, LORD, for my bones are racked.3 My spirit shakes with terror; * how long, O LORD, how long?4 Turn, O LORD, and deliver me; * save me for your mercy's sake.5 For in death no one remembers you; * and who will give you thanks in the grave?6 I grow weary because of my groaning; every night I drench my bed and flood my couch with tears.7 My eyes are wasted with grief * and worn away because of all my enemies.8 Depart from me, all evildoers, for the LORD has heard the sound of my weeping.9 The LORD has heard my supplication; * the LORD accepts my prayer.10 All my enemies shall be confounded and quake with fear; * they shall turn back and suddenly be put to shame. =Domine, Deus meus=1 O LORD my God, I take refuge in you; * save and deliver me from all who pursue me;2 Lest like a lion they tear me in pieces and snatch me away with none to deliver me.3 O LORD my God, if I have done these things: if there is any wickedness in my hands,4 If I have repaid my friend with evil, * or plundered him who without cause is my enemy;5 Then let my enemy pursue and overtake me, * trample my life into the ground, and lay my honor in the dust.6 Stand up, O LORD, in your wrath; * rise up against the fury of my enemies.7 Awake, O my God, decree justice; * let the assembly of the peoples gather round you.8 Be seated on your lofty throne, O Most High; O LORD, judge the nations.9 Give judgment for me according to my/righteousness, O LORD, and according to my innocence, O Most High.10 Let the malice of the wicked come to an end,but establish the righteous; * for you test the mind and heart, O righteous God.11 God is my shield and defense; * he is the savior of the true in heart.12 God is a righteous judge; * God sits in judgment every day.13 If they will not repent, God will whet his sword; * he will bend his bow and make it ready.14 He has prepared his weapons of death; he makes his arrows shafts of fire.15 Look at those who are in labor with wickedness, who conceive evil, and give birth to a lie.16 They dig a pit and make it deep * and fall into the hole that they have made.17 Their malice turns back upon their own head; * their violence falls on their own scalp.18 I will bear witness that the LORD is righteous; * I will praise the Name of the LORD Most High. =Domine, Dominus noster=1 O LORD our Governor, how exalted is your Name in all the world!2 Out of the mouths of infants and children * your majesty is praised above the heavens.3 You have set up a stronghold against your adversaries, * to quell the enemy and the avenger.4 When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, * the moon and the stars you have set in their courses,5 What is man that you should be mindful of him? the son of man that you should seek him out?6 You have made him but little lower than the angels; * you adorn him with glory and honor;7 You give him mastery over the works of your hands; you put all things under his feet:8 All sheep and oxen, * even the wild beasts of the field,9 The birds of the air, the fish of the sea, * and whatsoever walks in the paths of the sea.10 O LORD our Governor, how exalted is you Name in all the world!Second Day: Morning Prayer =Confitebor tibi=1 I will give thanks to you, O LORD, with my whole heart; * I will tell of all your marvelous works.2 I will be glad and rejoice in you; I will sing to your Name, O Most High.3 When my enemies are driven back, they will stumble and perish at your presence.4 For you have maintained my right and my cause; * you sit upon your throne judging right.5 You have rebuked the ungodly and destroyed the wicked; you have blotted out their name for ever and ever.6 As for the enemy, they are finished, in perpetual ruin, their cities plowed under, the memory of them perished;7 But the LORD is enthroned for ever; * he has set up this throne for judgment.8 It is he who rules the world with righteousness; he judges the peoples with equity.9 The LORD will be a refuge for the oppressed, * a refuge in time of trouble.10 Those who know your Name will put their trust in you, for you never forsake those who seek you, O LORD.11 Sing praise to the LORD who dwells in Zion; * proclaim to the peoples the things he has done.12 The Avenger of blood will remember them; * he will not forget the cry of the afflicted.13 Have pity on me, O LORD; * see the misery I suffer from those who hate me, O you who lift me up from the gate of death;14 So that I may tell of all your praisesand rejoice in your salvation in the gates of the city of Zion.15 The ungodly have fallen into the pit they dug, and in the snare they set is their own foot caught.16 The LORD is known by his acts of justice; the wicked are trapped in the works of their own hands.17 The wicked shall be given over to the grave, * and also all the people that forget God.18 For the needy shall not always be forgotten, and the hope of the poor shall not perish for ever.19 Rise up, O LORD, let not the ungodly have the upper hand; * let them be judged before you.20 Put fear upon them, O LORD; * let the ungodly know they are but mortal. =Ut quid, Domine?=1 Why do you stand so far off, O LORD, and hide yourself in time of trouble?2 The wicked arrogantly persecute the poor, but they are trapped in the schemes they have devised.3 The wicked boast of their heart's desire; * the covetous curse and revile the LORD.4 The wicked are so proud that they care not for God; * their only thought is, "God does not matter."5 Their ways are devious at all times;your judgments are far above out of their sight; * they defy all their enemies.6 They say in their heart, "I shall not be shaken; * no harm shall happen to me ever."7 Their mouth is full of cursing, deceit, and oppression; * under their tongue are mischief and wrong.8 They lurk in ambush in public squaresand in secret places they murder the innocent; * they spy out the helpless.9 They lie in wait, like a lion in a covert;they lie in wait to seize upon the lowly; * they seize the lowly and drag them away in their net.10 The innocent are broken and humbled before them; * the helpless fall before their power.11 They say in their heart, "God has forgotten; * he hides his face; he will never notice."12 Rise up, O LORD;lift up your hand, O God; do not forget the afflicted.13 Why should the wicked revile God? why should they say in their heart, "You do not care"?14 Surely, you behold trouble and misery; you see it and take it into your own hand.15 The helpless commit themselves to you, for you are the helper of orphans.16 Break the power of the wicked and evil; * search out their wickedness until you find none.17 The LORD is King for ever and ever; * the ungodly shall perish from his land.18 The LORD will hear the desire of the humble; * you will strengthen their heart and your ears shall hear;19 To give justice to the orphan and oppressed, * so that mere mortals may strike terror no more. =In Domino confido=1 In the LORD have I taken refuge; * how then can you say to me, "Fly away like a bird to the hilltop;2 For see how the wicked bend the bowand fit their arrows to the string, to shoot from ambush at the true of heart.3 When the foundations are being destroyed, what can the righteous do?"4 The LORD is in his holy temple; * the LORD'S throne is in heaven.5 His eyes behold the inhabited world; his piercing eye weighs our worth.6 The LORD weighs the righteous as well as the wicked, but those who delight in violence he abhors.7 Upon the wicked he shall rain coals of fire and/burning sulphur; * a scorching wind shall be their lot.8 For the LORD is righteous;he delights in righteous deeds; * and the just shall see his face.Second Day: Evening Prayer =Salvum me fac=1 Help me, LORD, for there is no godly one left; * the faithful have vanished from among us.2 Everyone speaks falsely with his neighbor; with a smooth tongue they speak from a double heart.3 Oh, that the LORD would cut off all smooth tongues, and close the lips that utter proud boasts!4 Those who say, "With our tongue will we prevail; * our lips are our own; who is lord over us?"5 "Because the needy are oppressed,and the poor cry out in misery, I will rise up," says the LORD, "and give them the help they long for."6 The words of the LORD are pure words, * like silver refined from ore and purified seven times in the fire.7 O LORD, watch over us * and save us from this generation for ever.8 The wicked prowl on every side, and that which is worthless is highly prized by everyone. =Usquequo, Domine?=1 How long, O LORD?will you forget me for ever? * how long will you hide your face from me?2 How long shall I have perplexity in my mind,and grief in my heart, day after day? * how long shall my enemy triumph over me?3 Look upon me and answer me, O LORD my God; * give light to my eyes, lest I sleep in death;4 Lest my enemy say, "I have prevailed over him," * and my foes rejoice that I have fallen.5 But I put my trust in your mercy; * my heart is joyful because of your saving help.6 I will sing to the LORD, for he has dealt with me richly; * I will praise the Name of the Lord Most High. =Dixit insipiens=1 The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God." * All are corrupt and commit abominable acts; there is none who does any good.2 The LORD looks down from heaven upon us all, * to see if there is any who is wise, if there is one who seeks after God.3 Every one has proved faithless;all alike have turned bad; * there is none who does good; no, not one.4 Have they no knowledge, all those evildoers who eat up my people like bread and do not call upon the LORD?5 See how they tremble with fear, * because God is in the company of the righteous.6 Their aim is to confound the plans of the afflicted, but the LORD is their refuge.7 Oh, that Israel's deliverance would come out of Zion! when the LORD restores the fortunes of his people, Jacob will rejoice and Israel be glad.*Third Day: Morning Prayer =Domine, quis habitabit?=1 LORD, who may dwell in your tabernacle? who may abide upon your holy hill?2 Whoever leads a blameless life and does what is right, who speaks the truth from his heart.3 There is no guile upon his tongue;he does no evil to his friend; he does not heap contempt upon his neighbor.4 In his sight the wicked is rejected, * but he honors those who fear the LORD.5 He has sworn to do no wrong * and does not take back his word.6 He does not give his money in hope of gain, * nor does he take a bribe against the innocent.7 Whoever does these things shall never be overthrown. =Conserva me, Domine=1 Protect me, O God, for I take refuge in you; * I have said to the LORD, "You are my Lord, my good above all other."2 All my delight is upon the godly that are in the land, upon those who are noble among the people.3 But those who run after other gods * shall have their troubles multiplied.4 Their libations of blood I will not offer, nor take the names of their gods upon my lips.5 O LORD, you are my portion and my cup; * it is you who uphold my lot.6 My boundaries enclose a pleasant land; * indeed, I have a goodly heritage.7 I will bless the LORD who gives me counsel; * my heart teaches me, night after night.8 I have set the LORD always before me; * because he is at my right hand I shall not fall.9 My heart, therefore, is glad, and my spirit rejoices; my body also shall rest in hope.10 For you will not abandon me to the grave, nor let your holy one see the Pit.11 You will show me the path of life; * in your presence there is fullness of joy, and in your right hand are pleasures for evermore. =Exaudi, Domine=1 Hear my plea of innocence, O LORD;give heed to my cry; * listen to my prayer, which does not come from lying lips.2 Let my vindication come forth from your presence; let your eyes be fixed on justice.3 Weigh my heart, summon me by night, melt me down; you will find no impurity in me.4 I give no offense with my mouth as others do; * I have heeded the words of your lips.5 My footsteps hold fast to the ways of your law; * in your paths my feet shall not stumble.6 I call upon you, O God, for you will answer me; incline your ear to me and hear my words.7 Show me your marvelous loving-kindness, O Savior of those who take refuge at your right hand from those who rise up against them.8 Keep me as the apple of your eye; hide me under the shadow of your wings,9 From the wicked who assault me, * from my deadly enemies who surround me.10 They have closed their heart to pity, * and their mouth speaks proud things.11 They press me hard,now they surround me, * watching how they may cast me to the ground,12 Like a lion, greedy for its prey, and like a young lion lurking in secret places.13 Arise, O LORD; confront them and bring them down; deliver me from the wicked by your sword.14 Deliver me, O LORD, by your hand from those whose portion in life is this world;15 Whose bellies you fill with your treasure, * who are well supplied with children and leave their wealth to their little ones.16 But at my vindication I shall see your face; when I awake, I shall be satisfied, beholding/your likeness.*Third Day: Evening Prayer =Diligam te, Domine.=1 I love you, O LORD my strength, O LORD my stronghold, my crag, and my haven.2 My God, my rock in whom I put my trust, my shield, the horn of my salvation, and my refuge; you are worthy of praise.3 I will call upon the LORD, and so shall I be saved from my enemies.4 The breakers of death rolled over me, * and the torrents of oblivion made me afraid.5 The cords of hell entangled me, * and the snares of death were set for me.6 I called upon the LORD in my distress and cried out to my God for help.7 He heard my voice from his heavenly dwelling; * my cry of anguish came to his ears.8 The earth reeled and rocked; * the roots of the mountains shook; they reeled because of his anger.9 Smoke rose from his nostrilsand a consuming fire out of his mouth; hot burning coals blazed forth from him.10 He parted the heavens and came down with a storm cloud under his feet.11 He mounted on cherubim and flew; * he swooped on the wings of the wind.12 He wrapped darkness about him; he made dark waters and thick clouds his pavilion.13 From the brightness of his presence, through the clouds, burst hailstones and coals of fire.14 The LORD thundered out of heaven; * the Most High uttered his voice.15 He loosed his arrows and scattered them; he hurled thunderbolts and routed them.16 The beds of the seas were uncovered,and the foundations of the world laid bare, at your battle cry, O LORD, at the blast of the breath of your nostrils.17 He reached down from on high and grasped me; * he drew me out of great waters.18 He delivered me from my strong enemiesand from those who hated me; * for they were too mighty for me.19 They confronted me in the day of my disaster; * but the LORD was my support.20 He brought me out into an open place; * he rescued me because he delighted in me. =Et retribuet mihi=21 The LORD rewarded me because of my righteous dealing; * because my hands were clean he rewarded me;22 For I have kept the ways of the LORD * and have not offended against my God;23 For all his judgments are before my eyes, * and his decrees I have not put away from me;24 For I have been blameless with him * and have kept myself from iniquity;25 Therefore the LORD rewarded me according to my/righteous dealing, * because of the cleanness of my hands in his sight.26 With the faithful you show yourself faithful, O God; with the forthright you show yourself forthright.27 With the pure you show yourself pure, * but with the crooked you are wily.28 You will save a lowly people, but you will humble the haughty eyes.29 You, O LORD, are my lamp; * my God, you make my darkness bright.30 With you I will break down an enclosure; * with the help of my God I will scale any wall.31 As for God, his ways are perfect;the words of the LORD are tried in the fire; * he is a shield to all who trust in him.32 For who is God, but the LORD? who is the Rock, except our God?33 It is God who girds me about with strength * and makes my way secure.34 He makes me sure-footed like a deer * and lets me stand firm on the heights.35 He trains my hands for battle and my arms for bending even a bow of bronze.36 You have given me your shield of victory; * your right hand also sustains me; your loving care makes me great.37 You lengthen my stride beneath me, * and my ankles do not give way.38 I pursue my enemies and overtake them; * I will not turn back till I have destroyed them.39 I strike them down, and they cannot rise; * they fall defeated at my feet.40 You have girded me with strength for the battle; * you have cast down my adversaries beneath me; you have put my enemies to flight41 I destroy those who hate me;they cry out, but there is none to help them; * they cry to the LORD, but he does not answer.42 I beat them small like dust before the wind; * I trample them like mud in the streets.43 You deliver me from the strife of the peoples; * you put me at the head of the nations.44 A people I have not known shall serve me;no sooner shall they hear than they shall obey me; * strangers will cringe before me.45 The foreign peoples will lose heart; they shall come trembling out of their strongholds.46 The LORD lives Blessed is my Rock * Exalted is the God of my salvation!47 He is the God who gave me victory and cast down the peoples beneath me.48 You rescued me from the fury of my enemies;you exalted me above those who rose against me; you saved me from my deadly foe.49 Therefore will I extol you among the nations, O LORD, and sing praises to your Name.50 He multiplies the victories of his king; he shows loving-kindness to his anointed, to David and his descendants for ever.*Fourth Day: Morning Prayer =Caeli enarrant=1 The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament shows his handiwork.2 One day tells its tale to another, * and one night imparts knowledge to another.3 Although they have no words or language, * and their voices are not heard,4 Their sound has gone out into all lands, and their message to the ends of the world.5 In the deep has he set a pavilion for the sun; * it comes forth like a bridegroom out of his chamber; it rejoices like a champion to run its course.6 It goes forth from the uttermost edge of the heavensand runs about to the end of it again; * nothing is hidden from its burning heat.7 The law of the LORD is perfect/and revives the soul; * the testimony of the LORD is sure/and gives wisdom to the innocent.8 The statutes of the LORD are just/and rejoice the heart; * the commandment of the LORD is clear/and gives light to the eyes.9 The fear of the LORD is clean/and endures for ever; the judgments of the LORD are true/and righteous altogether.10 More to be desired are they than gold,/more than much fine gold, * sweeter far than honey,/than honey in the comb.11 By them also is your servant enlightened, * and in keeping them there is great reward.12 Who can tell how often he offends? cleanse me from my secret faults.13 Above all, keep your servant from presumptuous sins;let them not get dominion over me; then shall I be whole and sound, and innocent of a great offense.14 Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my/heart be acceptable in your sight, O LORD, my strength and my redeemer. =Exaudiat te Dominus=1 May the LORD answer you in the day of trouble, * the Name of the God of Jacob defend you;2 Send you help from his holy place * and strengthen you out of Zion;3 Remember all your offerings * and accept your burnt sacrifice;4 Grant you your heart's desire * and prosper all your plans.5 We will shout for joy at your victoryand triumph in the Name of our God; * may the LORD grant all your requests.6 Now I know that the LORD gives victory to his anointed; he will answer him out of his holy heaven, with the victorious strength of his right hand.7 Some put their trust in chariots and some in horses, * but we will call upon the Name of the LORD our God.8 They collapse and fall down, * but we will arise and stand upright.9 O LORD, give victory to the king and answer us when we call. =Domine, in virtute tua=1 The king rejoices in your strength, O LORD; * how greatly he exults in your victory!2 You have given him his heart's desire; * you have not denied him the request of his lips.3 For you meet him with blessings of prosperity, and set a crown of fine gold upon his head.4 He asked you for life, and you gave it to him: length of days, for ever and ever.5 His honor is great, because of your victory; splendor and majesty have you bestowed upon him.6 For you will give him everlasting felicity and will make him glad with the joy of your presence.7 For the king puts his trust in the LORD; * because of the loving-kindness of the Most High, he/will not fall.8 Your hand will lay hold upon all your enemies; your right hand will seize all those who hate you.9 You will make them like a fiery furnace at the time of your appearing, O LORD;10 You will swallow them up in your wrath, and fire shall consume them.11 You will destroy their offspring from the land * and their descendants from among the peoples of the earth.12 Though they intend evil against youand devise wicked schemes, * yet they shall not prevail.13 For you will put them to flight and aim your arrows at them.14 Be exalted, O LORD, in your might; * we will sing and praise your power.Fourth Day: Evening Prayer =Deus, Deus meus=1 My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? * and are so far from my cry and from the words of my distress?2 O my God, I cry in the daytime, but you do not answer; by night as well, but I find no rest.3 Yet you are the Holy One, enthroned upon the praises of Israel.4 Our forefathers put their trust in you; * they trusted, and you delivered them.5 They cried out to you and were delivered; they trusted in you and were not put to shame.6 But as for me, I am a worm and no man, scorned by all and despised by the people.7 All who see me laugh me to scorn; * they curl their lips and wag their heads, saying,8 "He trusted in the LORD; let him deliver him; let him rescue him, if he delights in him."9 Yet you are he who took me out of the womb, and kept me safe upon my mother's breast.10 I have been entrusted to you ever since I was born; you were my God when I was still in my/mother's womb.11 Be not far from me, for trouble is near, and there is none to help.12 Many young bulls encircle me; strong bulls of Bashan surround me.13 They open wide their jaws at me, like a ravening and a roaring lion.14 I am poured out like water;all my bones are out of joint; * my heart within my breast is melting wax.15 My mouth is dried out like a pot-sherd;my tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth; * and you have laid me in the dust of the grave.16 Packs of dogs close me in,and gangs of evildoers circle around me; * they pierce my hands and my feet; I can count all my bones.17 They stare and gloat over me; * they divide my garments among them; they cast lots for my clothing.18 Be not far away, O LORD; * you are my strength; hasten to help me.19 Save me from the sword, my life from the power of the dog.20 Save me from the lion's mouth, my wretched body from the horns of wild bulls.21 I will declare your Name to my brethren; * in the midst of the congregation I will praise you.22 Praise the LORD, you that fear him; * stand in awe of him, O offspring of Israel; all you of Jacob's line, give glory.23 For he does not despise nor abhor the poor in their poverty;neither does he hide his face from them; * but when they cry to him he hears them.24 My praise is of him in the great assembly; I will perform my vows in the presence of those who/worship him.25 The poor shall eat and be satisfied,and those who seek the LORD shall praise him: * "May your heart live for ever!"26 All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to/the LORD, and all the families of the nations bow before him.27 For kingship belongs to the LORD; * he rules over the nations.28 To him alone all who sleep in the earth bow down/in worship; * all who go down to the dust fall before him.29 My soul shall live for him;my descendants shall serve him; they shall be known as the LORD'S for ever.30 They shall come and make known to a people yet unborn the saving deeds that he has done. =Dominus regit me=1 The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not be in want.2 He makes me lie down in green pastures and leads me beside still waters.3 He revives my soul * and guides me along right pathways for his Name's sake.4 Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,I shall fear no evil; * for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me.5 You spread a table before me in the presence of those/who trouble me; you have anointed my head with oil, and my cup is running over.6 Surely your goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days/of my life, * and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.*Fifth Day: Morning Prayer =Domini est terra=1 The earth is the LORD'S and all that is in it, the world and all who dwell therein.2 For it is he who founded it upon the seas * and made it firm upon the rivers of the deep.3 "Who can ascend the hill of the LORD? * and who can stand in his holy place?"4 "Those who have clean hands and a pure heart, * who have not pledged themselves to falsehood, nor sworn by what is a fraud.5 They shall receive a blessing from the LORD * and a just reward from the God of their salvation."6 Such is the generation of those who seek him, of those who seek your face, O God of Jacob.7 Lift up your heads, O gates;lift them high, O everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in.8 "Who is this King of glory?" "The LORD, strong and mighty, the LORD, mighty in battle."9 Lift up your heads, O gates;lift them high, O everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in.10 "Who is he, this King of glory?" "The LORD of hosts, he is the King of glory." =Ad te, Domine, levavi=1 To you, O LORD, I lift up my soul;my God, I put my trust in you; * let me not be humiliated, nor let my enemies triumph over me.2 Let none who look to you be put to shame; let the treacherous be disappointed in their schemes.3 Show me your ways, O LORD, * and teach me your paths.4 Lead me in your truth and teach me, for you are the God of my salvation; in you have I trusted all the day long.5 Remember, O LORD, your compassion and love, * for they are from everlasting.6 Remember not the sins of my youth and my transgressions; * remember me according to your love and for the sake of your goodness, O LORD.7 Gracious and upright is the LORD; therefore he teaches sinners in his way.8 He guides the humble in doing right * and teaches his way to the lowly.9 All the paths of the LORD are love and faithfulness * to those who keep his covenant and his testimonies.10 For your Name's sake, O LORD, * forgive my sin, for it is great.11 Who are they who fear the LORD? * he will teach them the way that they should choose.12 They shall dwell in prosperity, * and their offspring shall inherit the land.13 The LORD is a friend to those who fear him * and will show them his covenant.14 My eyes are ever looking to the LORD, * for he shall pluck my feet out of the net.15 Turn to me and have pity on me, for I am left alone and in misery.16 The sorrows of my heart have increased; bring me out of my troubles.17 Look upon my adversity and misery * and forgive me all my sin.18 Look upon my enemies, for they are many, and they bear a violent hatred against me.19 Protect my life and deliver me; let me not be put to shame, for I have trusted in you.20 Let integrity and uprightness preserve me, * for my hope has been in you.21 Deliver Israel, O God, out of all his troubles. =Judica me, Domine=1 Give judgment for me, O LORD,for I have lived with integrity; * I have trusted in the Lord and have not faltered.2 Test me, O LORD, and try me; * examine my heart and my mind.3 For your love is before my eyes; I have walked faithfully with you.4 I have not sat with the worthless, nor do I consort with the deceitful.5 I have hated the company of evildoers; I will not sit down with the wicked.6 I will wash my hands in innocence, O LORD, * that I may go in procession round your altar,7 Singing aloud a song of thanksgiving * and recounting all your wonderful deeds.8 LORD, I love the house in which you dwell * and the place where your glory abides.9 Do not sweep me away with sinners, nor my life with those who thirst for blood,10 Whose hands are full of evil plots, * and their right hand full of bribes.11 As for me, I will live with integrity; * redeem me, O LORD, and have pity on me.12 My foot stands on level ground; in the full assembly I will bless the LORD.*Fifth Day: Evening Prayer =Dominus illuminatio=1 The LORD is my light and my salvation;whom then shall I fear? * the LORD is the strength of my life; of whom then shall I be afraid?2 When evildoers came upon me to eat up my flesh, it was they, my foes and my adversaries, who/stumbled and fell.3 Though an army should encamp against me, yet my heart shall not be afraid;4 And though war should rise up against me, * yet will I put my trust in him.5 One thing have I asked of the LORD;one thing I seek; * that I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days/of my life;6 To behold the fair beauty of the LORD * and to seek him in his temple.7 For in the day of trouble he shall keep me safe/in his shelter; he shall hide me in the secrecy of his dwelling and set me high upon a rock.8 Even now he lifts up my head above my enemies round about me.9 Therefore I will offer in his dwelling an oblationwith sounds of great gladness; * I will sing and make music to the LORD.10 Hearken to my voice, O LORD, when I call; have mercy on me and answer me.11 You speak in my heart and say, "Seek my face." * Your face, LORD, will I seek.12 Hide not your face from me, nor turn away your servant in displeasure.13 You have been my helper;cast me not away; do not forsake me, O God of my salvation.14 Though my father and my mother forsake me, the LORD will sustain me.15 Show me your way, O LORD; lead me on a level path, because of my enemies.16 Deliver me not into the hand of my adversaries, * for false witnesses have risen up against me, and also those who speak malice.17 What if I had not believedthat I should see the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living!18 O tarry and await the LORD'S pleasure;be strong, and he shall comfort your heart; * wait patiently for the LORD. =Ad te, Domine=1 O LORD, I call to you;my Rock, do not be deaf to my cry; lest, if you do not hear me, I become like those who go down to the Pit.2 Hear the voice of my prayer when I cry out to you, * when I lift up my hands to your holy of holies.3 Do not snatch me away with the wicked or with the/evildoers, * who speak peaceably with their neighbors, while strife is in their hearts.4 Repay them according to their deeds, * and according to the wickedness of their actions.5 According to the work of their hands repay them, and give them their just deserts.6 They have no understanding of the LORD'S doings,nor of the works of his hands; therefore he will break them down and not/build them up.7 Blessed is the LORD! for he has heard the voice of my prayer.8 The LORD is my strength and my shield; * my heart trusts in him, and I have been helped;9 Therefore my heart dances for joy, * and in my song will I praise him.10 The LORD is the strength of his people, * a safe refuge for his anointed.11 Save your people and bless your inheritance; * shepherd them and carry them for ever. =Afferte Domino=1 Ascribe to the LORD, you gods, * ascribe to the LORD glory and strength.2 Ascribe to the LORD the glory due his Name; * worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness.3 The voice of the LORD is upon the waters;the God of glory thunders; * the LORD is upon the mighty waters.4 The voice of the LORD is a powerful voice; * the voice of the LORD is a voice of splendor.5 The voice of the LORD breaks the cedar trees; * the LORD breaks the cedars of Lebanon;6 He makes Lebanon skip like a calf, * and Mount Hermon like a young wild ox.7 The voice of the LORD splits the flames of fire;the voice of the LORD shakes the wilderness; the LORD shakes the wilderness of Kadesh.8 The voice of the LORD makes the oak trees writhe * and strips the forests bare.9 And in the temple of the LORD all are crying, "Glory!"10 The LORD sits enthroned above the flood; * the LORD sits enthroned as King for evermore.11 The LORD shall give strength to his people; the LORD shall give his people the blessing of peace.*Sixth Day: Morning Prayer =Exaltabo te, Domine=1 I will exalt you, O LORD,because you have lifted me up and have not let my enemies triumph over me.2 O LORD my God, I cried out to you, and you restored me to health.3 You brought me up, O LORD, from the dead; * you restored my life as I was going down to the grave.4 Sing to the LORD, you servants of his; give thanks for the remembrance of his holiness.5 For his wrath endures but the twinkling of an eye, * his favor for a lifetime.6 Weeping may spend the night, * but joy comes in the morning.7 While I felt secure, I said,"I shall never be disturbed. * You, LORD, with your favor, made me as strong as/the mountains."8 Then you hid your face, and I was filled with fear.9 I cried to you, O LORD; I pleaded with the Lord, saying,10 "What profit is there in my blood, if I go down to the Pit? will the dust praise you or declare your faithfulness?11 Hear, O LORD, and have mercy upon me; * O LORD, be my helper."12 You have turned my wailing into dancing; * you have put off my sack-cloth and clothed me with joy.13 Therefore my heart sings to you without ceasing; * O LORD my God, I will give you thanks for ever. =In te, Domine, speravi=1 In you, O LORD, have I taken refuge;let me never be put to shame; * deliver me in your righteousness.2 Incline your ear to me; * make haste to deliver me.3 Be my strong rock, a castle to keep me safe,for you are my crag and my stronghold; for the sake of your Name, lead me and guide me.4 Take me out of the net that they have secretly set for me, * for you are my tower of strength.5 Into your hands I commend my spirit, * for you have redeemed me, O LORD, O God of truth.6 I hate those who cling to worthless idols, and I put my trust in the LORD.7 I will rejoice and be glad because of your mercy; * for you have seen my affliction; you know my distress.8 You have not shut me up in the power of the enemy; * you have set my feet in an open place.9 Have mercy on me, O LORD, for I am in trouble; * my eye is consumed with sorrow, and also my throat and my belly.10 For my life is wasted with grief,and my years with sighing; * my strength fails me because of affliction, and my bones are consumed.11 I have become a reproach to all my enemies and/even to my neighbors,a dismay to those of my acquaintance; * when they see me in the street they avoid me.12 I am forgotten like a dead man, out of mind; * I am as useless as a broken pot.13 For I have heard the whispering of the crowd;fear is all around; * they put their heads together against me; they plot to take my life.14 But as for me, I have trusted in you, O LORD. * I have said, "You are my God.15 My times are in your hand; rescue me from the hand of my enemies, and from those who persecute me.16 Make your face to shine upon your servant, and in your loving-kindness save me."17 LORD, let me not be ashamed for having called upon you; * rather, let the wicked be put to shame; let them be silent in the grave.18 Let the lying lips be silenced which speak against/the righteous, * haughtily, disdainfully, and with contempt.19 How great is your goodness, O LORD!which you have laid up for those who fear you; * which you have done in the sight of all for those who put their trust in you.20 You hide them in the covert of your presence from those/who slander them; you keep them in your shelter from the strife of tongues.21 Blessed be the LORD! * for he has shown me the wonders of his love in a/besieged city.22 Yet I said in my alarm,"I have been cut off from the sight of your eyes." Nevertheless, you heard the sound of my entreaty when I cried out to you.23 Love the LORD, all you who worship him; the LORD protects the faithful, but repays to the full those who act haughtily.24 Be strong and let your heart take courage, * all you who wait for the LORD.*Sixth Day: Evening Prayer10 The righteous will be glad when they see the vengeance; * they will bathe their feet in the blood of the wicked.11 And they will say,"Surely, there is a reward for the righteous; surely, there is a God who rules in the earth."*Eleventh Day: Evening Prayer =Eripe me de inimicis=1 Rescue me from my enemies, O God; protect me from those who rise up against me.2 Rescue me from evildoers and save me from those who thirst for my blood.3 See how they lie in wait for my life,how the mighty gather together against me; * not for any offense or fault of mine, O LORD.4 Not because of any guilt of mine * they run and prepare themselves for battle.5 Rouse yourself, come to my side, and see; * for you, LORD God of hosts, are Israel's God.6 Awake, and punish all the ungodly; * show no mercy to those who are faithless and evil.7 They go to and fro in the evening; * they snarl like dogs and run about the city.8 Behold, they boast with their mouths,and taunts are on their lips; * "For who," they say, "will hear us?"9 But you, O LORD, you laugh at them; * you laugh all the ungodly to scorn.10 My eyes are fixed on you, O my Strength; * for you, O God, are my stronghold.11 My merciful God comes to meet me; * God will let me look in triumph on my enemies.12 Slay them, O God, lest my people forget; send them reeling by your might and put them down, O Lord our shield.13 For the sins of their mouths, for the words of their lips,for the cursing and lies that they utter, let them be caught in their pride.14 Make an end of them in your wrath; make an end of them, and they shall be no more.15 Let everyone know that God rules in Jacob, and to the ends of the earth.16 They go to and fro in the evening; * they snarl like dogs and run about the city.17 They forage for food, * and if they are not filled, they howl.18 For my part, I will sing of your strength; * I will celebrate your love in the morning;19 For you have become my stronghold, * a refuge in the day of my trouble.20 To you, O my Strength, will I sing; * for you, O God, are my stronghold and my merciful God. =Deus, repulisti nos=1 O God, you have cast us off and broken us; * you have been angry; oh, take us back to you again.2 You have shaken the earth and split it open; * repair the cracks in it, for it totters.3 You have made your people know hardship; you have given us wine that makes us stagger.4 You have set up a banner for those who fear you, * to be a refuge from the power of the bow.5 Save us by your right hand and answer us, * that those who are dear to you may be delivered.6 God spoke from his holy place and said: "I will exult and parcel out Shechem; I will divide the valley of Succoth.7 Gilead is mine and Manasseh is mine; * Ephraim is my helmet and Judah my scepter.8 Moab is my wash-basin,on Edom I throw down my sandal to claim it, and over Philistia will I shout in triumph."9 Who will lead me into the strong city? * who will bring me to Edom?10 Have you not cast us off, O God? * you no longer go out, O God, with our armies.11 Grant us your help against the enemy, * for vain is the help of man.12 With God we will do valiant deeds, and he shall tread our enemies under foot. =Exaudi, Deus=1 Hear my cry, O God, * and listen to my prayer.2 I call upon you from the ends of the earthwith heaviness in my heart; set me upon the rock that is higher than I.3 For you have been my refuge, a strong tower against the enemy.4 I will dwell in your house for ever; * I will take refuge under the cover of your wings.5 For you, O God, have heard my vows; * you have granted me the heritage of those/who fear your Name.6 Add length of days to the king's life; * let his years extend over many generations.7 Let him sit enthroned before God for ever; bid love and faithfulness watch over him.8 So will I always sing the praise of your Name, * and day by day I will fulfill my vows.*Twelfth Day: Morning Prayer =Nonne Deo?=1 For God alone my soul in silence waits; from him comes my salvation.2 He alone is my rock and my salvation, * my stronghold, so that I shall not be greatly shaken.3 How long will you assail me to crush me,all of you together, as if you were a leaning fence, a toppling wall?4 They seek only to bring me down from my place of honor; lies are their chief delight.5 They bless with their lips, but in their hearts they curse.6 For God alone my soul in silence waits; truly, my hope is in him.7 He alone is my rock and my salvation, my stronghold, so that I shall not be shaken.8 In God is my safety and my honor; God is my strong rock and my refuge.9 Put your trust in him always, O people, pour out your hearts before him, for God is our refuge.10 Those of high degree are but a fleeting breath, even those of low estate cannot be trusted.11 On the scales they are lighter than a breath, all of them together.12 Put no trust in extortion;in robbery take no empty pride; though wealth increase, set not your heart upon it.13 God has spoken once, twice have I heard it, * that power belongs to God.14 Steadfast love is yours, O Lord, for you repay everyone according to his deeds. =Deus, Deus meus=1 O God, you are my God; eagerly I seek you; my soul thirsts for you, my flesh faints for you, as in a barren and dry land where there is no water.2 Therefore I have gazed upon you in your holy place, that I might behold your power and your glory.3 For your loving-kindness is better than life itself; my lips shall give you praise.4 So will I bless you as long as I live * and lift up my hands in your Name.5 My soul is content, as with marrow and fatness, * and my mouth praises you with joyful lips,6 When I remember you upon my bed, * and meditate on you in the night watches.7 For you have been my helper, and under the shadow of your wings I will rejoice.8 My soul clings to you; your right hand holds me fast.9 May those who seek my life to destroy it go down into the depths of the earth;10 Let them fall upon the edge of the sword, * and let them be food for jackals.11 But the king will rejoice in God;all those who swear by him will be glad; * for the mouth of those who speak lies shall be stopped. =Exaudi, Deus=1 Hear my voice, O God, when I complain; protect my life from fear of the enemy.2 Hide me from the conspiracy of the wicked, * from the mob of evildoers.3 They sharpen their tongue like a sword, and aim their bitter words like arrows,4 That they may shoot down the blameless from ambush; * they shoot without warning and are not afraid.5 They hold fast to their evil course; they plan how they may hide their snares.6 They say, "Who will see us?who will find out our crimes? we have thought out a perfect plot."7 The human mind and heart are a mystery; * but God will loose an arrow at them, and suddenly they will be wounded.8 He will make them trip over their tongues, * and all who see them will shake their heads.9 Everyone will stand in awe and declare God's deeds; they will recognize his works.10 The righteous will rejoice in the LORD and put their trust in him, * and all who are true of heart will glory.*Twelfth Day: Evening Prayer =Te decet hymnus=1 You are to be praised, O God, in Zion; to you shall vows be performed in Jerusalem.2 To you that hear prayer shall all flesh come, * because of their transgressions.3 Our sins are stronger than we are, * but you will blot them out.4 Happy are they whom you chooseand draw to your courts to dwell there! * they will be satisfied by the beauty of your house, by the holiness of your temple.5 Awesome things will you show us in your righteousness,O God of our salvation, O Hope of all the ends of the earth and of the seas that are far away.6 You make fast the mountains by your power; they are girded about with might.7 You still the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves, and the clamor of the peoples.8 Those who dwell at the ends of the earth will tremble at your/marvelous signs; * you make the dawn and the dusk to sing for joy.9 You visit the earth and water it abundantly;you make it very plenteous; the river of God is full of water.10 You prepare the grain, for so you provide for the earth.11 You drench the furrows and smooth out the ridges; with heavy rain you soften the ground and bless its increase.12 You crown the year with your goodness, * and your paths overflow with plenty.13 May the fields of the wilderness be rich for grazing, and the hills be clothed with joy.14 May the meadows cover themselves with flocks,and the valleys cloak themselves with grain; * let them shout for joy and sing. =Jubilate Deo=1 Be joyful in God, all you lands; * sing the glory of his Name; sing the glory of his praise.2 Say to God, "How awesome are your deeds! because of your great strength your enemies/cringe before you.3 All the earth bows down before you, sings to you, sings out your Name."4 Come now and see the works of God, how wonderful he is in his doing toward all people.5 He turned the sea into dry land,so that they went through the water on foot, and there we rejoiced in him.6 In his might he rules for ever;his eyes keep watch over the nations; * let no rebel rise up against him.7 Bless our God, you peoples; * make the voice of his praise to be heard;8 Who holds our souls in life, * and will not allow our feet to slip.9 For you, O God, have proved us; * you have tried us just as silver is tried.10 You brought us into the snare; * you laid heavy burdens upon our backs.11 You let enemies ride over our heads;we went through fire and water; but you brought us out into a place of refreshment.12 I will enter your house with burnt-offeringsand will pay you my vows, which I promised with my lips and spoke with my mouth when I was in trouble.13 I will offer you sacrifices of fat beastswith the smoke of rams; I will give you oxen and goats.14 Come and listen, all you who fear God, and I will tell you what he has done for me.15 I called out to him with my mouth, and his praise was on my tongue.16 If I had found evil in my heart, the Lord would not have heard me;17 But in truth God has heard me; he has attended to the voice of my prayer.18 Blessed be God, who has not rejected my prayer, nor withheld his love from me. =Deus misereatur=1 May God be merciful to us and bless us, show us the light of his countenance and come to us.2 Let your ways be known upon earth, your saving health among all nations.3 Let the peoples praise you, O God; let all the peoples praise you.4 Let the nations be glad and sing for joy, for you judge the peoples with equity and guide all the nations upon earth.5 Let the peoples praise you, O God; * let all the peoples praise you.6 The earth has brought forth her increase; may God, our own God, give us his blessing.7 May God give us his blessing, and may all the ends of the earth stand in awe of him.Thirteenth Day: Morning Prayer =Exsurgat Deus=1 Let God arise, and let his enemies be scattered; * let those who hate him flee before him.2 Let them vanish like smoke when the wind drives it away; * as the wax melts at the fire, so let the wicked perish at/the presence of God.3 But let the righteous be glad and rejoice before God; * let them also be merry and joyful.4 Sing to God, sing praises to his Name;exalt him who rides upon the heavens; YAHWEH is his Name, rejoice before him!5 Father of orphans, defender of widows, God in his holy habitation!6 God gives the solitary a home and brings forth prisoners/into freedom; but the rebels shall live in dry places.7 O God, when you went forth before your people, * when you marched through the wilderness,8 The earth shook, and the skies poured down rain,at the presence of God, the God of Sinai, at the presence of God, the God of Israel.9 You sent a gracious rain, O God, upon your inheritance; * you refreshed the land when it was weary.10 Your people found their home in it; * in your goodness, O God, you have made provision/for the poor.11 The Lord gave the word; * great was the company of women who bore the tidings:12 "Kings with their armies are fleeing away; the women at home are dividing the spoils."13 Though you lingered among the sheepfolds, * you shall be like a dove whose wings are covered with silver, whose feathers are like green gold.14 When the Almighty scattered kings, * it was like snow falling in Zalmon.15 O mighty mountain, O hill of Bashan! * O rugged mountain, O hill of Bashan!16 Why do you look with envy, O rugged mountain,at the hill which God chose for his resting place? truly, the LORD will dwell there for ever.17 The chariots of God are twenty thousand,even thousands of thousands; * the Lord comes in holiness from Sinai.18 You have gone up on high and led captivity captive;you have received gifts even from your enemies, that the LORD God might dwell among them.19 Blessed be the Lord day by day, the God of our salvation, who bears our burdens.20 He is our God, the God of our salvation; God is the LORD, by whom we escape death.21 God shall crush the heads of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of those who go on still in their/wickedness.22 The Lord has said, "I will bring them back from Bashan; * I will bring them back from the depths of the sea;23 That your foot may be dipped in blood, the tongues of your dogs in the blood of your enemies."24 They see your procession, O God, * your procession into the sanctuary, my God and my King.25 The singers go before, musicians follow after, in the midst of maidens playing upon the hand-drums.26 Bless God in the congregation; * bless the LORD, you that are of the fountain of Israel.27 There is Benjamin, least of the tribes, at the head;the princes of Judah in a company; * and the princes of Zebulon and Naphtali.28 Send forth your strength, O God; establish, O God, what you have wrought for us.29 Kings shall bring gifts to you, * for your temple's sake at Jerusalem.30 Rebuke the wild beast of the reeds, and the peoples, a herd of wild bulls with its calves.31 Trample down those who lust after silver; * scatter the peoples that delight in war.32 Let tribute be brought out of Egypt; * let Ethiopia stretch out her hands to God.33 Sing to God, O kingdoms of the earth; * sing praises to the Lord.34 He rides in the heavens, the ancient heavens; * he sends forth his voice, his mighty voice.35 Ascribe power to God; * his majesty is over Israel; his strength is in the skies.36 How wonderful is God in his holy places! the God of Israel giving strength and power to his people Blessed be God*Thirteenth Day: Evening Prayer =Salvum me fac=1 Save me, O God, for the waters have risen up to my neck.2 I am sinking in deep mire, * and there is no firm ground for my feet.3 I have come into deep waters, and the torrent washes over me.4 I have grown weary with my crying;my throat is inflamed; * my eyes have failed from looking for my God.5 Those who hate me without a cause are more than the hairs/of my head;my lying foes who would destroy me are mighty. Must I then give back what I never stole?6 O God, you know my foolishness, and my faults are not hidden from you.7 Let not those who hope in you be put to shame through me,/Lord GOD of hosts; * let not those who seek you be disgraced because of me,/O God of Israel.8 Surely, for your sake have I suffered reproach, and shame has covered my face.9 I have become a stranger to my own kindred, an alien to my mother's children.10 Zeal for your house has eaten me up; the scorn of those who scorn you has fallen upon me.11 I humbled myself with fasting, * but that was turned to my reproach.12 I put on sack-cloth also, * and became a byword among them.13 Those who sit at the gate murmur against me, * and the drunkards make songs about me.14 But as for me, this is my prayer to you, at the time you have set, O kjv@LORD:15 "In your great mercy, O God, * answer me with your unfailing help.16 Save me from the mire; do not let me sink; * let me be rescued from those who hate me and out of the deep waters.17 Let not the torrent of waters wash over me,neither let the deep swallow me up; * do not let the Pit shut its mouth upon me.18 Answer me, O LORD, for your love is kind; * in your great compassion, turn to me."19 "Hide not your face from your servant; * be swift and answer me, for I am in distress.20 Draw near to me and redeem me; * because of my enemies deliver me.21 You know my reproach, my shame, and my dishonor; * my adversaries are all in your sight."22 Reproach has broken my heart, and it cannot be healed; I looked for sympathy, but there was none, for comforters, but I could find no one.23 They gave me gall to eat, * and when I was thirsty, they gave me vinegar to drink.24 Let the table before them be a trap * and their sacred feasts a snare.25 Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, * and give them continual trembling in their loins.26 Pour out your indignation upon them, * and let the fierceness of your anger overtake them.27 Let their camp be desolate, * and let there be none to dwell in their tents.28 For they persecute him whom you have stricken * and add to the pain of those whom you have pierced.29 Lay to their charge guilt upon guilt, * and let them not receive your vindication.30 Let them be wiped out of the book of the living and not be written among the righteous.31 As for me, I am afflicted and in pain; * your help, O God, will lift me up on high.32 I will praise the Name of God in song; I will proclaim his greatness with thanksgiving.33 This will please the LORD more than an offering of oxen, more than bullocks with horns and hoofs.34 The afflicted shall see and be glad; you who seek God, your heart shall live.35 For the LORD listens to the needy, * and his prisoners he does not despise.36 Let the heavens and the earth praise him, the seas and all that moves in them;37 For God will save Zion and rebuild the cities of Judah; they shall live there and have it in possession.38 The children of his servants will inherit it, and those who love his Name will dwell therein. =Deus, in adjutorium=1 Be pleased, O God, to deliver me; * O LORD, make haste to help me.2 Let those who seek my life be ashamedand altogether dismayed; let those who take pleasure in my misfortune draw back and be disgraced.3 Let those who say to me "Aha!" and gloat over me turn back, because they are ashamed.4 Let all who seek you rejoice and be glad in you; * let those who love your salvation say for ever, "Great is the LORD!"5 But as for me, I am poor and needy; * come to me speedily, O God.6 You are my helper and my deliverer; * O LORD, do not tarry.Fourteenth Day: Morning Prayer =In te, Domine, speravi=1 In you, O LORD, have I taken refuge; * let me never be ashamed.2 In your righteousness, deliver me and set me free; * incline your ear to me and save me.3 Be my strong rock, a castle to keep me safe; you are my crag and my stronghold.4 Deliver me, my God, from the hand of the wicked, * from of the clutches of the evildoer and the oppressor.5 For you are my hope, O LORD God, my confidence since I was young.6 I have been sustained by you ever since I was born;from my mother's womb you have been my strength; * my praise shall be always of you.7 I have become a portent to many; but you are my refuge and my strength.8 Let my mouth be full of your praise and your glory all the day long.9 Do not cast me off in my old age; forsake me not when my strength fails.10 For my enemies are talking against me, and those who lie in wait for my life take counsel together.11 They say, "God has forsaken him;go after him and seize him; * because there is none who will save."12 O God, be not far from me; * come quickly to help me, O my God.13 Let those who set themselves against me be put to shame and/be disgraced; let those who seek to do me evil be covered with scorn/and reproach.14 But I shall always wait in patience, and shall praise you more and more.15 My mouth shall recount your mighty actsand saving deeds all day long; * though I cannot know the number of them.16 I will begin with the mighty works of the Lord GOD; I will recall your righteousness, yours alone.17 O God, you have taught me since I was young, * and to this day I tell of your wonderful works.18 And now that I am old and gray-headed, O God, do not/forsake me, till I make known your strength to this generation and your power to all who are to come.19 Your righteousness, O God, reaches to the heavens; * you have done great things; who is like you, O God?20 You have showed me great troubles and adversities, * but you will restore my life and bring me up again from the deep places of the earth.21 You strengthen me more and more; * you enfold and comfort me,22 Therefore I will praise you upon the lyre for your/faithfulness, O my God; I will sing to you with the harp, O Holy One of Israel.23 My lips will sing with joy when I play to you, * and so will my soul, which you have redeemed.24 My tongue will proclaim your righteousness all day long, for they are ashamed and disgraced who sought/to do me harm. =Deus, judicium=1 Give the King your justice, O God, * and your righteousness to the King's son;2 That he may rule your people righteously and the poor with justice.3 That the mountains may bring prosperity to the people, and the little hills bring righteousness.4 He shall defend the needy among the people; he shall rescue the poor and crush the oppressor.5 He shall live as long as the sun and moon endure, * from one generation to another.6 He shall come down like rain upon the mown field, like showers that water the earth.7 In his time shall the righteous flourish; there shall be abundance of peace till the moon shall/be no more.8 He shall rule from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.9 His foes shall bow down before him, and his enemies lick the dust.10 The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall pay tribute, * and the kings of Arabia and Saba offer gifts.11 All kings shall bow down before him, * and all the nations do him service.12 For he shall deliver the poor who cries out in distress, and the oppressed who has no helper.13 He shall have pity on the lowly and poor; he shall preserve the lives of the needy.14 He shall redeem their lives from oppression and violence, and dear shall their blood be in his sight.15 Long may he live!and may there be given to him gold from Arabia; * may prayer be made for him always, and may they bless him all the day long.16 May there be abundance of grain on the earth,growing thick even on the hilltops; * may its fruit flourish like Lebanon, and its grain like grass upon the earth.17 May his Name remain for everand be established as long as the sun endures; may all the nations bless themselves in him and/call him blessed.18 Blessed be the Lord GOD, the God of Israel, * who alone does wondrous deeds19 And blessed be his glorious Name for ever and may all the earth be filled with his glory./Amen. Amen.Fourteenth Day: Evening Prayer =Quam bonus Israel!=1 Truly, God is good to Israel, * to those who are pure in heart.2 But as for me, my feet had nearly slipped; * I had almost tripped and fallen;3 Because I envied the proud and saw the prosperity of the wicked:4 For they suffer no pain, and their bodies are sleek and sound;5 In the misfortunes of others they have no share; * they are not afflicted as others are;6 Therefore they wear their pride like a necklace and wrap their violence about them like a cloak.7 Their iniquity comes from gross minds, and their hearts overflow with wicked thoughts.8 They scoff and speak maliciously; out of their haughtiness they plan oppression.9 They set their mouths against the heavens, * and their evil speech runs through the world.10 And so the people turn to them * and find in them no fault.11 They say, "How should God know? is there knowledge in the Most High?"12 So then, these are the wicked; always at ease, they increase their wealth.13 In vain have I kept my heart clean, * and washed my hands in innocence.14 I have been afflicted all day long, * and punished every morning.15 Had I gone on speaking this way, * I should have betrayed the generation of your children.16 When I tried to understand these things, it was too hard for me;17 Until I entered the sanctuary of God * and discerned the end of the wicked.18 Surely, you set them in slippery places; you cast them down in ruin.19 Oh, how suddenly do they come to destruction, * come to an end, and perish from terror!20 Like a dream when one awakens, O Lord, * when you arise you will make their image vanish.21 When my mind became embittered, I was sorely wounded in my heart.22 I was stupid and had no understanding; * I was like a brute beast in your presence.23 Yet I am always with you; you hold me by my right hand.24 You will guide me by your counsel, * and afterwards receive me with glory.25 Whom have I in heaven but you? and having you I desire nothing upon earth.26 Though my flesh and my heart should waste away, * God is the strength of my heart and my portion for ever.27 Truly, those who forsake you will perish; * you destroy all who are unfaithful.28 But it is good for me to be near God; I have made the Lord GOD my refuge.29 I will speak of all your works in the gates of the city of Zion. =Ut quid, Deus?=1 O God, why have you utterly cast us off? why is your wrath so hot against the sheep of your pasture?2 Remember your congregation that you purchased long ago, the tribe you redeemed to be your inheritance, and Mount Zion where you dwell.3 Turn your steps toward the endless ruins; * the enemy has laid waste everything in your sanctuary.4 Your adversaries roared in your holy place; * they set up their banners as tokens of victory.5 They were like men coming up with axes to a grove of trees; * they broke down all your carved work with hatchets/and hammers.6 They set fire to your holy place; they defiled the dwelling-place of your Name and razed it to the ground.7 They said to themselves, "Let us destroy them altogether." They burned down all the meeting-places of God/in the land.8 There are no signs for us to see;there is no prophet left; there is not one among us who knows how long.9 How long, O God, will the adversary scoff? * will the enemy blaspheme your Name for ever?10 Why do you draw back your hand? * why is your right hand hidden in your bosom?11 Yet God is my King from ancient times, * victorious in the midst of the earth.12 You divided the sea by your might and shattered the heads of the dragons upon the waters;13 You crushed the heads of Leviathan * and gave him to the people of the desert for food.14 You split open spring and torrent; * you dried up ever-flowing rivers.15 Yours is the day, yours also the night; * you established the moon and the sun.16 You fixed all the boundaries of the earth; you made both summer and winter.17 Remember, O LORD, how the enemy scoffed, how a foolish people despised your Name.18 Do not hand over the life of your dove to wild beasts; * never forget the lives of your poor.19 Look upon your covenant; * the dark places of the earth are haunts of violence.20 Let not the oppressed turn away ashamed; * let the poor and needy praise your Name.21 Arise, O God, maintain your cause; * remember how fools revile you all day long.22 Forget not the clamor of your adversaries, the unending tumult of those who rise up against you.*Fifteenth Day: Morning Prayer =Confitebimur tibi=1 We give you thanks, O God, we give you thanks, * calling upon your Name and declaring all your/wonderful deeds.2 "I will appoint a time," says God; "I will judge with equity.3 Though the earth and all its inhabitants are quaking, * I will make its pillars fast.4 I will say to the boasters, 'Boast no more,' and to the wicked, 'Do not toss your horns;5 Do not toss your horns so high, nor speak with a proud neck.'"6 For judgment is neither from the east nor from the west, nor yet from the wilderness or the mountains.7 It is God who judges; he puts down one and lifts up another.8 For in the LORD'S hand there is a cup,full of spiced and foaming wine, which he pours out, and all the wicked of the earth shall drink and/drain the dregs.9 But I will rejoice for ever; * I will sing praises to the God of Jacob.10 He shall break off all the horns of the wicked; * but the horns of the righteous shall be exalted. =Notus in Judaea=1 In Judah is God known; his Name is great in Israel.2 At Salem is his tabernacle, * and his dwelling is in Zion.3 There he broke the flashing arrows, * the shield, the sword, and the weapons of battle.4 How glorious you are! more splendid than the everlasting mountains!5 The strong of heart have been despoiled;they sink into sleep; none of the warriors can lift a hand.6 At your rebuke, O God of Jacob, * both horse and rider lie stunned.7 What terror you inspire! who can stand before you when you are angry?8 From heaven you pronounced judgment; * the earth was afraid and was still;9 When God rose up to judgment and to save all the oppressed of the earth.10 Truly, wrathful Edom will give you thanks, and the remnant of Hamath will keep your feasts.11 Make a vow to the LORD your God and keep it; let all around him bring gifts to him who is worthy/to be feared.12 He breaks the spirit of princes, and strikes terror in the kings of the earth. =Voce mea ad Domi1 I will cry aloud to God; * I will cry aloud, and he will hear me.2 In the day of my trouble I sought the Lord; * my hands were stretched out by night and did not tire; I refused to be comforted.3 I think of God, I am restless, * I ponder, and my spirit faints.4 You will not let my eyelids close; * I am troubled and I cannot speak.5 I consider the days of old; * I remember the years long past;6 I commune with my heart in the night; I ponder and search my mind.7 Will the Lord cast me off for ever? * will he no more show his favor?8 Has his loving-kindness come to an end for ever? * has his promise failed for evermore?9 Has God forgotten to be gracious? * has he, in his anger, withheld his compassion?10 And I said, "My grief is this: * the right hand of the Most High has lost its power."11 I will remember the works of the LORD, * and call to mind your wonders of old time.12 I will meditate on all your acts and ponder your mighty deeds.13 Your way, O God, is holy; * who is so great a god as our God?14 You are the God who works wonders and have declared your power among the peoples.15 By your strength you have redeemed your people, the children of Jacob and Joseph.16 The waters saw you, O God;the waters saw you and trembled; * the very depths were shaken.17 The clouds poured out water;the skies thundered; * your arrows flashed to and fro;18 The sound of your thunder was in the whirlwind;your lightnings lit up the world; the earth trembled and shook.19 Your way was in the sea,and your paths in the great waters, * yet your footsteps were not seen.20 You led your people like a flock * by the hand of Moses and Aaron.*Fifteenth Day: Evening Prayer =Attendite, popule=1 Hear my teaching, O my people; * incline your ears to the words of my mouth.2 I will open my mouth in a parable; * I will declare the mysteries of ancient times.3 That which we have heard and known,and what our forefathers have told us, we will not hide from their children.4 We will recount to generations to comethe praiseworthy deeds and the power of the LORD, * and the wonderful works he has done.5 He gave his decrees to Jacoband established a law for Israel, which he commanded them to teach their children;6 That the generations to come might know,and the children yet unborn; * that they in their turn might tell it to their children;7 So that they might put their trust in God, * and not forget the deeds of God, but keep his commandments;8 And not be like their forefathers,a stubborn and rebellious generation, a generation whose heart was not steadfast, and whose spirit was not faithful to God.9 The people of Ephraim, armed with the bow, turned back in the day of battle;10 They did not keep the covenant of God, * and refused to walk in his law;11 They forgot what he had done, and the wonders he had shown them.12 He worked marvels in the sight of their forefathers, in the land of Egypt, in the field of Zoan.13 He split open the sea and let them pass through; * he made the waters stand up like walls.14 He led them with a cloud by day, and all the night through with a glow of fire.15 He split the hard rocks in the wilderness * and gave them drink as from the great deep.16 He brought streams out of the cliff, * and the waters gushed out like rivers.17 But they went on sinning against him, * rebelling in the desert against the Most High.18 They tested God in their hearts, * demanding food for their craving.19 They railed against God and said, "Can God set a table in the wilderness?20 True, he struck the rock, the waters gushed out, and the/gullies overflowed; * but is he able to give bread or to provide meat for his people?"21 When the LORD heard this, he was full of wrath; * a fire was kindled against Jacob, and his anger mounted against Israel;22 For they had no faith in God, nor did they put their trust in his saving power.23 So he commanded the clouds above * and opened the doors of heaven.24 He rained down manna upon them to eat and gave them grain from heaven.25 So mortals ate the bread of angels; * he provided for them food enough.26 He caused the east wind to blow in the heavens and led out the south wind by his might.27 He rained down flesh upon them like dust * and winge!d birds like the sand of the sea.28 He let it fall in the midst of their camp * and round about their dwellings.29 So they ate and were well filled, * for he gave them what they craved.30 But they did not stop their craving, though the food was still in their mouths.31 So God's anger mounted against them; he slew their strongest men and laid low the youth of Israel.32 In spite of all this, they went on sinning * and had no faith in his wonderful works.33 So he brought their days to an end like a breath * and their years in sudden terror.34 Whenever he slew them, they would seek him, * and repent, and diligently search for God.35 They would remember that God was their rock, * and the Most High God their redeemer.36 But they flattered him with their mouths * and lied to him with their tongues.37 Their heart was not steadfast toward him, and they were not faithful to his covenant.38 But he was so merciful that he forgave their sinsand did not destroy them; many times he held back his anger and did not permit his wrath to be roused.39 For he remembered that they were but flesh, a breath that goes forth and does not return. =Quoties exacerbaverunt=40 How often the people disobeyed him in the wilderness and offended him in the desert!41 Again and again they tempted God * and provoked the Holy One of Israel.42 They did not remember his power in the day when he ransomed them from the enemy;43 How he wrought his signs in Egypt and his omens in the field of Zoan.44 He turned their rivers into blood, * so that they could not drink of their streams.45 He sent swarms of flies among them, which ate them up, * and frogs, which destroyed them.46 He gave their crops to the caterpillar, * the fruit of their toil to the locust.47 He killed their vines with hail * and their sycamores with frost.48 He delivered their cattle to hailstones and their livestock to hot thunderbolts.49 He poured out upon them his blazing anger: * fury, indignation, and distress, a troop of destroying angels.50 He gave full rein to his anger;he did not spare their souls from death; but delivered their lives to the plague.51 He struck down all the firstborn of Egypt, * the flower of manhood in the dwellings of Ham.52 He led out his people like sheep and guided them in the wilderness like a flock.53 He led them to safety, and they were not afraid; but the sea overwhelmed their enemies.54 He brought them to his holy land, the mountain his right hand had won.55 He drove out the Canaanites before themand apportioned an inheritance to them by lot; he made the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tents.56 But they tested the Most High God, and defied him, and did not keep his commandments.57 They turned away and were disloyal like their fathers; they were undependable like a warped bow.58 The grieved him with their hill-altars * they provoked his displeasure with their idols.59 When God heard this, he was angry * and utterly rejected Israel.60 He forsook the shrine at Shiloh, the tabernacle where he had lived among his people.61 He delivered the ark into captivity, his glory into the adversary's hand.62 He gave his people to the sword and was angered against his inheritance.63 The fire consumed their young men; there were no wedding songs for their maidens.64 Their priests fell by the sword, * and their widows made no lamentation.65 Then the LORD woke as though from sleep, * like a warrior refreshed with wine.66 He struck his enemies on the backside * and put them to perpetual shame.67 He rejected the tent of Joseph and did not choose the tribe of Ephraim;68 He chose instead the tribe of Judah and Mount Zion, which he loved.69 He built his sanctuary like the heights of heaven, * like the earth which he founded for ever.70 He chose David his servant, * and took him away from the sheepfolds.71 He brought him from following the ewes, * to be a shepherd over Jacob his people and over Israel his inheritance.72 So he shepherded them with a faithful and true heart and guided them with the skillfulness of his hands.Sixteenth Day: Morning Prayer =Deus, venerunt=1 O God, the heathen have come into your inheritance;they have profaned your holy temple; they have made Jerusalem a heap of rubble.2 They have given the bodies of your servants as food for the/birds of the air, * and the flesh of your faithful ones to the beasts/of the field.3 They have shed their blood like water on every side/of Jerusalem, * and there was no one to bury them.4 We have become a reproach to our neighbors, * an object of scorn and derision to those around us.5 How long will you be angry, O LORD? * will your fury blaze like fire for ever?6 Pour out your wrath upon the heathen who have not/known you * and upon the kingdoms that have not called upon/your Name.7 For they have devoured Jacob and made his dwelling a ruin.8 Remember not our past sins;let your compassion be swift to meet us; * for we have been brought very low.9 Help us, O God our Savior, for the glory of your Name; * deliver us and forgive us our sins, for your Name's sake.10 Why should the heathen say, "Where is their God?" Let it be known among the heathen and in our sight that you avenge the shedding of your servants' blood.11 Let the sorrowful sighing of the prisoners come before you, * and by your great might spare those who are/condemned to die.12 May the revilings with which they reviled you, O Lord, return seven-fold into their bosoms.13 For we are your people and the sheep of your pasture; * we will give you thanks for ever and show forth your praise from age to age. =Qui regis Israel=1 Hear, O Shepherd of Israel, leading Joseph like a flock; shine forth, you that are enthroned upon the cherubim.2 In the presence of Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasseh, stir up your strength and come to help us.3 Restore us, O God of hosts; show the light of your countenance, and we shall be saved.4 O LORD God of hosts, how long will you be angered despite the prayers of your people?5 You have fed them with the bread of tears; you have given them bowls of tears to drink.6 You have made us the derision of our neighbors, and our enemies laugh us to scorn.7 Restore us, O God of hosts; * show the light of your countenance, and we shall be saved.8 You have brought a vine out of Egypt; * you cast out the nations and planted it.9 You prepared the ground for it; it took root and filled the land.10 The mountains were covered by its shadow * and the towering cedar trees by its boughs.11 You stretched out its tendrils to the Sea * and its branches to the River.12 Why have you broken down its wall, * so that all who pass by pluck off its grapes?13 The wild boar of the forest has ravaged it, and the beasts of the field have grazed upon it.14 Turn now, O God of hosts, look down from heaven;behold and tend this vine; * preserve what your right hand has planted.15 They burn it with fire like rubbish; at the rebuke of your countenance let them perish.16 Let your hand be upon the man of your right hand, and son of man you have made so strong for yourself.17 And so will we never turn away from you; * give us life, that we may call upon your Name.18 Restore us, O LORD God of hosts; * show the light of your countenance, and we shall be saved. =Exultate Deo=1 Sing with joy to God our strength and raise a loud shout to the God of Jacob.2 Raise a song and sound the timbrel, * the merry harp, and the lyre.3 Blow the ram's-horn at the new moon, * and at the full moon, the day of our feast.4 For this is a statute for Israel, * a law of the God of Jacob.5 He laid it as a solemn charge upon Joseph, * when he came out of the land of Egypt.6 I heard an unfamiliar voice saying, "I eased his shoulder from the burden; his hands were set free from bearing the load."7 You called on me in trouble, and I saved you; I answered you from the secret place of thunder and tested you at the waters of Meribah.8 Hear, O my people, and I will admonish you: O Israel, if you would but listen to me!9 There shall be no strange god among you; you shall not worship a foreign god.10 I am the LORD your God,who brought you out of the land of Egypt and said, * "Open your mouth wide, and I will fill it."11 And yet my people did not hear my voice, * and Israel would not obey me.12 So I gave them over to the stubbornness of their hearts, to follow their own devices.13 Oh, that my people would listen to me! that Israel would walk in my ways!14 I should soon subdue their enemies * and turn my hand against their foes.15 Those who hate the LORD would cringe before him, * and their punishment would last for ever.16 But Israel would I feed with the finest wheat * and satisfy him with honey from the rock.*Sixteenth Day: Evening Prayer =Deus stetit=1 God takes his stand in the council of heaven; he gives judgment in the midst of the gods:2 "How long will you judge unjustly, and show favor to the wicked?3 Save the weak and the orphan; * defend the humble and needy;4 Rescue the weak and the poor; * deliver them from the power of the wicked.5 They do not know, neither do they understand;they go about in darkness; all the foundations of the earth are shaken.6 Now I say to you, 'You are gods, and all of you children of the Most High;7 Nevertheless, you shall die like mortals, * and fall like any prince.'"8 Arise, O God, and rule the earth, * for you shall take all nations for your own. =Deus, quis similis=1 O God, do not be silent; * do not keep still nor hold your peace, O God;2 For your enemies are in tumult, and those who hate you have lifted up their heads.3 They take secret counsel against your people and plot against those whom you protect4 They have said, "Come, let us wipe them out from among/the nations; * let the name of Israel be remembered no more."5 They have conspired together; * they have made an alliance against you:6 The tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites; * the Moabites and the Hagarenes;7 Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines and those who dwell in Tyre.8 The Assyrians also have joined them, * and have come to help the people of Lot.9 Do to them as you did to Midian, to Sisera, and to Jabin at the river of kjv@Kishon:10 They were destroyed at Endor; they became like dung upon the ground.11 Make their leaders like Oreb and Zee%b, and all their commanders like Zebah and Zalmunna,12 Who said, "Let us take for ourselves the fields of God as our possession."13 O my God, make them like whirling dust and like chaff before the wind;14 Like fire that burns down a forest, like the flame that sets mountains ablaze.15 Drive them with your tempest and terrify them with your storm;16 Cover their faces with shame, O LORD, * that they may seek your Name.17 Let them be disgraced and terrified for ever; let them be put to confusion and perish.18 Let them know that you, whose Name is YAHWEH, you alone are the Most High over all the earth. =Quam dilecta!=1 How dear to me is your dwelling, O LORD of hosts! * My soul has a desire and longing for the courts of/the LORD; my heart and my flesh rejoice in the living God.2 The sparrow has found her a houseand the swallow a nest where she may lay her young; by the side of your altars, O LORD of hosts, my King and my God.3 Happy are they who dwell in your house! * they will always be praising you.4 Happy are the people whose strength is in you! whose hearts are set on the pilgrims' way.5 Those who go through the desolate valley will find/it a place of springs, for the early rains have covered it with pools of water.6 They will climb from height to height, and the God of gods will reveal himself in Zion.7 LORD God of hosts, hear my prayer; * hearken, O God of Jacob.8 Behold our defender, O God; and look upon the face of your Anointed.9 For one day in your courts is better than/a thousand in my own room, and to stand at the threshold of the house of my God than to dwell in the tents of the wicked.10 For the LORD God is both sun and shield; * he will give grace and glory;11 No good thing will the LORD withhold from those who walk with integrity.12 O LORD of hosts, happy are they who put their trust in you! =Benedixisti, Domine=1 You have been gracious to your land, O LORD, you have restored the good fortune of Jacob.2 You have forgiven the iniquity of your people * and blotted out all their sins.3 You have withdrawn all your fury and turned yourself from your wrathful indignation.4 Restore us then, O God our Savior; let your anger depart from us.5 Will you be displeased with us for ever? * will you prolong your anger from age to age?6 Will you not give us life again, * that your people may rejoice in you?7 Show us your mercy, O LORD, * and grant us your salvation.8 I will listen to what the LORD God is saying, * for he is speaking peace to his faithful people and to those who turn their hearts to him.9 Truly, his salvation is very near to those who fear him, that his glory may dwell in our land.10 Mercy and truth have met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other.11 Truth shall spring up from the earth, * and righteousness shall look down from heaven.12 The LORD will indeed grant prosperity, * and our land will yield its increase.13 Righteousness shall go before him, * and peace shall be a pathway for his feet.*Seventeenth Day: Morning Prayer =Inclina, Domine=1 Bow down your ear, O LORD, and answer me, * for I am poor and in misery.2 Keep watch over my life, for I am faithful; * save your servant who puts his trust in you.3 Be merciful to me, O LORD, for you are my God; I call upon you all the day long.4 Gladden the soul of your servant, * for to you, O LORD, I lift up my soul.5 For you, O LORD, are good and forgiving, * and great is your love toward all who call upon you.6 Give ear, O LORD, to my prayer, * and attend to the voice of my supplications.7 In the time of my trouble I will call upon you, * for you will answer me.8 Among the gods there is none like you, O LORD, * nor anything like your works.9 All the nations you have made will come and/worship you, O LORD, and glorify your Name.10 For you are great;you do wondrous things; * and you alone are God.11 Teach me your way, O LORD,and I will walk in your truth; knit my heart to you that I may fear your Name.12 I will thank you, O LORD my God, with all my heart, and glorify your Name for evermore.13 For great is your love toward me; * you have delivered me from the nethermost Pit.14 The arrogant rise up against me, O God,and a band of violent men seeks my life; they have not set you before their eyes.15 But you, O LORD, are gracious and full of compassion, slow to anger, and full of kindness and truth.16 Turn to me and have mercy upon me; * give your strength to your servant; and save the child of your handmaid.17 Show me a sign of your favor,so that those who hate me may see it and be ashamed; * because you, O LORD, have helped me and comforted me. =Fundamenta ejus=1 On the holy mountain stands the city he has founded; the LORD loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob.2 Glorious things are spoken of you, O city of our God.3 I count Egypt and Babylon among those who know me; behold Philistia, Tyre, and Ethiopia: in Zion were they born.4 Of Zion it shall be said, "Everyone was born in her, * and the Most High himself shall sustain her."5 The LORD will record as he enrolls the peoples, * "These also were born there."6 The singers and the dancers will say, "All my fresh springs are in you." =Domine, Deus=1 O LORD, my God, my Savior, * by day and night I cry to you.2 Let my prayer enter into your presence; * incline your ear to my lamentation.3 For I am full of trouble; * my life is at the brink of the grave.4 I am counted among those who go down to the Pit; * I have become like one who has no strength;5 Lost among the dead, like the slain who lie in the grave,6 Whom you remember no more, * for they are cut off from your hand.7 You have laid me in the depths of the Pit, * in dark places, and in the abyss.8 Your anger weighs upon me heavily, and all your great waves overwhelm me.9 You have put my friends far from me;you have made me to be abhorred by them; * I am in prison and cannot get free.10 My sight has failed me because of trouble; * LORD, I have called upon you daily; I have stretched out my hands to you.11 Do you work wonders for the dead? will those who have died stand up and give you thanks?12 Will your loving-kindness be declared in the grave? your faithfulness in the land of destruction?13 Will your wonders be known in the dark? * or your righteousness in the country where all/is forgotten?14 But as for me, O LORD, I cry to you for help; in the morning my prayer comes before you.15 LORD, why have you rejected me? why have you hidden your face from me?16 Ever since my youth, I have been wretched and at the/point of death; * I have borne your terrors with a troubled mind.17 Your blazing anger has swept over me; * your terrors have destroyed me;18 They surround me all day long like a flood; they encompass me on every side.19 My friend and my neighbor you have put away from me, * and darkness is my only companion.*Seventeenth Day: Evening Prayer =Misericordias Domini=1 Your love, O LORD, for ever will I sing; * from age to age my mouth will proclaim your faithfulness.2 For I am persuaded that your love is established for ever; * you have set your faithfulness firmly in the heavens.3 "I have made a covenant with my chosen one; * I have sworn an oath to David my servant:4 'I will establish your line for ever, and preserve your throne for all generations.'"5 The heavens bear witness to your wonders, O LORD, and to your faithfulness in the assembly of the holy ones;6 For who in the skies can be compared to the LORD? who is like the LORD among the gods?7 God is much to be feared in the council of the holy ones, * great and terrible to all those round about him.8 Who is like you, LORD God of hosts? * O mighty LORD, your faithfulness is all around you.9 You rule the raging of the sea and still the surging of its waves.10 You have crushed Rahab of the deep with a deadly wound; * you have scattered your enemies with your mighty arm.11 Yours are the heavens; the earth also is yours; * you laid the foundations of the world and all that is in it.12 You have made the north and the south; * Tabor and Hermon rejoice in your Name.13 You have a mighty arm; * strong is your hand and high is your right hand.14 Righteousness and justice are the foundations of your throne; love and truth go before your face.15 Happy are the people who know the festal shout! they walk, O LORD, in the light of your presence.16 They rejoice daily in your Name; they are jubilant in your righteousness.17 For you are the glory of their strength, and by your favor our might is exalted.18 Truly, the LORD is our ruler; * The Holy One of Israel is our King. =Tunc locutus es=19 You spoke once in vision and said to your faithful people: * "I have set the crown upon a warrior and have exalted one chosen out of the people.20 I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him.21 My hand will hold him fast * and my arm will make him strong.22 No enemy shall deceive him, * nor any wicked man bring him down.23 I will crush his foes before him * and strike down those who hate him.24 My faithfulness and love shall be with him, * and he shall be victorious through my Name.25 I shall make his dominion extend * from the Great Sea to the River.26 He will say to me, 'You are my Father, * my God, and the rock of my salvation.'27 I will make him my firstborn * and higher than the kings of the earth.28 I will keep my love for him for ever, * and my covenant will stand firm for him.29 I will establish his line for ever and his throne as the days of heaven."30 "If his children forsake my law * and do not walk according to my judgments;31 If they break my statutes * and do not keep my commandments;32 I will punish their transgressions with a rod * and their iniquities with the lash;33 But I will not take my love from him, nor let my faithfulness prove false.34 I will not break my covenant, * nor change what has gone out of my lips.35 Once for all I have sworn by my holiness: * 'I will not lie to David.36 His line shall endure for ever and his throne as the sun before me;37 It shall stand fast for evermore like the moon, * the abiding witness in the sky.'"38 But you have cast off and rejected your anointed; you have become enraged at him.39 You have broken your covenant with your servant, * defiled his crown, and hurled it to the ground.40 You have breached all his walls and laid his strongholds in ruins.41 All who pass by despoil him; he has become the scorn of his neighbors.42 You have exalted the right hand of his foes * and made all his enemies rejoice.43 You have turned back the edge of his sword and have not sustained him in battle.44 You have put an end to his splendor and cast his throne to the ground.45 You have cut short the days of his youth * and have covered him with shame.46 How long will you hide yourself, O LORD?will you hide yourself for ever? * how long will your anger burn like fire?47 Remember, LORD, how short life is, * how frail you have made all flesh.48 Who can live and not see death? * who can save himself from the power of the grave?49 Where, Lord, are your loving-kindnesses of old, * which you promised David in your faithfulness?50 Remember, Lord, how your servant is mocked, * how I carry in my bosom the taunts of many peoples,51 The taunts your enemies have hurled, O LORD, * which they hurled at the heels of your anointed.52 Blessed be the LORD for evermore! Amen, I say, Amen.Eighteenth Day: Morning Prayer =Domine, refugium=1 Lord, you have been our refuge * from one generation to another.2 Before the mountains were brought forth,or the land and the earth were born, from age to age you are God.3 You turn us back to the dust and say, * "Go back, O child of earth."4 For a thousand years in your sight are like yesterday/when it is past and like a watch in the night.5 You sweep us away like a dream; * we fade away suddenly like the grass.6 In the morning it is green and flourishes; * in the evening it is dried up and withered.7 For we consume away in your displeasure; we are afraid because of your wrathful indignation.8 Our iniquities you have set before you, and our secret sins in the light of your countenance.9 When you are angry, all our days are gone; * we bring our years to an end like a sigh.10 The span of our life is seventy years,perhaps in strength even eighty; yet the sum of them is but labor and sorrow, for they pass away quickly and we are gone.11 Who regards the power of your wrath? * who rightly fears your indignation?12 So teach us to number our days that we may apply our hearts to wisdom.13 Return, O LORD; how long will you tarry? * be gracious to your servants.14 Satisfy us by your loving-kindness in the morning; so shall we rejoice and be glad all the days of our life.15 Make us glad by the measure of the days that you afflicted us * and the years in which we suffered adversity.16 Show your servants your works and your splendor to their children.17 May the graciousness of the LORD our God be upon us; * prosper the work of our hands; prosper our handiwork. =Qui habitat=1 He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High, abides under the shadow of the Almighty.2 He shall say to the LORD,"You are my refuge and my stronghold, * my God in whom I put my trust."3 He shall deliver you from the snare of the hunter and from the deadly pestilence.4 He shall cover you with his pinions,and you shall find refuge under his wings; his faithfulness shall be a shield and buckler.5 You shall not be afraid of any terror by night, nor of the arrow that flies by day;6 Of the plague that stalks in the darkness, nor of the sickness that lays waste at mid-day.7 A thousand shall fall at your sideand ten thousand at your right hand, but it shall not come near you.8 Your eyes have only to behold to see the reward of the wicked.9 Because you have made the LORD your refuge, * and the Most High your habitation,10 There shall no evil happen to you, * neither shall any plague come near your dwelling.11 For he shall give his angels charge over you, * to keep you in all your ways.12 They shall bear you in their hands, lest you dash your foot against a stone.13 You shall tread upon the lion and the adder; * you shall trample the young lion and the serpent/under your feet.14 Because he is bound to me in love,therefore will I deliver him; * I will protect him, because he knows my Name.15 He shall call upon me, and I will answer him; * I am with him in trouble; I will rescue him and bring him to honor.16 With long life will I satisfy him, * and show him my salvation. =Bonum est confiteri=1 It is a good thing to give thanks to the LORD, * and to sing praises to your Name, O Most High;2 To tell of your loving-kindness early in the morning * and of your faithfulness in the night season;3 On the psaltery, and on the lyre, * and to the melody of the harp.4 For you have made me glad by your acts, O LORD; and I shout for joy because of the works of your hands.5 LORD, how great are your works! * your thoughts are very deep.6 The dullard does not know,nor does the fool understand, that though the wicked grow like weeds, and all the workers of iniquity flourish,7 They flourish only to be destroyed for ever; but you, O LORD, are exalted for evermore.8 For lo, your enemies, O LORD,lo, your enemies shall perish, and all the workers of iniquity shall be scattered.9 But my horn you have exalted like the horns of wild bulls; I am anointed with fresh oil.10 My eyes also gloat over my enemies, * and my ears rejoice to hear the doom of the wicked who/rise up against me.11 The righteous shall flourish like a palm tree, * and shall spread abroad like a cedar of Lebanon.12 Those who are planted in the house of the LORD shall flourish in the courts of our God;13 They shall still bear fruit in old age; * they shall be green and succulent;14 That they may show how upright the LORD is, * my Rock, in whom there is no fault.Eighteenth Day: Evening Prayer =Dominus regnavit=1 The LORD is King;he has put on splendid apparel; the LORD has put on his apparel and girded himself with strength.2 He has made the whole world so sure that it cannot be moved;3 Ever since the world began, your throne has been established; * you are from everlasting.4 The waters have lifted up, O LORD,the waters have lifted up their voice; the waters have lifted up their pounding waves.5 Mightier than the sound of many waters,mightier than the breakers of the sea, * mightier is the LORD who dwells on high.6 Your testimonies are very sure, and holiness adorns your house, O LORD, for ever and for evermore. =Deus ultio1 O LORD God of vengeance, * O God of vengeance, show yourself.2 Rise up, O Judge of the world; give the arrogant their just deserts.3 How long shall the wicked, O LORD, how long shall the wicked triumph?4 They bluster in their insolence; all evildoers are full of boasting.5 They crush your people, O LORD, * and afflict your chosen nation.6 They murder the widow and the stranger * and put the orphans to death.7 Yet they say, "The LORD does not see, the God of Jacob takes no notice."8 Consider well, you dullards among the people; when will you fools understand?9 He that planted the ear, does he not hear? * he that formed the eye, does he not see?10 He who admonishes the nations, will he not punish? he who teaches all the world, has he no knowledge?11 The LORD knows our human thoughts; how like a puff of wind they are.12 Happy are they whom you instruct, O Lord! whom you teach out of your law;13 To give them rest in evil days, until a pit is dug for the wicked.14 For the LORD will not abandon his people, * nor will he forsake his own.15 For judgment will again be just, * and all the true of heart will follow it.16 Who rose up for me against the wicked? * who took my part against the evildoers?17 If the LORD had not come to my help, I should soon have dwelt in the land of silence.18 As often as I said, "My foot has slipped," your love, O LORD, upheld me.19 When many cares fill my mind, * your consolations cheer my soul.20 Can a corrupt tribunal have any part with you, * one which frames evil into law?21 They conspire against the life of the just * and condemn the innocent to death.22 But the LORD has become my stronghold, and my God the rock of my trust.23 He will turn their wickedness back upon themand destroy them in their own malice; the LORD our God will destroy them.*Nineteenth Day: Morning Prayer =Venite, exultemus=1 Come, let us sing to the LORD; let us shout for joy to the Rock of our salvation.2 Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving * and raise a loud shout to him with psalms.3 For the LORD is a great God, * and a great King above all gods.4 In his hand are the caverns of the earth, * and the heights of the hills are his also.5 The sea is his, for he made it, and his hands have molded the dry land.6 Come, let us bow down, and bend the knee, and kneel before the LORD our Maker.7 For he is our God,and we are the people of his pasture and the sheep of his hand. * Oh, that today you would hearken to his voice!8 Harden not your hearts,as your forebears did in the wilderness, * at Meribah, and on that day at Massah, when they tempted me.9 They put me to the test, * though they had seen my works.10 Forty years long I detested that generation and said, "This people are wayward in their hearts; they do not know my ways."11 So I swore in my wrath, * "They shall not enter into my rest." =Cantate Domino=1 Sing to the LORD a new song; * sing to the LORD, all the whole earth.2 Sing to the LORD and bless his Name; proclaim the good news of his salvation from day to day.3 Declare his glory among the nations and his wonders among all peoples.4 For great is the LORD and greatly to be praised; * he is more to be feared than all gods.5 As for all the gods of the nations, they are but idols; but it is the LORD who made the heavens.6 Oh, the majesty and magnificence of his presence! Oh, the power and the splendor of his sanctuary!7 Ascribe to the LORD, you families of the peoples; * ascribe to the LORD honor and power.8 Ascribe to the LORD the honor due his Name; * bring offerings and come into his courts.9 Worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness; let the whole earth tremble before him.10 Tell it out among the nations: "The LORD is King! he has made the world so firm that it cannot be moved; he will judge the peoples with equity."11 Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad;let the sea thunder and all that is in it; let the field be joyful and all that is therein.12 Then shall all the trees of the wood shout for joybefore the LORD when he comes, * when he comes to judge the earth.13 He will judge the world with righteousness and the peoples with his truth. =Dominus regnavit=1 The LORD is King;let the earth rejoice; let the multitude of the isles be glad.2 Clouds and darkness are round about him, righteousness and justice are the foundations of his throne.3 A fire goes before him * and burns up his enemies on every side.4 His lightnings light up the world; the earth sees it and is afraid.5 The mountains melt like wax at the presence of the LORD, * at the presence of the Lord of the whole earth.6 The heavens declare his righteousness, * and all the peoples see his glory.7 Confounded be all who worship carved imagesand delight in false gods! * Bow down before him, all you gods.8 Zion hears and is glad, and the cities of Judah rejoice, because of your judgments, O LORD.9 For you are the LORD,most high over all the earth; * you are exalted far above all gods.10 The LORD loves those who hate evil; he preserves the lives of his saints and delivers them from the hand of the wicked.11 Light has sprung up for the righteous, * and joyful gladness for those who are truehearted.12 Rejoice in the LORD, you righteous, * and give thanks to his holy Name.*Nineteenth Day: Evening Prayer =Cantate Domino=1 Sing to the LORD a new song, * for he has done marvelous things.2 With his right hand and his holy arm * has he won for himself the victory.3 The LORD has made known his victory; his righteousness has he openly shown in/the sight of the nations.4 He remembers his mercy and faithfulness to/the house of Israel, and all the ends of the earth have seen the/victory of our God.5 Shout with joy to the LORD, all you lands; lift up your voice, rejoice, and sing.6 Sing to the LORD with the harp, * with the harp and the voice of song.7 With trumpets and the sound of the horn * shout with joy before the King, the LORD.8 Let the sea make a noise and all that is in it, * the lands and those who dwell therein.9 Let the rivers clap their hands, * and let the hills ring out with joy before the LORD, when he comes to judge the earth.10 In righteousness shall he judge the world and the peoples with equity. =Dominus regnavit=1 The LORD is King;let the people tremble; * he is enthroned upon the cherubim; let the earth shake.2 The LORD is great in Zion; * he is high above all peoples.3 Let them confess his Name, which is great and awesome; * he is the Holy One.4 "O mighty King, lover of justice,you have established equity; * you have executed justice and righteousness in Jacob."5 Proclaim the greatness of the LORD our Godand fall down before his footstool; he is the Holy One.6 Moses and Aaron among his priests,and Samuel among those who call upon his Name, they called upon the LORD, and he answered them.7 He spoke to them out of the pillar of cloud; * they kept his testimonies and the decree that he gave them.8 "O LORD our God, you answered them indeed; * you were a God who forgave them, yet punished them for their evil deeds."9 Proclaim the greatness of the LORD our Godand worship him upon his holy hill; * for the LORD our God is the Holy One. =Jubilate Deo=1 Be joyful in the LORD, all you lands; * serve the LORD with gladness and come before his presence with a song.2 Know this: The LORD himself is God; * he himself has made us, and we are his; we are his people and the sheep of his pasture.3 Enter his gates with thanksgiving;go into his courts with praise; * give thanks to him and call upon his Name.4 For the LORD is good;his mercy is everlasting; and his faithfulness endures from age to age.93 I will never forget your commandments, because by them you give me life.94 I am yours; oh, that you would save me! for I study your commandments.95 Though the wicked lie in wait for me to destroy me, * I will apply my mind to your decrees.96 I see that all things come to an end, but your commandment has no bounds. =Quomodo dilexi!=97 Oh, how I love your law! all the day long it is in my mind.98 Your commandment has made me wiser than my enemies, * and it is always with me.99 I have more understanding than all my teachers, * for your decrees are my study.100 I am wiser than the elders, * because I observe your commandments.101 I restrain my feet from every evil way, * that I may keep your word.102 I do not shrink from your judgments, * because you yourself have taught me.103 How sweet are your words to my taste! they are sweeter than honey to my mouth.104 Through your commandments I gain understanding; therefore I hate every lying way.*Twenty-sixth Day: Morning Prayer =Lucerna pedibus meis=105 Your word is a lantern to my feet and a light upon my path.106 I have sworn and am determined to keep your righteous judgments.107 I am deeply troubled; preserve my life, O LORD, according to your word.108 Accept, O LORD, the willing tribute of my lips, * and teach me your judgments.109 My life is always in my hand, * yet I do not forget your law.110 The wicked have set a trap for me, but I have not strayed from your commandments.111 Your decrees are my inheritance for ever; truly, they are the joy of my heart.112 I have applied my heart to fulfill your statutes for ever and to the end. =Iniquos odio habui=113 I hate those who have a divided heart, * but your law do I love.114 You are my refuge and shield; my hope is in your word.115 Away from me, you wicked! * I will keep the commandments of my God.116 Sustain me according to your promise, that I may live, * and let me not be disappointed in my hope.117 Hold me up, and I shall be safe, and my delight shall be ever in your statutes.118 You spurn all who stray from your statutes; * their deceitfulness is in vain.119 In your sight all the wicked of the earth are but dross; * therefore I love your decrees.120 My flesh trembles with dread of you; * I am afraid of your judgments. =Feci judicium=121 I have done what is just and right; * do not deliver me to my oppressors.122 Be surety for your servant's good; let not the proud oppress me.123 My eyes have failed from watching for your salvation * and for your righteous promise.124 Deal with your servant according to your loving-kindness and teach me your statutes.125 I am your servant; grant me understanding, that I may know your decrees.126 It is time for you to act, O LORD, for they have broken your law.127 Truly, I love your commandments * more than gold and precious stones.128 I hold all your commandments to be right for me; * all paths of falsehood I abhor. =Mirabilia=129 Your decrees are wonderful; * therefore I obey them with all my heart.130 When your word goes forth it gives light; * it gives understanding to the simple.131 I open my mouth and pant; I long for your commandments.132 Turn to me in mercy, as you always do to those who love your Name.133 Steady my footsteps in your word; let no iniquity have dominion over me.134 Rescue me from those who oppress me, * and I will keep your commandments.135 Let your countenance shine upon your servant * and teach me your statutes.136 My eyes shed streams of tears, because people do not keep your law. =Justus es, Domine=137 You are righteous, O LORD, * and upright are your judgments.138 You have issued your decrees with justice and in perfect faithfulness.139 My indignation has consumed me, * because my enemies forget your words.140 Your word has been tested to the uttermost, * and your servant holds it dear.141 I am small and of little account, * yet I do not forget your commandments.142 Your justice is an everlasting justice * and your law is the truth.143 Trouble and distress have come upon me, yet your commandments are my delight.144 The righteousness of your decrees is everlasting; grant me understanding, that I may live.*Twenty-sixth Day: Evening Prayer =Clamavi in toto corde meo=145 I call with my whole heart; * answer me, O LORD, that I may keep your statutes.146 I call to you;oh, that you would save me! I will keep your decrees.147 Early in the morning I cry out to you, * for in your word is my trust.148 My eyes are open in the night watches, that I may meditate upon your promise.149 Hear my voice, O LORD, according to your loving-kindness; * according to your judgments, give me life.150 They draw near who in malice persecute me; they are very far from your law.151 You, O LORD, are near at hand, * and all your commandments are true.152 Long have I known from your decrees that you have established them for ever. =Vide humilitatem=153 Behold my affliction and deliver me, * for I do not forget your law.154 Plead my cause and redeem me; according to your promise, give me life.155 Deliverance is far from the wicked, for they do not study your statutes.156 Great is your compassion, O LORD; preserve my life, according to your judgments.157 There are many who persecute and oppress me, * yet I have not swerved from your decrees.158 I look with loathing at the faithless, * for they have not kept your word.159 See how I love your commandments! O LORD, in your mercy, preserve me.160 The heart of your word is truth; * all your righteous judgments endure for evermore. =Principes persecuti sunt=161 Rulers have persecuted me without a cause, but my heart stands in awe of your word.162 I am as glad because of your promise * as one who finds great spoils.163 As for lies, I hate and abhor them, * but your law is my love.164 Seven times a day do I praise you, because of your righteous judgments.165 Great peace have they who love your law; for them there is no stumbling block.166 I have hoped for your salvation, O LORD, * and have fulfilled your commandments.167 I have kept your decrees * and I have loved them deeply.168 I have kept your commandments and decrees, for all my ways are before you. =Appropinquet deprecatio=169 Let my cry come before you, O LORD; * give me understanding, according to your word.170 Let my supplication come before you; deliver me, according to your promise.171 My lips shall pour forth your praise, * when you teach me your statutes.172 My tongue shall sing of your promise, for all your commandments are righteous.173 Let your hand be ready to help me, for I have chosen your commandments.174 I long for your salvation, O LORD, * and your law is my delight.175 Let me live, and I will praise you, and let your judgments help me.176 I have gone astray like a sheep that is lost; search for your servant, for I do not forget your commandments.*Twenty-seventh Day: Morning Prayer =Ad Domi1 When I was in trouble, I called to the LORD; I called to the LORD, and he answered me.2 Deliver me, O LORD, from lying lips * and from the deceitful tongue.3 What shall be done to you, and what more besides, * O you deceitful tongue?4 The sharpened arrows of a warrior, * along with hot glowing coals.5 How hateful it is that I must lodge in Meshech * and dwell among the tents of Kedar!6 Too long have I had to live * among the enemies of peace.7 I am on the side of peace, but when I speak of it, they are for war. =Levavi oculos=1 I lift up my eyes to the hills; from where is my help to come?2 My help comes from the LORD, * the maker of heaven and earth.3 He will not let your foot be moved * and he who watches over you will not fall asleep.4 Behold, he who keeps watch over Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep;5 The LORD himself watches over you; the LORD is your shade at your right hand,6 So that the sun shall not strike you by day, nor the moon by night.7 The LORD shall preserve you from all evil; it is he who shall keep you safe.8 The LORD shall watch over your going out and/your coming in, from this time forth for evermore. =Laetatus sum=1 I was glad when they said to me, "Let us go to the house of the LORD."2 Now our feet are standing * within your gates, O Jerusalem.3 Jerusalem is built as a city that is at unity with itself;4 To which the tribes go up,the tribes of the LORD, the assembly of Israel, to praise the Name of the LORD.5 For there are the thrones of judgment, * the thrones of the house of David.6 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: * "May they prosper who love you.7 Peace be within your walls * and quietness within your towers.8 For my brethren and companions' sake, * I pray for your prosperity.9 Because of the house of the LORD our God, I will seek to do you good." =Ad te levavi oculos meos=1 To you I lift up my eyes, to you enthroned in the heavens.2 As the eyes of servants look to the hand of their masters, * and the eyes of a maid to the hand of her mistress,3 So our eyes look to the LORD our God, * until he show us his mercy.4 Have mercy upon us, O LORD, have mercy, * for we have had more than enough of contempt,5 Too much of the scorn of the indolent rich, and of the derision of the proud. =Nisi quia Dominus=1 If the LORD had not been on our side, * let Israel now say;2 If the LORD had not been on our side, * when enemies rose up against us;3 Then would they have swallowed us up alive * in their fierce anger toward us;4 Then would the waters have overwhelmed us * and the torrent gone over us;5 Then would the raging waters have gone right over us.6 Blessed be the LORD! he has not given us over to be a prey for their teeth.7 We have escaped like a bird from the snare of the fowler; the snare is broken, and we have escaped.8 Our help is in the Name of the LORD, the maker of heaven and earth. =Qui confidunt=1 Those who trust in the LORD are like Mount Zion, * which cannot be moved, but stands fast for ever.2 The hills stand about Jerusalem; so does the LORD stand round about his people, from this time forth for evermore.3 The scepter of the wicked shall not hold sway over the/land allotted to the just, so that the just shall not put their hands to evil.4 Show your goodness, O LORD, to those who are good * and to those who are true of heart.5 As for those who turn aside to crooked ways,the LORD will lead them away with the evildoers; but peace be upon Israel.*Twenty-seventh Day: Evening Prayer =In convertendo=1 When the LORD restored the fortunes of Zion, then were we like those who dream.2 Then was our mouth filled with laughter, * and our tongue with shouts of joy.3 Then they said among the nations, * "The LORD has done great things for them."4 The LORD has done great things for us, * and we are glad indeed.5 Restore our fortunes, O LORD, * like the watercourses of the Negev.6 Those who sowed with tears * will reap with songs of joy.7 Those who go out weeping, carrying the seed, will come again with joy, shouldering their sheaves. =Nisi Dominus=1 Unless the LORD builds the house, * their labor is in vain who build it.2 Unless the LORD watches over the city, * in vain the watchman keeps his vigil.3 It is in vain that you rise so early and go to bed so late; vain, too, to eat the bread of toil, for he gives to his beloved sleep.4 Children are a heritage from the LORD, * and the fruit of the womb is a gift.5 Like arrows in the hand of a warrior * are the children of one's youth.6 Happy is the man who has his quiver full of them! he shall not be put to shame when he contends with his enemies in the gate. =Beati omnes=1 Happy are they all who fear the LORD, * and who follow in his ways!2 You shall eat the fruit of your labor; happiness and prosperity shall be yours.3 Your wife shall be like a fruitful vine within your house, * your children like olive shoots round about your table.4 The man who fears the LORD * shall thus indeed be blessed.5 The LORD bless you from Zion, and may you see the prosperity of Jerusalem all the days/of your life.6 May you live to see your children's children; * may peace be upon Israel. =Saepe expugnaverunt=1 "Greatly have they oppressed me since my youth," * let Israel now say;2 "Greatly have they oppressed me since my youth, but they have not prevailed against me."3 The plowmen plowed upon my back * and made their furrows long.4 The LORD, the Righteous One, * has cut the cords of the wicked.5 Let them be put to shame and thrown back, * all those who are enemies of Zion.6 Let them be like grass upon the housetops, which withers before it can be plucked;7 Which does not fill the hand of the reaper, * nor the bosom of him who binds the sheaves;8 So that those who go by say not so much as,"The LORD prosper you. * We wish you well in the Name of the LORD." =De profundis=1 Out of the depths have I called to you, O LORD;LORD, hear my voice; let your ears consider well the voice of my supplication.2 If you, LORD, were to note what is done amiss, O LORD, who could stand?3 For there is forgiveness with you; * therefore you shall be feared.4 I wait for the LORD; my soul waits for him; in his word is my hope.5 My soul waits for the LORD,more than watchmen for the morning, * more than watchmen for the morning.6 O Israel, wait for the LORD, for with the LORD there is mercy;7 With him there is plenteous redemption, * and he shall redeem Israel from all their sins. =Domine, non est=1 O LORD, I am not proud; I have no haughty looks.2 I do not occupy myself with great matters, or with things that are too hard for me.3 But I still my soul and make it quiet,like a child upon its mother's breast; my soul is quieted within me.4 O Israel, wait upon the LORD, * from this time forth for evermore.*Twenty-eighth Day: Morning Prayer =Memento, Domine=1 LORD, remember David, * and all the hardships he endured;2 How he swore an oath to the LORD * and vowed a vow to the Mighty One of kjv@Jacob:3 "I will not come under the roof of my house, * nor climb up into my bed;4 I will not allow my eyes to sleep, * nor let my eyelids slumber;5 Until I find a place for the LORD, * a dwelling for the Mighty One of Jacob."6 "The ark! We heard it was in Ephratah; * we found it in the fields of Jearim.7 Let us go to God's dwelling place; let us fall upon our knees before his footstool."8 Arise, O LORD, into your resting-place, you and the ark of your strength.9 Let your priests be clothed with righteousness; let your faithful people sing with joy.10 For your servant David's sake, do not turn away the face of your Anointed.11 The LORD has sworn an oath to David; in truth, he will not break it:12 "A son, the fruit of your body * will I set upon your throne.13 If your children keep my covenantand my testimonies that I shall teach them, their children will sit upon your throne for evermore."14 For the LORD has chosen Zion; * he has desired her for his habitation:15 "This shall be my resting-place for ever; * here will I dwell, for I delight in her.16 I will surely bless her provisions, and satisfy her poor with bread.17 I will clothe her priests with salvation, and her faithful people will rejoice and sing.18 There will I make the horn of David flourish; * I have prepared a lamp for my Anointed.19 As for his enemies, I will clothe them with shame; * but as for him, his crown will shine." =Ecce, quam bonum!=1 Oh, how good and pleasant it is, when brethren live together in unity!2 It is like fine oil upon the head * that runs down upon the beard,3 Upon the beard of Aaron, * and runs down upon the collar of his robe.4 It is like the dew of Hermon * that falls upon the hills of Zion.5 For there the LORD has ordained the blessing: life for evermore. =Ecce nunc=1 Behold now, bless the LORD, all you servants of the LORD, * you that stand by night in the house of the LORD.2 Lift up your hands in the holy place and bless the LORD; * the LORD who made heaven and earth bless/you out of Zion. =Laudate nomen=1 Hallelujah!Praise the Name of the LORD; give praise, you servants of the LORD.2 You who stand in the house of the LORD, in the courts of the house of our God.3 Praise the LORD, for the LORD is good; sing praises to his Name, for it is lovely.4 For the LORD has chosen Jacob for himself * and Israel for his own possession.5 For I know that the LORD is great, * and that our Lord is above all gods.6 The LORD does whatever pleases him, in heaven and on earth, in the seas and all the deeps.7 He brings up rain clouds from the ends of the earth; he sends out lightning with the rain, and brings the winds out of his storehouse.8 It was he who struck down the firstborn of Egypt, * the firstborn both of man and beast.9 He sent signs and wonders into the midst of you, O Egypt, * against Pharaoh and all his servants.10 He overthrew many nations * and put mighty kings to death:11 Sihon, king of the Amorites,and Og, the kingdoms of Bashan, * and all the kings of Canaan.12 He gave their land to be an inheritance, an inheritance for Israel his people.13 O LORD, your Name is everlasting; your renown, O LORD, endures from age to age.14 For the LORD gives his people justice * and shows compassion to his servants.15 The idols of the heathen are silver and gold, the work of human hands.16 They have mouths, but they cannot speak; * eyes have they, but they cannot see.17 They have ears, but they cannot hear; neither is there any breath in their mouth.18 Those who make them are like them, and so are all who put their trust in them.19 Bless the LORD, O house of Israel; * O house of Aaron, bless the LORD.20 Bless the LORD, O house of Levi; you who fear the LORD, bless the LORD.21 Blessed be the LORD out of Zion, * who dwells in Jerusalem. Hallelujah!*Twenty-eighth Day: Evening Prayer =Confitemini=1 Give thanks to the LORD, for he is good, for his mercy endures for ever.2 Give thanks to the God of gods, for his mercy endures for ever.3 Give thanks to the Lord of lords, for his mercy endures for ever.4 Who only does great wonders, for his mercy endures for ever;5 Who by wisdom made the heavens, * for his mercy endures for ever;6 Who spread out the earth upon the waters, * for his mercy endures for ever;7 Who created great lights, * for his mercy endures for ever;8 The sun to rule the day, * for his mercy endures for ever;9 The moon and the stars to govern the night, for his mercy endures for ever.10 Who struck down the firstborn of Egypt, for his mercy endures for ever;11 And brought out Israel from among them, * for his mercy endures for ever;12 With a mighty hand and a stretched-out arm, * for his mercy endures for ever;13 Who divided the Red Sea in two, * for his mercy endures for ever;14 And made Israel to pass through the midst of it, * for his mercy endures for ever;15 But swept Pharaoh and his army into the Red Sea, * for his mercy endures for ever;16 Who led his people through the wilderness, for his mercy endures for ever.17 Who struck down great kings, for his mercy endures for ever;18 And slew mighty kings, * for his mercy endures for ever;19 Sihon, king of the Amorites, * for his mercy endures for ever;20 And Og, the king of Bashan, * for his mercy endures for ever;21 And gave away their lands for an inheritance, * for his mercy endures for ever;22 An inheritance for Israel his servant, for his mercy endures for ever.23 Who remembered us in our low estate, for his mercy endures for ever;24 And delivered us from our enemies, * for his mercy endures for ever;25 Who gives food to all creatures, for his mercy endures for ever.26 Give thanks to the God of heaven, for his mercy endures for ever. =Super flumina=1 By the waters of Babylon we sat down and wept, when we remembered you, O Zion.2 As for our harps, we hung them up * on the trees in the midst of that land.3 For those who led us away captive asked us for a song,and our oppressors called for mirth: * "Sing us one of the songs of Zion."4 How shall we sing the LORD'S song * upon an alien soil?5 If I forget you, O Jerusalem, * let my right hand forget its skill.6 Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouthif I do not remember you, * if I do not set Jerusalem above my highest joy.7 Remember the day of Jerusalem, O LORD,against the people of Edom, * who said, "Down with it down with it even to the ground!"8 O Daughter of Babylon, doomed to destruction, * happy the one who pays you back for what you have done to us!9 Happy shall he be who takes your little ones, and dashes them against the rock! =Confitebor tibi=1 I will give thanks to you, O LORD, with my whole heart; before the gods I will sing your praise.2 I will bow down toward your holy templeand praise your Name, because of your love and faithfulness;3 For you have glorified your Name * and your word above all things.4 When I called, you answered me; you increased my strength within me.5 All the kings of the earth will praise you, O LORD, * when they have heard the words of your mouth.6 They will sing of the ways of the LORD, that great is the glory of the LORD.7 Though the LORD be high, he cares for the lowly; * he perceives the haughty from afar.8 Though I walk in the midst of trouble, you keep me safe; * you stretch forth your hand against the fury of my enemies; your right hand shall save me.9 The LORD will make good his purpose for me; * O LORD, your love endures for ever; do not abandon the works of your hands.Twenty-ninth Day: Morning Prayer =Domine, probasti=1 LORD, you have searched me out and known me; * you know my sitting down and my rising up; you discern my thoughts from afar.2 You trace my journeys and my resting-places and are acquainted with all my ways.3 Indeed, there is not a word on my lips, * but you, O LORD, know it altogether.4 You press upon me behind and before and lay your hand upon me.5 Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is so high that I cannot attain to it.6 Where can I go then from your Spirit? where can I flee from your presence?7 If I climb up to heaven, you are there; if I make the grave my bed, you are there also.8 If I take the wings of the morning * and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea,9 Even there your hand will lead me * and your right hand hold me fast.10 If I say, "Surely the darkness will cover me, and the light around me turn to night,"11 Darkness is not dark to you;the night is as bright as the day; * darkness and light to you are both alike.12 For you yourself created my inmost parts; * you knit me together in my mother's womb.13 I will thank you because I am marvelously made; your works are wonderful, and I know it well.14 My body was not hidden from you, while I was being made in secret and woven in the depths of the earth.15 Your eyes beheld my limbs, yet unfinished in the womb;all of them were written in your book; they were fashioned day by day, when as yet there was none of them.16 How deep I find your thoughts, O God! how great is the sum of them!17 If I were to count them, they would be more in number/than the sand; to count them all, my life span would need to/be like yours.18 Oh, that you would slay the wicked, O God! You that thirst for blood, depart from me.19 They speak despitefully against you; your enemies take your Name in vain.20 Do I not hate those, O LORD, who hate you? and do I not loathe those who rise up against you?21 I hate them with a perfect hatred; * they have become my own enemies.22 Search me out, O God, and know my heart; try me and know my restless thoughts.23 Look well whether there be any wickedness in me and lead me in the way that is everlasting. =Eripe me, Domine=1 Deliver me, O LORD, from evildoers; protect me from the violent,2 Who devise evil in their hearts and stir up strife all day long.3 They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent; * adder's poison is under their lips.4 Keep me, O LORD, from the hands of the wicked; * protect me from the violent, who are determined to trip me up.5 The proud have hidden a snare for meand stretched out a net of cords; * they have set traps for me along the path.6 I have said to the LORD, "You are my God; listen, O LORD, to my supplication.7 O Lord GOD, the strength of my salvation, * you have covered my head in the day of battle.8 Do not grant the desires of the wicked, O LORD, nor let their evil plans prosper.9 Let not those who surround me lift up their heads; * let the evil of their lips overwhelm them.10 Let hot burning coals fall upon them; let them be cast into the mire, never to rise up again."11 A slanderer shall not be established on the earth, * and evil shall hunt down the lawless.12 I know that the LORD will maintain the cause of the poor and render justice to the needy.13 Surely, the righteous will give thanks to your Name, and the upright shall continue in your sight.*Twenty-ninth Day: Evening Prayer =Domine, clamavi=1 O LORD, I call to you; come to me quickly; hear my voice when I cry to you.2 Let my prayer be set forth in your sight as incense, the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice.3 Set a watch before my mouth, O LORD,and guard the door of my lips; let not my heart incline to any evil thing.4 Let me not be occupied in wickedness with evildoers, nor eat of their choice foods.5 Let the righteous smite me in friendly rebuke;let not the oil of the unrighteous anoint my head; for my prayer is continually against their wicked deeds.6 Let their rulers be overthrown in stony places, * that they may know my words are true.7 As when a plowman turns over the earth in furrows, let their bones be scattered at the mouth of the grave.8 But my eyes are turned to you, Lord GOD; * in you I take refuge; do not strip me of my life.9 Protect me from the snare which they have laid for me and from the traps of the evildoers.10 Let the wicked fall into their own nets, while I myself escape. =Voce mea ad Domi1 I cry to the LORD with my voice; to the LORD I make loud supplication.2 I pour out my complaint before him and tell him all my trouble3 When my spirit languishes within me, you know my path; * in the way wherein I walk they have hidden a trap for me.4 I look to my right hand and find no one who knows me; * I have no place to flee to, and no one cares for me.5 I cry out to you, O LORD; * I say, "You are my refuge, my portion in the land of the living."6 Listen to my cry for help, for I have been brought very low; * save me from those who pursue me, for they are too strong for me.7 Bring me out of prison, that I may give thanks to your Name; * when you have dealt bountifully with me, the righteous will gather around me. =Domine, exaudi=1 LORD, hear my prayer,and in your faithfulness heed my supplications; answer me in your righteousness.2 Enter not into judgment with your servant, for in your sight shall no one living be justified.3 For my enemy has sought my life;he has crushed me to the ground; * he has made me live in dark places like those who/are long dead.4 My spirit faints within me; * my heart within me is desolate.5 I remember the time past;I muse upon all your deeds; * I consider the works of your hands.6 I spread out my hands to you; * my soul gasps to you like a thirsty land.7 O LORD, make haste to answer me; my spirit fails me; * do not hide your face from me or I shall be like those who go down to the Pit.8 Let me hear of your loving-kindness in the morning,for I put my trust in you; show me the road that I must walk, for I lift up my soul to you.9 Deliver me from my enemies, O LORD, for I flee to you for refuge.10 Teach me to do what pleases you, for you are my God; * let your good Spirit lead me on level ground.11 Revive me, O LORD, for your Name's sake; for your righteousness' sake, bring me out of trouble.12 Of your goodness, destroy my enemiesand bring all my foes to naught, for truly I am your servant.Thirtieth Day: Morning Prayer =Benedictus Dominus=1 Blessed be the LORD my rock! * who trains my hands to fight and my fingers to battle;2 My help and my fortress, my stronghold and my deliverer, my shield in whom I trust, who subdues the peoples under me.3 O LORD, what are we that you should care for us? mere mortals that you should think of us?4 We are like a puff of wind; * our days are like a passing shadow.5 Bow your heavens, O LORD, and come down; * touch the mountains, and they shall smoke.6 Hurl the lightning and scatter them; * shoot out your arrows and rout them.7 Stretch out your hand from on high; rescue me and deliver me from the great waters, from the hand of foreign peoples,8 Whose mouths speak deceitfully and whose right hand is raised in falsehood.9 O God, I will sing to you a new song; I will play to you on a ten-stringed lyre.10 You give victory to kings * and have rescued David your servant.11 Rescue me from the hurtful sword * and deliver me from the hand of foreign peoples,12 Whose mouths speak deceitfully and whose right hand is raised in falsehood.13 May our sons be like plants well nurtured from their youth, * and our daughters like sculptured corners of a palace.14 May our barns be filled to overflowing with all manner/of crops; * may the flocks in our pastures increase by thousands/and tens of thousands; may our cattle be fat and sleek.15 May there be no breaching of the walls, no going into exile, no wailing in the public squares.16 Happy are the people of whom this is so! happy are the people whose God is the LORD! =Exaltabo te, Deus=1 I will exalt you, O God my King, and bless your Name for ever and ever.2 Every day will I bless you and praise your Name for ever and ever.3 Great is the LORD and greatly to be praised; there is no end to his greatness.4 One generation shall praise your works to another * and shall declare your power.5 I will ponder the glorious splendor of your majesty * and all your marvelous works.6 They shall speak of the might of your wondrous acts, and I will tell of your greatness.7 They shall publish the remembrance of your great goodness; * they shall sing of your righteous deeds.8 The LORD is gracious and full of compassion, slow to anger and of great kindness.9 The LORD is loving to everyone * and his compassion is over all his works.10 All your works praise you, O LORD, * and your faithful servants bless you.11 They make known the glory of your kingdom and speak of your power;12 That the peoples may know of your power * and the glorious splendor of your kingdom.13 Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom; your dominion endures throughout all ages.14 The LORD is faithful in all his words and merciful in all his deeds.15 The LORD upholds all those who fall; he lifts up those who are bowed down.16 The eyes of all wait upon you, O LORD, * and you give them their food in due season.17 You open wide your hand * and satisfy the needs of every living creature.18 The LORD is righteous in all his ways * and loving in all his works.19 The LORD is near to those who call upon him, to all who call upon him faithfully.20 He fulfills the desire of those who fear him; he hears their cry and helps them.21 The LORD preserves all those who love him, but he destroys all the wicked.22 My mouth shall speak the praise of the LORD; * let all flesh bless his holy Name for ever and ever. =Lauda, anima mea=1 HallelujahPraise the LORD, O my soul * I will praise the LORD as long as I live; I will sing praises to my God while I have my being.2 Put not your trust in rulers, nor in any child of earth, for there is no help in them.3 When they breathe their last, they return to earth, * and in that day their thoughts perish.4 Happy are they who have the God of Jacob for their help! whose hope is in the LORD their God;5 Who made heaven and earth, the seas, and all that is in them; * who keeps his promise for ever;6 Who gives justice to those who are oppressed, * and food to those who hunger.7 The LORD sets the prisoners free;the LORD opens the eyes of the blind; * the LORD lifts up those who are bowed down;8 The LORD loves the righteous;the LORD cares for the stranger; he sustains the orphan and widow, but frustrates the way of the wicked.9 The LORD shall reign for ever, your God, O Zion, throughout all generations. Hallelujah!Thirtieth Day: Evening Prayer =Laudate Domi1 HallelujahHow good it is to sing praises to our God * how pleasant it is to honor him with praise!2 The LORD rebuilds Jerusalem; he gathers the exiles of Israel.3 He heals the brokenhearted * and binds up their wounds.4 He counts the number of the stars and calls them all by their names.5 Great is our LORD and mighty in power; there is no limit to his wisdom.6 The LORD lifts up the lowly, but casts the wicked to the ground.7 Sing to the LORD with thanksgiving; make music to our God upon the harp.8 He covers the heavens with clouds and prepares rain for the earth;9 He makes grass to grow upon the mountains and green plants to serve mankind.10 He provides food for flocks and herds and for the young ravens when they cry.11 He is not impressed by the might of a horse; * he has no pleasure in the strength of a man;12 But the LORD has pleasure in those who fear him, * in those who await his gracious favor.13 Worship the LORD, O Jerusalem; * praise your God, O Zion;14 For he has strengthened the bars of your gates; * he has blessed your children within you.15 He has established peace on your borders; he satisfies you with the finest wheat.16 He sends out his command to the earth, and his word runs very swiftly.17 He gives snow like wool; * he scatters hoarfrost like ashes.18 He scatters his hail like bread crumbs; * who can stand against his cold?19 He sends forth his word and melts them; he blows with his wind, and the waters flow.20 He declares his word to Jacob, his statutes and his judgments to Israel.21 He has not done so to any other nation; * to them he has not revealed his judgments. Hallelujah! =Laudate Domi1 Hallelujah!Praise the LORD from the heavens; * praise him in the heights.2 Praise him, all you angels of his; * praise him, all his host.3 Praise him, sun and moon; * praise him, all you shining stars.4 Praise him, heaven of heavens, * and you waters above the heavens.5 Let them praise the Name of the LORD; * for he commanded, and they were created.6 He made them stand fast for ever and ever; he gave them a law which shall not pass away.7 Praise the LORD from the earth, you sea-monsters and all deeps;8 Fire and hail, snow and fog, * tempestuous wind, doing his will;9 Mountains and all hills, * fruit trees and all cedars;10 Wild beasts and all cattle, * creeping things and winge!d birds;11 Kings of the earth and all peoples, * princes and all rulers of the world;12 Young men and maidens, old and young together.13 Let them praise the Name of the LORD, * for his Name only is exalted, his splendor is over earth and heaven.14 He has raised up strength for his peopleand praise for all his loyal servants, the children of Israel, a people who are near him. Hallelujah! =Cantate Domino=1 Hallelujah!Sing to the LORD a new song; * sing his praise in the congregation of the faithful.2 Let Israel rejoice in his Maker; * let the children of Zion be joyful in their King.3 Let them praise his Name in the dance; let them sing praise to him with timbrel and harp.4 For the LORD takes pleasure in his people and adorns the poor with victory.5 Let the faithful rejoice in triumph; let them be joyful on their beds.6 Let the praises of God be in their throat and a two-edged sword in their hand;7 To wreak vengeance on the nations * and punishment on the peoples;8 To bind their kings in chains * and their nobles with links of iron;9 To inflict on them the judgment decreed; * this is glory for all his faithful people. Hallelujah! =Laudate Domi1 Hallelujah!Praise God in his holy temple; * praise him in the firmament of his power.2 Praise him for his mighty acts; * praise him for his excellent greatness.3 Praise him with the blast of the ram's-horn; * Praise him with lyre and harp.4 Praise him with timbrel and dance; * praise him with strings and pipe.5 Praise him with resounding cymbals; praise him with loud-clanging cymbals.6 Let everything that has breath praise the Lord. Hallelujah!


                                              BookOfCommonPrayer
                                              Found:
                                                Prayers for the Ordained Ministry are on pages 205 and 256.*


                                                BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                Found:
                                                  Prayers for Industry and Labor are on pages 208, 210,259, and 261.*


                                                  BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                  Found:
                                                    Prayers for the sick are on pages 548-461.*


                                                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                    Found:
                                                      Prayers for the dying are on pages 462-465.*


                                                      BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                      Found:
                                                        Prayers for the dead are on pages 202,253,487, and 503.*


                                                        BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                        Found:
                                                          Thanksgivings for the departed are on pages 487-489 and 503-504.*


                                                          BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                          Found:
                                                            The term "Various Occasions" in the following pages refers to the numbered Collects beginning on pages 199 and 251.*


                                                            BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                            Found:
                                                              See also the prayers for the Mission of the church on pages 58, 100, and 101, and Various Occasions no. 16.*


                                                              BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                              Found: Lord Christ, when you came among us, you proclaimed thekingdom of God in villages, towns, and lonely places: Grantthat your presence and power may be known throughout thisland. Have mercy upon all of us who live and work in ruralareas [especially &mdash.]; and grant that all the peopleof our nation may give thanks to you for food and drink andall other bodily necessities of life, respect those who labor toproduce them, and honor the land and the water from whichthese good things come. All this we ask in your holy Name.=Amen.=


                                                              BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                              Found:
                                                                Prayers for the sick are on pages 458-461. See also Various Occasionsno. 20*


                                                                BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                                Found:
                                                                  Prayers for Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, and for morning andevening, are on pages 56, 69, 98, and 123.*


                                                                  BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                                  Found:
                                                                    See also The General Thanksgiving on pages 58 and 101.*


                                                                    BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                                    Found:
                                                                      Thanksgivings for the departed are on pages 487-489 and 503-504.*


                                                                      BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                                      Found:
                                                                        See pages 3o God?


                                                                        BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                                        Found:
                                                                          See pages 53, 96, 326, 327, and 864


                                                                          BookOfCommonPrayer
                                                                          Found: &Q. How do we recognize the truths taught by the Holy Spirit?&A. We recognize truths to be taught by the Holy Spirit when they arein accord with the Scriptures.&Q. What are the Holy Scriptures?&A. The Holy Scriptures, commonly called the Bible, are the books ofthe Old and New Testaments; other books, called the Apocrypha, areoften included in the Bible.&Q. What is the Old Testament?&A. The Old Testament consists of books written by the people of theOld Covenant, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, to show God atwork in nature and history.&Q. What is the New Testament?&A. The New Testament consists of books written by the people of theNew Covenant, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, to set forththe life and teachings of Jesus and to proclaim the Good News of theKingdom for all people.&Q. What is the Apocrypha?&A. The Apocrypha is a collection of additional books written by peopleof the Old Covenant, and used in the Christian Church.&Q. Why do we call the Holy Scriptures the Word of God?&A. We call them the Word of God because God inspired their humanauthors and because God still speaks to us through the Bible.&Q. How do we understand the meaning of the Bible?&A. We understand the meaning of the Bible by the help of [ Page 854>the Holy Spirit, who guides the Church in the true interpretation ofthe Scriptures.&Q. What is the Church?&A. The Church is the community of the New Covenant.&Q. How is the Church described in the Bible?&A. The Church is described as the Body of which Jesus Christ is theHead and of which all baptized persons are members. It is called thePeople of God, the New Israel, a holy nation, a royal priesthood, andthe pillar and ground of truth.&Q. How is the Church described in the creeds?&A. The Church is described as one, holy, catholic, and apostolic.&Q. Why is the Church described as one?&A. The Church is one, because it is one Body, under one Head, our LordJesus Christ.&Q. Why is the Church described as holy?&A. The Church is holy, because the Holy Spirit dwells in it,consecrates its members, and guides them to do God's work.&Q. Why is the Church described as catholic?&A. The Church is catholic, because it proclaims the whole Faith to allpeople, to the end of time.&Q. Why is the Church described as apostolic?&A. The Church is apostolic, because it continues in the teaching andfellowship of the apostles and is sent to carry out Christ's missionto all people.&Q. What is the mission of the Church?&A. The mission of the Church is to restore all people to unity withGod and each other in Christ.&Q. How does the Church pursue its mission?&A. The Church pursues its mission as it prays and worships, proclaimsthe Gospel, and promotes justice, peace, and love.&Q. Through whom does the Church carry out its mission?&A. The church carries out its mission through the ministry of all itsmembers.&Q. Who are the ministers of the Church?&A. The ministers of the Church are lay persons, bishops, priests, anddeacons.&Q. What is the ministry of the laity?&A. The ministry of lay persons is the represent Christ and his Church;to bear witness to him wherever they may be; and, according to thegifts given them, to carry on Christ's work of reconciliation in theworld; and to take their place in the life, worship, and governance ofthe Church.&Q. What is the ministry of a bishop?&A. The minsitry of a bishop is to represent Christ and his Church,particularly as apostle, chief priest, and pastor of a diocese; toguard the faith, unity, and discipline of the whole Church; toproclaim the Word of God; to act in Christ's name for thereconciliation of the world and the building up of the Church; and toordain others to continue Christ's ministry.&Q. What is the ministry of a priest or presbyter?&A. The ministry of a priest is to represent Christ and his Church,particularly as pastor to the people; to share with the bishop in theoverseeing of the Church; to proclaim the Gospel; to administer thesacraments; and to bless and declare pardon in the name of God.&Q. What is the ministry of a deacon?&A. The ministry of a deacon is to represent Christ and his Church,particularly as a servant of those in need; and to assist bishops andpriests in the proclamation of the Gospel and the administration ofthe sacraments.&Q. What is the duty of all Christians?&A. The duty of all Christians is to follow Christ; to come togetherweek by week for corporate worship; and to work, pray, and give forthe spread of the kingdom of God.&Q. What is prayer?&A. Prayer is responding to God, by thought and by deeds, with orwithout words.&Q. What is Christian Prayer?&A. Christian prayer is response of God the Father, through JesusChrist, in the power of the Holy Spirit.&Q. What prayer did Christ teach us?&A. Our Lord gave us the example of prayer knows as the Lord's Prayer.See page 364&Q. What are the principle kinds of prayer?&A. The principle kinds of prayer are adoration, praise, thanksgiving,penitence, oblation, intercession, and petition.&Q. What is adoration?&A. Adoration is the lifting up of the heart and mind to God, askingnothing but to enjoy God's presence.&Q. Why do we praise God?&A. We praise God, not to obtain anything, but because God's Beingdraws praise from us.&Q. For what do we offer thanksgiving?&A. Thanksgiving is offered to God for all the blessings of this life,for our redemption, and for whatever draws us closer to God.&Q. What is penitence?&A. In penitence, we confess our sins and make restitution wherepossible, with the intention to amend our lives.&Q. What is prayer of oblation?&A. Oblation is an offering of ourselves, our lives and labors, inunion with Christ, for the purposes of God.&Q. What are intercession and petition?&A. Intercession brings before god the needs of others; in petition, wepresent our own needs, that God's will may be done.&Q. What is corporate worship?&A. In corporate worship, we unite ourselves with others to acknowledgethe holiness of God, to hear God's Word, to offer prayer, and tocelebrate the sacraments.&Q. What are the sacraments?&A. The sacraments are outward and visible signs of inward andspiritual grace, given by Christ as sure and certain means by which wereceive that grace.&Q. What is grace?&A. Grace is God's favor toward us, unearned and undeserved; by graceGod forgives our sins, enlightens our minds, stirs our hearts, andstrengthens our wills.&Q. What are the two great sacraments of the Gospel?&A. The two great sacraments given by Christ to his Church are HolyBaptism and the Holy Eucharist.&Q. What is Holy Baptism?&A. Holy Baptism is the sacrament by which God adopts us as hischildren and makes us members of Christ's Body, the Church, andinheritors of the kingdom of God.&Q. What is the outward and visible sign in Baptism?&A. The outward and visible sign in Baptism is water, in which theperson is baptized in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and ofthe Holy Spirit.&Q. What is the inward and spiritual grace in Baptism?&A. The inward and spiritual grace in Baptism is union with Christ inhis death and resurrection, birth into God's family the Church,forgiveness of sins, and new life in the Holy Spirit.&Q. What is required of us at Baptism?&A. It is required that we renounce Satan, repent of our sins, andaccept Jesus as our Lord and Savior.&Q. Why then are infants baptized?&A. Infants are baptized so that they can share citizenship in theCovenant, membership in Christ, and redemption by God.&Q. How are the promises for infants made and carried out?&A. Promises are made for them by their parents and sponsors, whoguarantee that the infants will be brought up within the Church, toknow Christ and be able to follow him.&Q. What is the Holy Eucharist?&A. The Holy Eucharist is the sacrament commanded by Christ for thecontinual remembrance of his life, death, and resurrection, until hiscoming again.&Q. Why is the Eucharist called a sacrifice?&A. Because the Eucharist, the Church's sacrifice of praise andthanksgiving, is the way by which the sacrifice of Christ is madepresent, and in which he unites us to his one offering of himself.&Q. By what other names is this service known?&A. The Holy Eucharist is called the Lord's Supper, and Holy Communion;it is also known as the Divine Liturgy, the Mass, and the GreatOffering.&Q. What is the outward and visible sign in the Eucharist?&A. The outward and visible sign in the Eucharist is bread and wine,give and received according to Christ's command.&Q. What is the inward and spiritual grace given in the Eucharist?&A. The inward and spiritual grace in the Holy Communion is the Bodyand Blood of Christ give to his people, and received by faith.&Q. What are the benefits which we receive in the Lord's Supper?&A. The benefits we receive are the forgiveness of our sins, [ Page 860>the strengthening of our union with Christ and one another, and theforetaste of the heavenly banquet which is our nourishment in eternallife.&Q. What is required of us when we come to the Eucharist?&A. It is required that we should examine our lives, repent of oursins, and be in love and charity with all people.&Q. What other sacramental rites evolved in the Church under theguidance of the Holy Spirit?&A. Other sacramental rites which evolved in the Church includeconfirmation, ordination, holy matrimony, reconciliation of apenitent, and unction.&Q. How do they differ from the two sacraments of the Gospel?&A. Although they are means of grace, they are not necessary for allpersons in the same way that Baptism and the Eucharist are.&Q. What is Confirmation?&A. Confirmation is the rite in which we express a mature commitment toChrist, and receive strength from the Holy Spirit through prayer andthe laying on of hands by a bishop.&Q. What is required of those to be confirmed?&A. It is required of those to be confirmed that they have beenbaptized, are sufficiently instructed in the Christian Faith, arepenitent for their sins, and are ready to affirm their confession ofJesus Christ as Savior and Lord.&Q. What is Ordination?&A. Ordination is the rite in which God gives authority and the graceof the Holy Spirit to those being made bishops,priests, and deacons, through prayer and the laying on of hands bybishops.&Q. What is Holy Matrimony?&A. Holy Matrimony is Christian marriage, in which the woman and manenter into a life-long union, make their vows before God and theChurch, and receive the grace and blessing of God to help them fulfilltheir vows.&Q. What is Reconciliation of a Penitent?&A. Reconciliation of a Penitent, or Penance, is the rite in whichthose who repent of their sins may confess them to God in the presenceof a priest, and receive the assurance of pardon and the grace ofabsolution.&Q. What is Unction of the Sick?&A. Unction is the rite of anointing the sick with oil, or the layingon of hands, by which God's grace is given for the healing of spirit,mind, and body.&Q. Is God's activity limited to these rites?&A. God does not limit himself to these rites; they are patterns ofcountless ways by which God uses material things to reach out to us.&Q. How are the sacraments related to our Christian hope?&A. Sacraments sustain our present hope and anticipate its futurefulfillment.&Q. What is the Christian hope?&A. The Christian hope is to live with confidence in newness andfullness of life, and to await the coming of Christ in glory, and thecompletion of God's purpose for the world.&Q. What do we mean by the coming of Christ in glory?&A. By the coming of Christ in glory, we mean that Christ will come,not in weakness but in power, and will make all things new.&Q. What do we mean by heaven and hell?&A. By heaven, we mean eternal life in our enjoyment of God; by hell,we mean eternal death in our rejection of God.&Q. Why do we pray for the dead?&A. We pray for them, because we still hold them in our love, andbecause we trust that in God's presence those who have chosen to servehim will grow in his love, until they see him as he is.&Q. What do we mean by the last judgment?&A. We believe that Christ will come in glory and judge the living andthe dead.&Q. What do we mean by the resurrection of the body?&A. We mean that God will raise us from death in the fullness of ourbeing, that we may live with Christ in the communion of the saints.&Q. What is the communion of saints?&A. The communion of saints is the whole family of God, the living andthe dead, those whom we love and those whom we hurt, bound together inChrist by sacrament, prayer, and praise.&Q. What do we mean by everlasting life?&A. By everlasting life, we mean a new existence, in which we are unitedwith all the people of God, in the joy of fully knowing and loving Godand each other.&Q. What, then, is our assurance as Christians?&A. Our assurance as Christians is that nothing, not even death, shallseparate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.Amen.=Council of Chalcedon, 451 A.D., Act V=Therefore, following the holy fathers, we all with one accord teach mento acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at oncecomplete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man,consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance(homoousios) with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the sametime of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in allrespects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Fatherbefore the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men andfor our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer (Theotokos); oneand the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, recognized in twonatures, without confusion, without change, without division, withoutseparation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by theunion, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved andcoming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted orseparated into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begottenGod the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliesttimes spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and thecreed of the Fathers has handed down to us.=commonly called=Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he holdthe Catholic Faith.Which Faith except everyone do keep whole and undefiled, without doubthe shall perish everlastingly.And the Catholic Faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, andTrinity in Unity, neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing theSubstance.For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and anotherof the Holy Ghost.But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, isall one, the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal.Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost.The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost uncreate.The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the HolyGhost incomprehensible.The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Ghost eternal.And yet they are not three eternals, but one eternal.As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three uncreated, butone uncreated, and one incomprehensible.So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty, and the HolyGhost Almighty.And yet they are not three Almighties, but one Almighty.So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God.And yet they are not three Gods, but one God.So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Ghost Lord.And yet not three Lords, but one Lord.For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledgeevery Person by himself to be both God and Lord,So are we forbidden by the Catholic Religion, to say, There be threeGods, or three Lords.The Father is made of none, neither created, nor begotten.The Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but begotten.The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son, neither made, norcreated, nor begotten, but proceeding.So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; oneHoly Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts.And in this Trinity none is afore, or after other; none is greater, orless than another;But the whole three Persons are co-eternal together and co-equal.So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity and theTrinity in Unity is to be worshipped.He therefore that will be saved is must think thus of the Trinity.Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation that he alsobelieve rightly the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.For the right Faith is, that we believe and confess, that our LordJesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man;God, of the substance of the Father, begotten before the worlds; andMan of the substance of his Mother, born in the world;Perfect God and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human fleshsubsisting.Equal to the Father, as touching his Godhead; and inferior to theFather, as touching his manhood;Who, although he be God and Man, yet he is not two, but one Christ;One, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh but by taking of theManhood into God;One altogether; not by confusion of Substance, but by unity of Person.For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man, so God and Man is oneChrist;Who suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose again thethird day from the dead.He ascended into heaven, he sitteth at the right hand of the Father,God Almighty, from whence he will come to judge the quick and the dead.At whose coming all men will rise again with their bodies and shallgive account for their own works.And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting; and theythat have done evil into everlasting fire.This is the Catholic Faith, which except a man believe faithfully, hecannot be saved.There was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or so sureestablished, which in continuance of time hath not been corrupted: as,among other things, it may plainly appear by the common prayers in theChurch, commonly called Divine Service: the first original and groundwhereof, if a man would search out by the ancient fathers, he shallfind, that the same was not ordained, but of a good purpose, and for agreat advancement of godliness: For they so ordered the matter, that allthe whole Bible (or the greatest part thereof) should be read over oncein the year, intending thereby, that the Clergy, and especially such aswere Ministers of the congregation, should (by often reading, andmeditation of God's word) be stirred up to godliness themselves, and bemore able to exhort others by wholesome doctrine, and to confute themthat were adversaries to the truth. And further, that the people (bydaily hearing of holy Scripture read in the Church) should continuallyprofit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamedwith the love of his true religion.But these many years passed, this godly and decent order of the ancientfathers hath been so altered, broken, and neglected, by planting inuncertain stories, Legends, Responds, Verses, vain repetitions,Commemorations, and Synodals, that commonly when any book of the Biblewas begun, before three or four Chapters were read out, all the restwere unread. And in this sort the book of Isaiah was begun in Advent,and the book of Genesis in Septuagesima; but they were only begun, andnever read through. After a like sort were other books of holyScripture used. And moreover, whereas St. Paul would have such languagespoken to the people in the Church, as they might understand, and haveprofit by hearing the same, the Service in the Church of England (thesemany years) hath been read in Latin to the people, which they understoodnot; so that they have heard with their ears only; and their hearts,spirit, and mind, have not been edified thereby. And furthermore,notwithstanding that the ancient fathers had divided the Psalms intoseven portions, whereof every one was called a nocturn, now of late timea few of them have been daily said (and oft repeated), and the restutterly omitted. Moreover, the number and hardness of the Rules calledthe Pie, and the manifold changings of the service, was the cause, thatto turn the Book only, was so hard and intricate a matter, that manytimes, there was more business to find out what should be read, than toread it when it was found out.These inconveniences therefore considered, here is set forth such anorder, whereby the same shall be redressed. And for a readiness in thismatter, here is drawn out a Kalendar for that purpose, which is plainand easy to be understood, wherein (so much as may be) the reading ofholy Scripture is so set forth, that all things shall be done in order,without breaking one piece thereof from another. For this cause be cutoff Anthems, Responds, Invitatories, and such like things, as did breakthe continual course of the reading of the Scripture.Yet because there is no remedy, but that of necessity there must be somerules: therefore certain rules are here set forth, which, as they be fewin number; so they be plain and easy to be understood. So that here youhave an order for prayer (as touching the reading of the holyScripture), much agreeable to the mind and purpose of the old fathers,and a great deal more profitable and commodious, than that which of latewas used. It is more profitable, because here are left out many things,whereof some be untrue, some uncertain, same vainand superstitious: and is ordained nothing to be read, but the very pureword of God, the holy Scriptures, or that which is evidently groundedupon the same; and that in such a language and order as is most easy andplain for the understanding, both of the readers and hearers. It isalso more commodious, both for the shortness thereof, and for theplainness of the order, and for that the rules be few and easy.Furthermore, by this order the curates shall need none other books fortheir public service, but this book and the Bible: by the means whereof,the people shall not be at so great charge for books, as in time pastthey have been.And where heretofore, there hath been great diversity in saying andsinging in churches within this realm: some following Salisbury use,some Hereford use, some the use of Bangor, some of York, and some ofLincoln: now from henceforth, all the whole realm shall have but oneuse. And if any would judge this way more painful, because that allthings must be read upon the book, whereas before, by reason of so oftenrepetition, they could say many things by heart: if those men will weightheir labor with the profit in knowledge, which daily they shall obtainby reading upon the book, they will not refuse the pain, inconsideration of the great profit that shall ensue thereof.And forasmuch as nothing else, almost, be so plainly set forth, butdoubts may arise in the use and practicing of the same: to appease allsuch diversity (if any arise), and for the resolution of all doubts,concerning the manner how to understand, do, and execute, the thingscontained in this book: the parties that so doubt, or diversely take anything, shall always resort to the Bishop of the Diocese, who by hisdiscretion shall take order for the quieting and appeasing of the same;so that the same order be not contrary to any thing contained in thisbook.Though it be appointed in the afore written preface, that all thingsshall be read and sung in the church in the English tongue, to the endthat the congregation may be thereby edified: yet it is not meant, butwhen men say Matins and Evensong privately, they may say the same in anylanguage that they themselves do understand. Neither that any man shallbe bound to the saying of them, but such as from time to time, inCathedral and Collegiate Churches, parish Churches, and Chapels to thesame annexed, shall serve the congregation.As established by the Bishops, the Clergy, and the Laity of theProtestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, inConvention, on the twelfth day of September, in the Year of our Lord,1801.There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body, parts,or passions; of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness; the Maker, andPreserver of all things both visible and invisible. And in the unity ofthis Godhead there be three Persons, of one substance, power, andeternity; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.The Son, which is the Word of the Father, begotten from everlasting ofthe Father, the very and eternal God, and of one substance with theFather, took Man's nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin, of hersubstance: so that two whole and perfect Natures, that is to say, theGodhead and Manhood, were joined together in one Person, never to bedivided, whereof is one Christ, very God, and very Man; who trulysuffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, to reconcile his Father tous, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also foractual sins of men.As Christ died for us, and was buried; so also it is to be believed,that he went down into Hell.Christ did truly rise again from death, and took again his body, withflesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of Man'snature; wherewith he ascended into Heaven, and there sitteth, until hereturn to judge all Men at the last day.The Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is of onesubstance, majesty, and glory, with the Father and the Son, very andeternal God.Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation: so thatwhatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to berequired of any man, that it should be believed as an article of theFaith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the nameof the Holy Scripture we do understand those canonical Books of the Oldand New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, The First Book of Samuel, The Second Book of Samuel, The First Book of Kings, The Second Book of Kings, The First Book of Chronicles, The Second Book of Chronicles, The First Book of Esdras, The Second Book of Esdras, The Book of Esther, The Book of Job, The Psalms, The Proverbs, Ecclesiastes or Preacher, Cantica, or Songs of Solomon, Four Prophets the greater, Twelve Prophets the less.And the other Books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for exampleof life and instruction of manners; but yet doth it not apply them toestablish any doctrine; such are these following: The Third Book of Esdras, The Fourth Book of Esdras, The Book of Tobias, The Book of Judith, The rest of the Book of Esther, The Book of Wisdom, Jesus the Son of Sirach, Baruch the Prophet, The Song of the Three Children, The Story of Susanna, Of Bel and the Dragon, The Prayer of Manasses, The First Book of Maccabees, The Second Book of Maccabees. All the Books of the New Testament, as they are commonly received, wedo receive, and account them Canonical.The Old Testament is not contrary to the New: for both in the Old andNew Testament everlasting life is offered to Mankind by Christ, who isthe only Mediator between God and Man, being both God and Man.Wherefore they are not to be heard, which feign that the old Fathers didlook only for transitory promises. Although the Law given from God byMoses, as touching Ceremonies and Rites, do not bind Christian men, northe Civil precepts thereof ought of necessity to be received in anycommonwealth; yet notwithstanding, no Christian man whatsoever is freefrom the obedience of the Commandments which are called Moral.The Nicene Creed, and that which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed,ought thoroughly to be received and believed: for they may be proved bymost certain warrants of Holy Scripture.The original Article given Royal assent in 1571 and reaffirmed in 1662,was entitled, "Of the Three Creeds; and began as follows, "The ThreeCreeds, Nicene Creed, Athanasius's Creed, and that which is commonlycalled the Apostles' Creed..."Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam, (as the Pelagians dovainly talk;) but it is the fault and corruption of the Nature of everyman, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam; whereby manis very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own natureinclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to theSpirit; and therefore in every person born into this world, it deservethGod's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain,yea in them that are regenerated; whereby the lust of the flesh, calledin Greek, fro/nhma sarko/s, (which some do expound the wisdom, somesensuality, some the affection, some the desire, of the flesh), is notsubject to the Law of God. And although there is no condemnation forthem that believe and are baptized; yet the Apostle doth confess, thatconcupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of sin.The condition of Man after the fall of Adam is such, that he cannot turnand prepare himself, by his own natural strength and good works, tofaith, and calling upon God. Wherefore we have no power to do goodworks pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christpreventing us, that we may have a good will, and working with us, whenwe have that good will.We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lordand Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith, and not for our own works ordeservings. Wherefore, that we are justified by Faith only, is a mostwholesome Doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely expressedin the Homily of Justification.Albeit that Good Works, which are the fruits of Faith, and follow afterJustification, cannot put away our sins, and endure the severity ofGod's judgment; yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ,and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively Faith; insomuch thatby them a lively Faith may be as evidently known as a tree discerned bythe fruit.Works done before the grace of Christ, and the Inspiration of theSpirit, are not pleasant to God, forasmuch as they spring not of faithin Jesus Christ; neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (asthe School-authors say) deserve grace of congruity: yea rather, for thatthey are not done as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, wedoubt not but they have the nature of sin.Voluntary Works besides, over and above, God's Commandments, which theycall Works of Supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy andimpiety: for by them men do declare, that they not only render unto Godas much as they are bound to, but that they do more for his sake, thanof bounden duty is required: whereas Christ saith plainly, When ye havedone all that are commanded to you, say, We are unprofitable servants.Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto us in all things,sin only except, from which he was clearly void, both in his flesh, andin his spirit. He came to be the Lamb without spot, who, by sacrificeof himself once made, should take away the sins of the world; and sin(as Saint John saith) was not in him. But all we the rest, althoughbaptized, and born again in Christ, yet offend in many things; and if wesay we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.Not every deadly sin willingly committed after Baptism is sin againstthe Holy Ghost, and unpardonable. Wherefore the grant of repentance isnot be denied to such as fall into sin after Baptism. After we havereceived the Holy Ghost, we may depart from grace given, and fall intosin, and by the grace of God we may arise again, and amend our lives.And therefore they are to be condemned, which say, they can no more sinas long as they live here, or deny the place of forgiveness to such astruly repent.Predestination to Life is the everlasting purpose of God, whereby(before the foundations of the world were laid) he hath constantlydecreed by his counsel secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnationthose whom he hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring them byChrist to everlasting salvation, as vessels made to honour. Wherefore,they which be endued with so excellent a benefit of God, be calledaccording to God's purpose by his Spirit working in due season: theythrough Grace obey the calling: they be justified freely: they be madesons of God by adoption: they be made like the image of his only-begotten Son Jesus Christ: they walk religiously in good works, and atlength, by God's mercy, they attain to everlasting felicity.As the godly consideration of Predestination, and our Election inChrist, is full of sweet, pleasant, and unspeakable comfort to godlypersons, and such as feel in themselves the working of the Spirit ofChrist, mortifying the works of the flesh, and their earthly members,and drawing up their mind to high and heavenly things, as well becauseit doth greatly establish and confirm their faith of eternal Salvationto be enjoyed through Christ, as because it doth fervently kindle theirlove towards God: So, for curious and carnal persons, lacking the Spiritof Christ, to have continually before their eyes the sentence of God'sPredestination, is a most dangerous downfall, whereby the Devil doththrust them either into desperation, or into wrethchlessness of mostunclean living, no less perilous than desperation.Furthermore, we must receive God's promises in such wise, as they begenerally set forth to us in Holy Scripture: and, in our doings, thatWill of God is to be followed, which we have expressly declared unto usin the word of God.They also are to be had accursed that presume to say, That every manshall be saved by the Law or Sect which he professeth, so that he bediligent to frame his life according to that Law, and the light ofNature. For Holy Scripture doth set out unto us only the Name of JesusChrist, whereby men must be saved.The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in whichthe pure Word of God is preached, and the Sacraments be duly ministeredaccording to Christ's ordinance, in all those things that of necessityare requisite to the same.As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch, have erred; so alsothe Church of Rome hath erred, not only in their living and manner ofCeremonies, but also in matters of Faith.The Church hath power to decree Rites or Ceremonies, and authority inControversies of Faith: and yet it is not lawful for the Church toordain anything that is contrary to God's Word written, neither may itso expound one place of Scripture, that it be repugnant to another.Wherefore, although the Church be a witness and a keeper of Holy Writ,yet, as it ought not to decree any thing against the same, so besidesthe same ought not to enforce any thing to be believed for necessity ofSalvation.[The Twenty-first of the former Articles is omitted; because it ispartly of a local and civil nature, and is provided for, as to theremaining parts of it, in other Articles.]=The original 1571, 1662 text of this Article, omitted in the version of1801, reads as follows: "General Councils may not be gathered togetherwithout the commandment and will of Princes. And when they be gatheredtogether, (forasmuch as they be an assembly of men, whereof all be notgoverned with the Spirit and Word of God,) they may err, and sometimeshave erred, even in things pertaining unto God. Wherefore thingsordained by them as necessary to salvation have neither strength norauthority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of holyScripture."=The Romish Doctrine concerning Purgatory, Pardons, Worshipping andAdoration, as well of Images as of Relics, and also Invocation ofSaints, is a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded upon no warrantyof Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God.It is not lawful for any man to take upon him the office of publicpreaching, or ministering the Sacraments in the Congregation, before hebe lawfully called, and sent to execute the same. And those we ought tojudge lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this workby men who have public authority given unto them in the Congregation, tocall and send Ministers into the Lord's vineyard.It is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God, and the custom ofthe Primitive Church, to have public Prayer in the Church, or tominister the Sacraments, in a tongue not understanded of the people.Sacraments ordained of Christ be not only badges or tokens of Christianmen's profession, but rather they be certain sure witnesses, andeffectual signs of grace, and God's good will towards us, by the whichhe doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but alsostrengthen and confirm our Faith in him.There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, thatis to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord.Those five commonly called Sacraments, that is to say, Confirmation,Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be countedfor Sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown partly of thecorrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed inthe Scriptures; but yet have not like nature of Sacraments with Baptism,and the Lord's Supper, for that they have not any visible sign orceremony ordained of God.The Sacraments are not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to becarried about, but that we should duly use them. And in such only asworthily receive the same, they have a wholesome effect or operation:butthey that receive them unworthily, purchase to themselves damnation, asSaint Paul saith.Although in the visible Church the evil be ever mingled with the good,and sometimes the evil have chief authority in the Ministration of theWord and Sacraments, yet forasmuch as they do not the same in their ownname, but in Christ's, and do minister by his commission and authority,we may use their Ministry, both in hearing the Word of God, and inreceiving the Sacraments. Neither is the effect of Christ's ordinancetaken away by their wickedness, nor the grace of God's gifts diminishedfrom such as by faith, and rightly, do receive the Sacraments ministeredunto them; which be effectual, because of Christ's institution andpromise, although they be ministered by evil men.Nevertheless, it appertaineth to the discipline of the Church, thatinquiry be made of evil Ministers, and that they be accused by thosethat have knowledge of their offences; and finally, being found guilty,by just judgment be deposed.Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of difference,whereby Christian men are discerned from others that be not christened,but it is also a sign of Regeneration or New-Birth, whereby, as by aninstrument, they that receive Baptism rightly are grafted into theChurch; the promises of the forgiveness of sin, and of our adoption tobe the sons of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly signed and sealed;Faith is confirmed, and Grace increased by virtue of prayer unto God.The Baptism of young Children is in any wise to be retained in theChurch, as most agreeable with the institution of Christ.The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that Christiansought to have among themselves one to another; but rather it is aSacrament of our Redemption by Christ's death: insomuch that to such asrightly, worthily, and with faith, receive the same, the Bread which webreak is a partaking of the Body of Christ; and likewise the Cup ofBlessing is a partaking of the Blood of Christ.Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of Bread and Wine) inthe Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but is repugnantto the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament,and hath given occasion to many superstitions.The Body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in the Supper, only afteran heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean whereby the Body ofChrist is received and eaten in the Supper, is Faith.The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's ordinancereserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshipped.The Wicked, and such as be void of a lively faith, although theydocarnally and visibly press with their teeth (as Saint Augustine saith)the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ; yet in no wise are theypartakers of Christ: but rather, to their condemnation, do eat and drinkthe sign or Sacrament of so great a thing.The Cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the Lay-people: for both theparts of the Lord's Sacrament, by Christ's ordinance and commandment,ought to be ministered to all Christian men alike.The Offering of Christ once made in that perfect redemption,propitiation, and satisfaction, for all the sins of the whole world,both original and actual; and there is none other satisfaction for sin,but that alone. Wherefore the sacrifices of Masses, in the which it wascommonly said, that the Priest did offer Christ for the quick and thedead, to have remission of pain or guilt, were blasphemous fables, anddangerous deceits.Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, are not commanded by God's Law, either tovow the estate of single life, or to abstain from marriage: therefore itis lawful for them, as for all other Christian men, to marry at theirown discretion, as they shall judge the same to serve better togodliness.That person which by open denunciation of the Church is rightly cut offfrom the unity of the Church, and excommunicated, ought to be taken ofthe whole multitude of the faithful, as an Heathen and Publican, untilhe be openly reconciled by penance, and received into the Church by aJudge that hath the authority thereunto.It is not necessary that the Traditions and Ceremonies be in all placesone, or utterly like; for at all times they have been divers, and may bechanged according to the diversity of countries, times, and men'smanners, so that nothing be ordained against God's Word. Whosoever,through his private judgment, willingly and purposely, doth openly breakthe Traditions and Ceremonies of the Church, which be not repugnant tothe Word of God, and be ordained and approved by common authority, oughtto be rebuked openly, (that others may fear to do the like,) as he thatoffendeth against the common order of the Church, and hurteth theauthority of the Magistrate, and woundeth the consciences of the weakbrethren.Every particular or national Church hath authority to ordain, change,and abolish, Ceremonies or Rites of the Church ordained only by man'sauthority, so that all things be done to edifying.The Second Book of Homilies, the several titles whereof we have joinedunder this Article, doth contain a godly and wholesome Doctrine, andnecessary for these times, as doth the former Book of Homilies, whichwere set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth; and therefore we judgethem to be read in Churches by the Ministers, diligently and distinctly,that they may be understanded of the people. 1 Of the right Use of the Church. 2 Against Peril of Idolatry. 3 Of repairing and keeping clean of Churches. 4 Of good kjv@Works: first of Fasting. 5 Against Gluttony and Drunkenness. 6 Against Excess of Apparel. 7 Of Prayer. 8 Of the Place and Time of Prayer. 9 That Common Prayers and Sacraments ought to be ministered in aknown tongue. 10 Of the reverend Estimation of God's Word. 11 Of Alms-doing. 12 Of the Nativity of Christ. 13 Of the Passion of Christ. 14 Of the Resurrection of Christ. 15 Of the worthy receiving of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood ofChrist. 16 Of the Gifts of the Holy Ghost. 17 For the Rogation-days 18 Of the State of Matrimony. 19 Of Repentance. 20 Against Idleness. 21 Against Rebellion.[This Article is received in this Church, so far as it declares the Bookof Homilies to be an explication of Christian doctrine, and instructivein piety and morals. But all references to the constitution and laws ofEngland are considered as inapplicable to the circumstances of thisChurch; which also suspends the order for the reading of said Homiliesin churches, until a revision of them may be conveniently made, for theclearing of them, as well from obsolete words and phrases, as from thelocal references.]The Book of Consecration of Bishops, and Ordering of Priests andDeacons, as set forth by the General Convention of this Church in 1792,doth contain all things necessary to such Consecration and Ordering;neither hath it any thing that, of itself, is superstitious and ungodly.And, therefore, whosoever are consecrated or ordered according to saidForm, we decree all such to be rightly, orderly, and lawfullyconsecrated and ordered.=The original 1571, 1662 text of this Article reads as follows: "TheBook of Consecration of Archbishops and Bishops, and Ordering of Priestsand Deacons, lately set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth, andconfirmed at the same time by authority of Parliament, doth contain allthings necessary to such Consecration and Ordering; neither hath it anything, that of itself is superstitious and ungodly. And thereforewhosoever are consecrated or ordered according to the Rites of thatBook, since the second year of the forenamed King Edwand unto this time,or hereafter shall be consecrated or ordered according to the sameRites; we decree all such to be rightly, orderly, and lawfullyconsecrated and ordered."=The Power of the Civil Magistrate extendeth to all men, as well Clergyas Laity, in all things temporal; but hath no authority in things purelyspiritual. And we hold it to be the duty of all men who are professorsof the Gospel, to pay respectful obedience to the Civil Authority,regularly and legitimately constituted.=The original 1571, 1662 text of this Article reads as follows: "TheKing's Majesty hath the chief power in this Realm of England, and otherhis Dominions, unto whom the chief Government of all Estates of thisRealm, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Civil, in all causes dothappertain, and is not, nor ought to be, subject to any foreignJurisdiction. Where we attribute to the King's Majesty the chiefgovernment, by which Titles we understand the minds of some slanderousfolks to be offended; we give not our Princes theministering either of God's Word, or of the Sacraments, the which thingthe Injunctions also lately set forth by Elizabeth our Queen do mostplainly testify; but that only prerogative, which we see to have beengiven always to all godly Princes in holy Scriptures by God himself;that is, that they should rule all estates and degrees committed totheir charge by God, whether they be Ecclesiastical or Temporal, andrestrain with the civil sword the stubborn and evil-doers.==The Bishop of Rome hath no jurisdiction in this Realm of England.==The Laws of the Realm may punish Christian men with death, for heinousand grievous offenses.==It is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the Magistrate,to wear weapons, and serve in the wars."=The Riches and Goods of Christians are not common, as touching theright, title, and possession of the same; as certain Anabaptists dofalsely boast. Notwithstanding, every man ought, of such things as hepossesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according to hisability.As we confess that vain and rash Swearing is forbidden Christian men byour Lord Jesus Christ, and James his Apostle, so we judge, thatChristian Religion doth not prohibit, but that a man may swear when theMagistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, so it be doneaccording to the Prophet's teaching in justice, judgment, and truth.=Adopted by the House of BishopsChicago, 1886=We, Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States ofAmerica, in Council assembled as Bishops in the Church of God, do herebysolemnly declare to all whom it may concern, and especially to ourfellow-Christians of the different Communions in this land, who, intheir several spheres, have contended for the religion of kjv@Christ: 1. Our earnest desire that the Savior's prayer, "That we all may beone," may, in its deepest and truest sense, be speedily fulfilled; 2. That we believe that all who have been duly baptized with water,in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, aremembers of the Holy Catholic Church. 3. That in all things of human ordering or human choice, relating tomodes of worship and discipline, or to traditional customs, this Churchis ready in the spirit of love and humility to forego all preferences ofher own; 4. That this Church does not seek to absorb other Communions, butrather, co-operating with them on the basis of a common Faith and Order,to discountenance schism, to heal the wounds of the Body of Christ, andto promote the charity which is the chief of Christian graces and thevisibile manifestation of Christ to the world.But furthermore, we do hereby affirm that the Christian unity...can berestored only by the return of all Christian communions to theprinciples of unity exemplified by the undivided Catholic Church duringthe first ages of its existence; which principles we believe to be thesubstantial deposit of Christian Faith and Order committed by Christ andhis Apostles to the Church unto the end of the world, and thereforeincapable of compromise or surrender by those who have been ordained tobe its stewards and trustees for the common and equal benefit of allmen.As inherent parts of this sacred deposit, and therefore as essential tothe restoration of unity among the divided branches of Christendom, weaccount the following, to wit:1. The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the revealedWord of God.2. The Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian Faith.3. The two Sacraments,--Baptism and the Supper of the Lord,--ministeredwith unfailing use of Christ's words of institution and of the elementsordained by Him.4. The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of itsadministration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called ofGod into the unity of His Church.=Furthermore,= Deeply grieved by the sad divisions which affect theChristian Church in oun own land, we hereby declare our desire andreadiness, so soon as there shall be any authorized response to thisDeclaration, to enter into brotherly conference with all or anyChristian Bodies seeking the restoration of the organic unity of theChurch, with a view to the earnest study of the conditions under whichso priceless a blessing might happily be brought to pass.=Note: While the above form of the Quadrilateral was adopted by theHouse of Bishops, it was not enacted by the House of Deputies, butrather incorporated in a general plan referred for study and action to anewly created Joint Commission on Christian Reunion.==Lambeth Conferent of 1888Resolution 11=That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply abasis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards HomeReunion:(a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containingall things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimatestandard of faith.(b) The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene Creed,as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith.(c) The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself--Baptism and theSupper of the Lord--ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words ofInstitution, and of the elements ordained by Him.4. The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of itsadministration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called ofGod into the Unity of His Church.Easter Day is always the Sunday after the full moon that occurs on orafter the sping equinox on March 21, a date which is fixed in accordancewith an ancient ecclesiastical computation, and which does not alwayscorrespond to the astronomical equinox. This full moon may happen onany date between March 21 and April 18 inclusive. If the full moonfalls on a Sunday, Easter Day is the Sunday following. But Easter Daycannot be earlier than March 22 or later than April 25.To find the date of Easter Day in any particular year, it is necessaryto have two points of reference--the Golden Number and the Sunday Letterfor that year. 1. The Golden Number indicates the date of the full moon on or afterthe spring equinox of March 21, according to a nineteen-year cycle.These Numbers are prefixed in the Calendar to the days of the month fromMarch 22 to April 19 inclusive. In the present Calendar they areapplicable from A.D. 1900 to A.D. 2099, after which they will change.2. The Sunday Letter identifies the days of the year when Sundaysoccur. After every date in the Calendar a letter appears--from A tog. Thus, if January 1 is a Sunday, the Sunday Letter for the Year isA, and every date in the Calendar marked by A is a Sunday. IfJanuary 2 is a Sunday, then every date marked with b is a Sunday, andso on through the seven letters.In Leap Years, however, the Sunday Letter changes on the first day ofMarch. In such years, when A is the Sunday Letter, this applies onlyto Sundays in January and February, and g is the Sunday Letter for therest of the year. Or if d is the Sunday Letter, then c is theSunday Letter on and after March 1.The Golden Number of any year is calculated as follows: Take the numberof the year, add 1, and then divide the sum by 19. The remainder, ifany, is the Golden Number. If nothing remains, then 19 is the GoldenNumber.The following Table provides ready reference to the Sunday Letter of anyyear between A.D. 1900 and A.D. 2099. It will be found on the line ofthe hundredth year above the column that contains the remaining digitsof the year. But in Leap Years the Letter above the number marked withan asterisk is the Sunday Letter for January and February, and theLetter over the number not so marked is the Sunday Letter for the restof the year.Hundred kjv@Years:1900: , , g, , f, , e, , d, , c, , b, , A2000: b, , A, , g, , f, , e, , d, , c, , bYears in excess of Hundreds:00,,00, ,01, ,02, ,03, ,04,*,04, ,05, ,06, ,07, ,08,*,08, ,09, ,10, ,11, ,12,*,12, ,13, ,14, ,15, ,16,*,16, ,17, ,18, ,19, ,20,*,20, ,21, ,22, ,23, ,24,*,24, ,25, ,26, ,27, ,28,* ,28, ,29, ,30, ,31, ,32,*,32, ,33, ,34, ,35, ,36,*,36, ,37, ,38, ,39, ,40,*,40, ,41, ,42, ,43, ,44,*,44, ,45, ,46, ,47, ,48,*,48, ,49, ,50, ,51, ,52,*,52, ,53, ,54, ,55, ,56,* ,56, ,57, ,58, ,59, ,60,*,60, ,61, ,62, ,63, ,64,*,64, ,65, ,66, ,67, ,68,*,68, ,69, ,70, ,71, ,72,*,72, ,73, ,74, ,75, ,76,*,76, ,77, ,78, ,79, ,80,*,80, ,81, ,82, ,83, ,84,* ,84, ,85, ,86, ,87, ,88,*,88, ,89, ,90, ,91, ,92,*,92, ,93, ,94, ,95, ,96,,96, ,97, ,98, ,99, , , , ,When one has both tho Golden Number and the Sunday Letter for anyparticular year, then the date of Easter Day may be found in theCalendar, pages 21 and 22, as follows: 1. The Golden Number prefixed to a day in the month of March or Aprilin the Calendar marks the date of the full moon in that year. 2. Easter Day will be the next date bearing the Sunday Letter of thatyear. But when the Golden Number of a given year and the Sunday Letterof that year occur on the same date, then Easter day is one week later.(For example, if the Golden Number is 19--which appears in the Calendarprefixed to March 27--and the Sunday Letter is d, then Easter Day inthat year will fall on March 29. If the Golden Number is 10 and theSunday Letter is A, then Easter Day will fall on April 9. But if theGolden Number is 19 and the Sunday Letter is b, then Easter Day willbe one week later, namely April 3.)Golden Number, Year, Easter Day 1, 1900, , April 15 2, 1901, , April 7 3, 1902, , March 30 4, 1903, , April 12 5, 1904,, April 3 6, 1905, , April 23 7, 1906, , April 15 8, 1907, , March 31 9, 1908,*, April 1910, 1909, , April 1111, 1910, , March 2712, 1911, , April 1613, 1912,*, April 714, 1913, , March 2315, 1914, , April 1216, 1915, , April 417, 1916,*, April 2318, 1917, , April 819, 1918, , March 31 1, 1919, , April 20 2, 1920,*, April 4 3, 1921, , March 27 4, 1922, , April 16 5, 1923, , April 1 6, 1924,*, April 20 7, 1925, , April 12 8, 1926, , April 4 9, 1927, , April 1710, 1928,*, April 811, 1929, , March 3112, 1930, , April 2013, 1931, , April 514, 1932,*, March 2715, 1933, , April 1616, 1934, , April 117, 1935, , April 2118, 1936,*, April 1219, 1937, , March 28 1, 1938, , April 17 2, 1939, , April 9 3, 1940,*, March 24 4, 1941, , April 13 5, 1942, , April 5 6, 1943, , April 25 7, 1944,*, April 9 8, 1945, , April 1 9, 1946, , April 2110, 1947, , April 611, 1948,*, March 2812, 1949, , April 1713, 1950, , April 914, 1951, , March 2515, 1952,*, April 1316, 1953, , April 517, 1954, , April 1818, 1955, , April 1019, 1956,*, April 1 1, 1957, , April 21 2, 1958, , April 6 3, 1959, , March 29 4, 1960,*, April 17 5, 1961, , April 2 6, 1962, , April 22 7, 1963, , April 14 8, 1964,*, March 29 9, 1965, , April 1810, 1966, , April 1011, 1967, , March 2612, 1968,*, April 1413, 1969, , April 614, 1970, , March 2915, 1971, , April 1116, 1972,*, April 217, 1973, , April 2218, 1974, , April 1419, 1975, , March 30 1, 1976,*, April 18 2, 1977, , April 10 3, 1978, , March 26 4, 1979, , April 15 5, 1980,*, April 6 6, 1981, , April 19 7, 1982, , April 11 8, 1983, , April 3 9, 1984,*, April 2210, 1985, , April 711, 1986, , March 3012, 1987, , April 1913, 1988,*, April 314, 1989, , March 2615, 1990, , April 1516, 1991, , March 3117, 1992,*, April 1918, 1993, , April 1119, 1994, , April 3 1, 1995, , April 16 2, 1996,*, April 7 3, 1997, , March 30 4, 1998, , April 12 5, 1999, , April 4 6, 2000,*, April 23 7, 2001, , April 15 8, 2002, , March 31 9, 2003, , April 2010, 2004,*, April 1111, 2005, , March 2712, 2006, , April 1613, 2007, , April 814, 2008,*, March 2315, 2009, , April 1216, 2010, , April 417, 2011, , April 2418, 2012,*, April 819, 2013, , March 31 1, 2014, , April 20 2, 2015, , April 5 3, 2016,*, March 27 4, 2017, , April 16 5, 2018, , April 1 6, 2019, , April 21 7, 2020,*, April 12 8, 2021, , April 4 9, 2022, , April 1710, 2023, , April 911, 2024,*, March 3112, 2025, , April 2013, 2026, , April 514, 2027, , March 2815, 2028,*, April 1616, 2029, , April 117, 2030, , April 2118, 2031, , April 1319, 2032,*, March 28 1, 2033, , April 17 2, 2034, , April 9 3, 2035, , March 25 4, 2036,*, April 13 5, 2037, , April 5 6, 2038, , April 25 7, 2039, , April 10 8, 2040,*, April 1 9, 2041, , April 2110, 2042, , April 611, 2043, , March 2912, 2044,*, April 1713, 2045, , April 914, 2046, , March 2515, 2047, , April 1416, 2048,*, April 517, 2049, , April 1818, 2050, , April 1019, 2051, , April 2 1, 2052,*, April 21 2, 2053, , April 6 3, 2054, , March 29 4, 2055, , April 18 5, 2056,*, April 2 6, 2057, , April 22 7, 2058, , April 14 8, 2059, , March 30 9, 2060,*, April 1810, 2061, , April 1011, 2062, , March 2612, 2063, , April 1513, 2064,*, April 614, 2065, , March 2915, 2066, , April 1116, 2067, , April 317, 2068,*, April 2218, 2069, , April 1419, 2070, , March 30 1, 2071, , April 19 2, 2072,*, April 10 3, 2073, , March 26 4, 2074, , April 15 5, 2075, , April 7 6, 2076,*, April 19 7, 2077, , April 11 8, 2078, , April 3 9, 2079, , April 2310, 2080,*, April 711, 2081, , March 3012, 2082, , April 1913, 2083, , April 414, 2084,*, March 2615, 2085, , April 1516, 2086, , March 3117, 2087, , April 2018, 2088,*, April 1119, 2089, , April 3 * The years marked with an asterisk are Leap Years.Easter Day, Sundays after Epiphany[*], Ash Wednesday+, Ascension Day, Pentecost, Numbered Proper of 2 Pentecost++, Advent Sunday [*] In Leap Years, the number of Sundays after Epiphany will be thesame as if Easter Day were one day later than in the above Table. + In Leap Years, the date of Ash Wednesday will be one day later inthe month of February than in the above Table. ++ Indicates the numbered Proper to be used on the Sunday afterTrinity Sunday. Subsequently, the Propers are used consecutively.March 22: 4, Feb. 4 , April 30, May 10 , 3, November 29March 23: 4, Feb. 5 , May 1 , May 11 , 3, November 30March 24: 5, Feb. 6 , May 2 , May 12 , 3, December 1March 25: 5, Feb. 7 , May 3 , May 13 , 3, December 2March 26: 5, Feb. 8 , May 4 , May 14 , 3, December 3March 27: 5, Feb. 9 , May 5 , May 15 , 4, November 27March 28: 5, Feb. 10 , May 6 , May 16 , 4, November 28March 29: 5, Feb. 11 , May 7 , May 17 , 4, November 29March 30: 5, Feb. 12 , May 8 , May 18 , 4, November 30March 31: 5, Feb. 13 , May 9 , May 19 , 4, December 1April 1 : 6, Feb. 14 , May 10 , May 20 , 4, December 2April 2 : 6, Feb. 15 , May 11 , May 21 , 5, December 3April 3 : 6, Feb. 16 , May 12 , May 22 , 5, November 27April 4 : 6, Feb. 17 , May 13 , May 23 , 5, November 28April 5 : 6, Feb. 18 , May 14 , May 24 , 5, November 29April 6 : 6, Feb. 19 , May 15 , May 25 , 5, November 30April 7 : 6, Feb. 20 , May 16 , May 26 , 5, December 1April 8 : 7, Feb. 21 , May 17 , May 27 , 5, December 2April 9 : 7, Feb. 22 , May 18 , May 28 , 5, December 3April 10: 7, Feb. 23 , May 19 , May 29 , 6, November 27April 11: 7, Feb. 24 , May 20 , May 30 , 6, November 28April 12: 7, Feb. 25 , May 21 , May 31 , 6, November 29April 13: 7, Feb. 26 , May 22 , June 1 , 6, November 30April 14: 7, Feb. 27 , May 23 , June 2 , 6, December 1April 15: 8, Feb. 28 , May 24 , June 3 , 6, December 2April 16: 8, March 1 , May 25 , June 4 , 6, December 3April 17: 8, March 2 , May 26 , June 5 , 7, November 27April 18: 8, March 3 , May 27 , June 6 , 7, November 28April 19: 8, March 4 , May 28 , June 7 , 7, November 29April 20: 8, March 5 , May 29 , June 8 , 7, November 30April 21: 8, March 6 , May 30 , June 9 , 7, December 1April 22: 9, March 7 , May 31 , June 10, 7, December 2April 23: 9, March 8 , June 1 , June 11, 7, December 3April 24: 9, March 9 , June 2 , June 12, 8, November 27April 25: 9, March 10, June 3 , June 13, 8, November 28-------------------(end of BCPPRAYR.TXT)--------------------Concerning the Lectionary**The Lectionary for Sundays is arranged in a three-year cycle, in whichYear A always begins on the First Sunday of Advent in years evenlydivisible by three. (For example, 1977 divided by 3 is 659 with noremainder. Year A, therefore, begins on Advent Sunday of that year.)*The Psalms and Lessons appointed for the Sundays and for other majorHoly Days are intended for use at all public services on such days,except when the same congregation attends two or more services. Thus,the same Lessons are to be read at the principal morning service,whether the Liturgy of the Word takes the form given in the HolyEucharist, or that of the Daily Office.When the same congregation is present for Morning or Evening Prayer, inaddition to the Eucharist, the Lessons at the Office may be selectedfrom one of the other years of the three-year Sunday cycle, or from theLectionary for the Daily Office. The Psalms at such Offices arenormally those appointed in the Office Lectionary; but, when desired,the Psalm cited in the selected Sunday Proper may be used instead.*In this Lectionary, the selections from the Psalter are frequentlycited in a longer and shorter version, usually from the same Psalm. Thelonger version is particularly appropriate for use at the Office, theshorter version when the Psalm is sung between the Lessons at theEucharist. The selections may be further lengthened or shortened atdiscretion.**When an alternative Lesson is cited, it is sometimes identical with aLesson appointed for the same day in the Daily Office Lectionary.**In the opening verses of Lessons, the Reader should omit initialconjunctions which refer only to what has preceded, substitute nouns forpronouns when the referent is not otherwise clear, or else prefix to theReading some such introduction as, "&N. said (to &N.)."**Any Reading may be lengthened at discretion. Suggested lengtheningsare shown in parentheses.First Sunday of kjv@Advent: 122; Isaiah kjv@2:1-5; Romans 13:8-14; Matthew 24:37-44Second Sunday of kjv@Advent: 72 or 72:1-8; Isaiah 11:1-10; Romans 15:4-13; Matthew 3:1-12Third Sunday of kjv@Advent: 146 or 146:4-9; Isaiah 35:1-10; James kjv@5:7-10; Matthew 11:2-11Fourth Sunday of kjv@Advent: 24 or 24:1-7; Isaiah kjv@7:10-17; Romans kjv@1:1-7; Matthew 1:18-25Christmas Day kjv@I: 96 or 96:14,11-12; Isaiah 9:2-4,6-7; Titus kjv@2:11-14; Luke 2:1-14(15-20)Christmas Day kjv@II: 97 or 97:1-4,11-12; Isaiah 62:6-7,10-12; Titus kjv@3:4-7; Luke 2:(1-14)15-20Christmas Day kjv@III: 98 or 98:1-6; Isaiah 52:7-10; Hebrews kjv@1:1-12, John 1:1-14First Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 147 or 147:13-21; Isaiah 61:10--62:3; Galatians kjv@3:23-25; 4:4-7;John 1:1-18Holy Name-=January 1= 8; Exodus 34:1-8; Romans kjv@1:1-7; or Philippians kjv@2:9-13; Luke 2:15-21Second Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 84 or 84:1-8; Jeremiah 31:7-14; Ephesians 1:3-6,15-19a; Matthew2:13-15,19-23 or* Luke 2:41-52 *or Matthew 2:1-12The Epiphany-=January 6= 72 or 72:1-2,10-17; Isaiah 60:1-6,9; Ephesians3:1-12; Matthew 2:1-12First Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 89:1-29 or 89:20-29; Isaiah 42:1-9; Acts 10:34-38; Matthew 3:13-17Second Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 40:1-10: Isaiah 49:1-7; 1 Corinthians kjv@1:1-9; John 1:29-41Third Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 139:1-17 or 139:1-11; Amos kjv@3:1-8; 1 Corinthians kjv@1:10-17; Matthew 4:12-23Fourth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 37:1-18 or 37:1-6; Micah kjv@6:1-8; 1 Corinthians 1:(18-25)26-31;Matthew 5:1-12Fifth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 27 or 27:1-7; Habakkuk 3:1-6,17-19; 1 Corinthians kjv@2:1-11; Matthew5:13-20Sixth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 119:1-16 or 119:9-16; Ecclesiasticus 15:11-20; 1 Corinthians 3:1-9;Matthew 5:21-24,27-30,33-37Seventh Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 71 or 71:16-24; Leviticus 19:1-2,9-18; 1 Corinthians 3:10-11,16-23;Matthew 5:38-48Eighth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 62 or 62:6-14; Isaiah 49:8-18; 1 Corinthians 4:1-5(6-7)8-13;Matthew 6:24-34Last Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 99; Exodus 24:12(13-14)15-18; Philippians kjv@3:7-14; Matthew 17:1-9Ash kjv@Wednesday: 103 or 103:8-14; Joel 2:1-2,12-17 or Isaiah 58:1-12;2 Corinthians 5:20b--6:10; Matthew 6:1-6,16-21First Sunday in kjv@Lent: 51 or 51:1-13; Genesis 2:4b-9,15-17,25--3:7; Romans 5:12-19(20-21);Matthew 4:1-11Second Sunday in kjv@Lent: 33:12-22; Genesis 12:1-8; Romans 4:1-5(6-12)13-17; John 3:1-17Third Sunday in kjv@Lent: 95 or 95:6-11; Exodus 17:1-7; Romans kjv@5:1-11; John 4:5-26(27-38)39-42Fourth Sunday in kjv@Lent: 23; 1 Samuel 16:1-13; Ephesians 5:(1-7)8-14; John 9:1-13(14-27)28-38Fifth Sunday in kjv@Lent: 130; Ezekiel 37:1-3(4-10)11-14; Romans kjv@6:16-23; John 11:(1-17)18-44Palm kjv@Sunday: Liturgy of the Palms: 118:19-29; Matthew 21:1-11 Liturgy of the Word: 22:1-21 or 22:1-11; Isaiah 45:21-25 orIsaiah 52:13--53:12; Philippians kjv@2:5-11; Matthew (26:36-75)27:1-54(55-66)Monday in Holy kjv@Week: 36:5-10; Isaiah 42:1-9; Hebrews 11:39--12:3; John 12:1-11 or Mark 14:3-9Tuesday in Holy kjv@Week: 71:1-12; Isaiah 49:1-6; 1 Corinthians kjv@1:18-31; John 12:37-38,42-50or Mark 11:15-19Wednesday in Holy kjv@Week: 69:7-15,22-23; Isaiah 50:4-9a; Hebrews 9:11-15,24-28; John 13:21-35or Matthew 26:1-5,14-25Maundy kjv@Thursday: 78:14-20,23-25; Exodus 12:1-14a; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26(27-32);John 13:1-15 or Luke 22:14-30Good kjv@Friday: 22:1-21 or* 22:1-11 *or* 40:1-14 *or 69:1-23; Isaiah 52:13--53:12or* Genesis 22:1-18 *or Wisdom 2:1,12-24; Hebrews 10:1-25;John (18:1-40) 19:1-37Holy kjv@Saturday: 130 or 31:1-5; Job 14:1-14; 1 Peter kjv@4:1-8; Matthew 27:57-66 orJohn 19:38-42Easter kjv@Day: The Great Vigil: See pages 288-291.* Early Service: *Use one of the Old Testament Lessons from the Vigil with 114; Romans kjv@6:3-11; Matthew 28:1-10 Principal kjv@Service: 118:14-29 or 118:14-17,22-24; Acts 10:34-43 orExodus 14:10-14,21-25; 15:20-21; Colossians 3:1-4 or Acts 10:34-43;John 20:1-10(11-18) or Matthew 28:1-10 Evening kjv@Service: 114 or* 136 *or 118:14-17,22-24; Acts 5:29a,30-32 or Daniel 12:1-3;1 Corinthians 5:6b-8 or Acts 5:29a,30-32; Luke 24:13-35Monday in Easter kjv@Week: 16:8-11 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@2:14-22-32; Matthew 28:9-15Tuesday in Easter kjv@Week: 33:18-22 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@2:36-41; John 20:11-18Wednesday in Easter kjv@Week: 105:1-8 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@3:1-10; Luke 24:13-35Thursday in Easter kjv@Week: 8 or* 114 *or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@3:11-26; Luke 24:36b-48Friday in Easter kjv@Week: 116:1-8 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@4:1-12; John 21:1-14Saturday in Easter kjv@Week: 118:14-18 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@4:13-21; Mark 16:9-15,20Second Sunday in kjv@Easter: 111 or 118:19-24; Acts 2:14a,22-32 or Genesis kjv@8:6-16; 9:8-16;1 Peter 1:3-9 or Acts 2:14a,22-32; John 20:19-31Third Sunday in kjv@Easter: 116 or 116:10-17; Acts 2:14a,36-47 or Isaiah 43:1-12;1 Peter 1:17-23 or Acts 2:14a,36-47; Luke 24:13-35Fourth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 23; Acts kjv@6:1-9; 7:2a,51-60 or Nehemiah kjv@9:6-15; 1 Peter 2:19-25or Acts kjv@6:1-9; 7:2a,51-60; John 10:1-10Fifth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 66:1-11 or 66:1-8; Acts 17:1-15 or Deuteronomy 6:20-25;1 Peter 2:1-10 or Acts 17:1-15; John 14:1-14Sixth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 148 or 148:7-14; Acts 17:22-31 or Isaiah 41:17-20;1 Peter 3:8-18 or Acts 17:22-31; John 15:1-8Ascension kjv@Day: 47 or 110:1-5; Acts 1:1-11 or Daniel kjv@7:9-14; Ephesians 1:15-23or Acts kjv@1:1-11; Luke 24:49-53 or Mark 16:9-15,19-20Seventh Sunday of kjv@Easter: 68:1-20 or 47; Acts 1:(1-7)8-14 or Ezekiel 39:21-29;1 Peter 4:12-19 or Acts 1:(1-7)8-14; John 17:1-11Day of kjv@Pentecost: Early or Vigil kjv@Service: 33:12-22, Canticle 2 or 13, 130, Canticle 9, 104:25-32; Genesis 11:1-9or Exodus 19:1-9,16-20a;20:18-20 or* Ezekiel 37:1-14 *orJoel kjv@2:28-32; Acts 2:1-11 or Romans 8:14-17,22-27; John 7:37-39a Principal kjv@Service: 104:25-37 or* 104:25-32 *or 33:12-15,18-22;Acts 2:1-11 or Ezekiel 11:17-20; 1 Corinthians 12:4-13 orActs kjv@2:1-11; John 20:19-23 or* John 14:8-17*On the weekdays which follow, the numbered Proper which correspondsmost closely to the date of Pentecost in that year is used. See page158.Trinity kjv@Sunday: 150 or Canticle 2 or 13; Genesis1:1--2:3;2 Corinthians 13:(5-10)11-14; Matthew 28:16-20On the weekdays which follow, the numbered Proper which correspondsmost closely to the date of Trinity Sunday in that year is used.Directions for the use of the Propers which follow are on page 158.Proper 1: =Closest to May 11= 119:1-16 or 119:9-16; Ecclesiasticus 15:11-20; 1 Corinthians 3:1-9;Matthew 5:21-24,27-30,33-37Proper 2: =Closest to May 18= 71 or 71:16-24; Leviticus 19:1-2,9-18; 1 Corinthians 3:10-11,16-23;Matthew 5:38-48Proper 3: =Closest to May 25= 62 or 62:6-14; Isaiah 49:8-18; 1 Corinthians 4:1-5(6-7)8-13;Matthew 6:24-34Proper 4: =Closest to June 1= 31 or 31:1-5,19-24; Deuteronomy 11:18-21,26-28; Romans 3:21-25a,28;Matthew 7:21-27Proper 5: =Closest to June 8= 50 or 50:7-15; Hosea 5:15--6:6; Romans kjv@4:13-18; Matthew 9:9-13Proper 6: =Closest to June 15= 100; Exodus 19:2-8a; Romans kjv@5:6-11; Matthew 9:35--10:8(9-15)Proper 7: =Closest to June 22= 69:1-18 or 69:7-10,16-18; Jeremiah 20:7-13; Romans 5:15b-19;Matthew 10:(16-23)24-33Proper 8: =Closest to June 29= 89:1-18 or 89:1-4,15-18; Isaiah kjv@2:10-17; Romans 6:3-11;Matthew 10:34-42Proper 9: =Closest to July 6= 145 or 145:8-14; Zechariah kjv@9:9-12; Romans 7:21--8:6; Matthew 11:25-30Proper 10: =Closest to July 13= 65 or 65:9-14; Isaiah 55:1-5,10-13; Romans 8:9-17;Matthew 13:1-9,18-23Proper 11: =Closest to July 20= 86 or 86:11-17; Wisdom 12:13,16-19; Romans 8:18-25;Matthew 13:24-30,36-43Proper 12: =Closest to July 27= 119:121-136 or 119:129-136; 1 Kings kjv@3:5-12; Romans 8:26-34;Matthew 13:31-33,44-49aProper 13: =Closest to August 3= 78:1-29 or 78:14-20,23-25; Nehemiah kjv@9:16-20; Romans 8:35-39;Matthew 14:13-21Proper 14: =Closest to August 10= 29; Jonah kjv@2:1-9; Romans kjv@9:1-5; Matthew 14:22-33Proper 15: =Closest to August 17= 67; Isaiah 56:1(2-5)6-7; Romans 11:13-15,29-32; Matthew 15:21-28Proper 16: =Closest to August 24= 138; Isaiah 51:1-6; Romans 11:33-36; Matthew 16:13-20Proper 17: =Closest to August 31= 26 or 26:1-8; Jeremiah 15:15-21; Romans 12:1-8; Matthew 16:21-27Proper 18: =Closest to September 7= 119:33-48 or 119:33-40; Ezekiel 33:(1-6)7-11; Romans 12:9-21;Matthew 18:15-20Proper 19: =Closest to September 14= 103 or 103:8-13; Ecclesiasticus 27:30--28:7; Romans 14:5-12;Matthew 18:21-35Proper 20: =Closest to September 21= 145 or 145:1-8; Jonah 3:10--4:11; Philippians 1:21-27;Matthew 20:1-16Proper 21: =Closest to September 28= 25:1-14 or 25:3-9; Ezekiel 18:1-4,25-32; Philippians 2:1-13;Matthew 21:28-32Proper 22: =Closest to October 5= 80 or 80:7-14; Isaiah kjv@5:1-7; Philippians kjv@3:14-21; Matthew 21:33-43Proper 23: =Closest to October 12= 23; Isaiah 25:1-9; Philippians kjv@4:4-13; Matthew 22:1-14Proper 24: =Closest to October 19= 96 or 96:1-9; Isaiah 45:1-7; 1 Thessalonians 1:1-10;Matthew 22:15-22Proper 25: =Closest to October 26= 1; Exodus 22:21-27; 1 Thessalonians kjv@2:1-8; Matthew 22:34-46Proper 26: =Closest to November 2= 43; Micah kjv@3:5-12; 1 Thessalonians 2:9-13,17-20; Matthew 23:1-12Proper 27: =Closest to November 9= 70; Amos kjv@5:18-24; 1 Thessalonians kjv@4:13-18; Matthew 25:1-13Proper 28: =Closest to November 16= 90 or 90:1-8,12; Zephaniah 1:7,12-18; 1 Thessalonians 5:1-10;Matthew 25:14-15,19-29Proper 29: =Closest to November 23= 95:1-7; Ezekiel 34:11-17; 1 Corinthians 15:20-28; Matthew 25:31-46First Sunday of kjv@Advent: 80 or 80:1-7; Isaiah 64:1-9a; 1 Corinthians 1:1-9;Mark 13:(24-32)33-37Second Sunday of kjv@Advent: 85 or 85:7-13; Isaiah 40:1-11; 2 Peter 3:8-15a,18; Mark 1:1-8Third Sunday of kjv@Advent: 126 or Canticle 3 or 15; Isaiah 65:17-25;1 Thessalonians 5:(12-15)16-28; John 1:6-8,19-28 or John 3:23-30Fourth Sunday of kjv@Advent: 132 *or 132:8-15; 2 Samuel 7:4,8-16; Romans 16:25-27; Luke 1:26-38Christmas Day kjv@I: 96 or 96:1-4,11-12; Isaiah 9:2-4,6-7; Titus 2:11-14;Luke 2:1-14(15-20)Christmas Day kjv@II: 97 or 97:1-4,11-12; Isaiah 62:6-7,10-12; Titus 3:4-7;Luke 2:(1-14)15-20Christmas Day kjv@III: 98 or 98:1-6; Isaiah 52:7-10; Hebrews kjv@1:1-12; John 1:1-14First Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 147 or 147:13-21; Isaiah 61:10--62:3; Galatians kjv@3:23-25; 4:4-7;John 1:1-18Holy Name: =January 1= 8; Exodus 34:1-8; Romans kjv@1:1-7; Luke 2:15-21Second Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 84 or 84:1-8; Jeremiah 31:7-14; Ephesians 1:3-6,15-19a;Matthew 2:13-15,19-23 or* Luke 2:41-52 *or Matthew 2:1-12The Epiphany: =January 6= 72 or 72:1-2,10-17; Isaiah 60:1-6,9; Ephesians kjv@3:1-12; Matthew 2:1-12First Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 89:1-29 or 89:20-29; Isaiah 42:1-9; Acts 10:34-38; Mark 1:7-11Second Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 63:1-8; 1 Samuel 3:1-10(11-20); 1 Corinthians 6:11b-20; John 1:43-51Third Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 130; Jeremiah 3:21--4:2; 1 Corinthians kjv@7:17-23; Mark 1:14-20Fourth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 111; Deuteronomy 18:15-20; 1 Corinthians 8:1b-13; Mark 1:21-28Fifth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 142; 2 Kings 4:(8-17)18-21(22-31)32-37; 1 Corinthians 9:16-23;Mark 1:29-39Sixth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 42 or 42:1-7; 2 Kings 5:1-15ab; 1 Corinthians kjv@9:24-27; Mark 1:40-45Seventh Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 32 or 32:1-8; Isaiah 43:18-25; 2 Corinthians kjv@1:18-22; Mark 2:1-12Eighth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 103 or 103:1-6; Hosea kjv@2:14-23; 2 Corinthians 3:(4-11)17--4:2;Mark 2:18-22Last Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 27 or 27:5-11; 1 Kings 19:9-18; 2 Peter 1:16-19(20-21); Mark 9:2-9Ash kjv@Wednesday: 103 or 103:8-14; Joel 2:1-2,12-17 or Isaiah 58:1-12; 2 Corinthians 5:20b--6:10; Matthew 6:1-6,16-21First Sunday in kjv@Lent: 25 or 25:3-9; Genesis kjv@9:8-17; 1 Peter kjv@3:18-22; Mark 1:9-13Second Sunday in kjv@Lent: 16 *or 16:5-11; Genesis 22:1-14; Romans kjv@8:31-39; Mark 8:31-38Third Sunday in kjv@Lent: 19:7-14; Exodus 20:1-17; Romans kjv@7:13-25; John 2:13-22Fourth Sunday in kjv@Lent: 122; 2 Chronicles 36:14-23; Ephesians kjv@2:4-10; John 6:4-15Fifth Sunday in kjv@Lent: 51 or 51:11-16; Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 5:(1-4)5-10; John 12:20-33Palm kjv@Sunday: Liturgy of the kjv@Palms: 118:19-29; Mark 11:1-11a Liturgy of the kjv@Word: 22:1-21 or 22:1-11; Isaiah 45:21-25 orIsaiah 52:13--53:12; Philippians kjv@2:5-11; Mark (14:32-72)15:1-39(40-47)Monday in Holy kjv@Week: 36:5-10; Isaiah 42:1-9; Hebrews 11:39--12:3; John 12:1-11 orMark 14:3-9Tuesday in Holy kjv@Week: 71:1-12; Isaiah 49:1-6; 1 Corinthians kjv@1:18-31; John 12:37-38,42-50or Mark 11:15-19Wednesday in Holy kjv@Week: 69:7-15,22-23; Isaiah 50:4-9a; Hebrews 9:11-15,24-28; John 13:21-35or Matthew 26:1-5,14-25Maundy kjv@Thursday: 78:14-20,23-25; Exodus 12:1-14a; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26(27-32);John 13:1-15 or Luke 22:14-30Good kjv@Friday: 22:1-21 or* 22:1-11 *or* 40:1-14 *or 69:1-23; Isaiah 52:13--53:12 or*Genesis 22:1-18 *or Wisdom 2:1,12-24; Hebrews 10:1-25;John (18:1-40)19:1-37Holy kjv@Saturday: 130 or 31:1-5; Job 14:1-14; 1 Peter kjv@4:1-8; Matthew 27:57-66 orJohn 19:38-42Easter kjv@Day: The Great Vigil: See pages 288-291. Early kjv@Service: Use one of the Old Testament Lessons from the Vigilwith 114; Romans kjv@6:3-11; Matthew 28:1-10 Principal kjv@Service: 118:14-29 or 118:14-17,22-24; Acts 10:34-43 or Isaiah 25:6-9;Colossians 3:1-4 or Acts 10:34-43; Mark 16:1-8 Evening kjv@Service: 114 or* 136 *or 118:14-17,22-24; Acts 5:29a,30-32 or Daniel 12:1-3;1 Corinthians 5:6b-8 or Acts 5:29a,30-32; Luke 24:13-35Monday in Easter kjv@Week: 16:8-11 or 118:19-24; Acts 2:14,22-32; Matthew 28:9-15Tuesday in Easter kjv@Week: 33:18-22 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@2:36-41; John 20:11-18Wednesday in Easter kjv@Week: 105:1-8 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@3:1-10; Luke 24:13-35Thursday in Easter kjv@Week: 8 or* 114 *or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@3:11-26; Luke 24:36b-48Friday in Easter kjv@Week: 116:1-8 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@4:1-12; John 21:1-14 Saturday in Easter kjv@Week: 118:14-18 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@4:13-21; Mark 16:9-15,20Second Sunday of kjv@Easter: 111 or 118:19-24; Acts 3:12a,13-15,17-26 or Isaiah 26:2-9,19; 1 John 5:1-6 or Acts 3:12a,13-15,17-26; John 20:19-31Third Sunday of kjv@Easter: 98 or 98:1-5; Acts 4:5-12 or Micah kjv@4:1-5; 1 John 1:1--2:2 orActs kjv@4:5-12; Luke 24:36b-48Fourth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 23 or 100; Acts 4:(23-31)32-37 or Ezekiel 34:1-10; 1 John 3:1-8or Acts 4:(23-31)32-37; John 10:11-16Fifth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 66:1-11 or 66:1-8; Acts 8:26-40 or Deuteronomy kjv@4:32-40; 1 John 3:(14-17)18-24 or Acts kjv@8:26-40; John 14:15-21Sixth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 33 or 33:1-8,18-22; Acts 11:19-30 or Isaiah 45:11-13,18-19; 1 John 4:7-21 or Acts 11:19-30; John 15:9-17Ascension kjv@Day: 47 or 110:1-5; Acts 1:1-11 or Ezekiel 1:3-5a,15-22,26-28;Ephesians 1:15-23 or Acts kjv@1:1-11; Luke 24:49-53 or Mark 16:9-15,19-20Seventh Sunday of kjv@Easter: 68:1-20 or 47; Acts 1:15-26 or Exodus 28:1-4,9-10,29-30;1 John 5:9-15 or Acts kjv@1:15-26; John 17:11b-19Day of kjv@Pentecost: Early or Vigil kjv@Service: 33:12-22, Canticle 2 or 13, 130, Canticle 9, 104:25-32; Genesis 11:1-9or Exodus 19:1-9,16-20a;20:18-20 or* Ezekiel 37:1-14 *or Joel 2:18-32;Acts 2:1-11 or Romans 8:14-17,22-27; John 7:37-39a Principal kjv@Service: 104:25-37 or* 104:25-32 *or 33:12-15,18-22; Acts 2:1-11 orIsaiah 44:1-8; 1 Corinthians 12:4-13 or Acts kjv@2:1-11; John 20:19-23or* John 14:8-17*On the weekdays which follow, the numbered Proper which correspondsmost closely to the date of Pentecost in that year is used. See page158.Trinity kjv@Sunday: 93 or* Canticle 2 *or 13; Exodus kjv@3:1-6; Romans kjv@8:12-17; John 3:1-16On the weekdays which follow, the numbered Proper which correspondsmost closely to the date of Trinity Sunday in that year is used.Directions for the use of the Propers which follow are on page 158.Proper 1: =Closest to May 11= 42 or 42:1-7; 2 Kings 5:1-15ab; 1 Corinthians kjv@9:24-27; Mark 1:40-45Proper 2: =Closest to May 18= 32 or 32:1-8; Isaiah 43:18-25; 2 Corinthians kjv@1:18-22; Mark 2:1-12Proper 3: =Closest to May 25= 103 or 103:1-6; Hosea kjv@2:14-23; 2 Corinthians 3:(4-11)17--4:2;Mark 2:18-22Proper 4: =Closest to June 1= 81 or 81:1-10; Deuteronomy kjv@5:6-21; 2 Corinthians kjv@4:5-12; Mark 2:23-28Proper 5: =Closest to June 8= 130; Genesis 3:(1-7)8-21; 2 Corinthians kjv@4:13-18; Mark 3:20-35Proper 6: =Closest to June 15= 92 or 92:1-4,11-14; Ezekiel 31:1-6,10-14; 2 Corinthians 5:1-10;Mark 4:26-34Proper 7: =Closest to June 22= 107:1-32 or 107:1-3,23-32; Job 38:1-11,16-18; 2 Corinthians 5:14-21;Mark kjv@4:35-41; (5:1-20)Proper 8: =Closest to June 29= 112; Deuteronomy 15:7-11; 2 Corinthians 8:1-9,13-15; Mark 5:22-24,35b-43Proper 9: =Closest to July 6= 123; Ezekiel kjv@2:1-7; 2 Corinthians 12:2-10; Mark 6:1-6Proper 10: =Closest to July 13= 85 or 85:7-13; Amos kjv@7:7-15; Ephesians kjv@1:1-14; Mark 6:7-13Proper 11: =Closest to July 20= 22:22-30; Isaiah 57:14b-21; Ephesians kjv@2:11-22; Mark 6:30-44Proper 12: =Closest to July 27= 114; 2 Kings kjv@2:1-15; Ephesians 4:1-7,11-16; Mark 6:45-52Proper 13: =Closest to August 3= 78:1-25 *or 78:14-20,23-25; Exodus 16:2-4,9-15; Ephesians 4:17-25;John 6:24-35Proper 14: =Closest to August 10= 34 or 34:1-8; Deuteronomy kjv@8:1-10; Ephesians 4:(25-29)30--5:2; John 6:37-51Proper 15: =Closest to August 17= 147 or 39:9-14; Proverbs kjv@9:1-6; Ephesians kjv@5:15-20; John 6:53-59Proper 16: =Closest to August 34= 16 or 34:15-22; Joshua 24:1-2a,14-25; Ephesians kjv@5:21-33; John 6:60-69Proper 17: =Closest to August 31= 15; Deuteronomy kjv@4:1-9; Ephesians kjv@6:10-20; Mark 7:1-8,14-15,21-23Proper 18: =Closest to September 7= 146 or 146:4-9; Isaiah 35:4-7a; James kjv@1:17-27; Mark 7:31-37Proper 19: =Closest to September 14= 116 or 116:1-8; Isaiah 50:4-9; James 2:1-5,8-10,14-18; Mark 8:27-38or Mark 9:14-29Proper 20: =Closest to September 21= 54; Wisdom 1:16--2:1(6-11)12-22; James 3:16--4:6; Mark 9:30-37Proper 21: =Closest to September 28= 19 or 19:7-14; Numbers 11:4-6,10-16,24-29; James 4:7-12(13--5:6);Mark 9:38-43,45,47-48Proper 22: =Closest to October 5= 8 or 128; Genesis kjv@2:18-24; Hebrews 2:(1-8)9-18; Mark 10:2-9Proper 23: =Closest to October 12= 90 or 90:2-8,12; Amos 5:6-7,10-15; Hebrews kjv@3:1-6; Mark 10:17-27(28-31)Proper 24: =Closest to October 19= 91 or 91:9-16; Isaiah 53:4-12; Hebrews kjv@4:12-16; Mark 10:35-45Proper 25: =Closest to October 26= 13; Isaiah 59:(1-4)9-19; Hebrews 5:12--6:1,9-12; Mark 10:46-52Proper 26: =Closest to November 2= 119:1-16 or 119:1-8; Deuteronomy kjv@6:1-9; Hebrews kjv@7:23-28; Mark 12:28-34Proper 27: =Closest to November 9= 146 or 146:4-9; 1 Kings 17:8-16; Hebrews kjv@9:24-28; Mark 12:38-44Proper 28: =Closest to November 16= 16 or 16:5-11; Daniel 12:1-4a(5-13); Hebrews 10:31-39; Mark 13:14-23Proper 29: =Closest to November 23= 93; Daniel kjv@7:9-14; Revelation kjv@1:1-8; John 18:33-37 or Mark 11:1-11First Sunday of kjv@Advent: 50 *or 50:1-6: Zechariah 14:4-9; 1 Thessalonians kjv@3:9-13; Luke 21:25-31Second Sunday of kjv@Advent: 126; Baruch kjv@5:1-9; Philippians kjv@1:1-11; Luke 3:1-6Third Sunday of kjv@Advent: 85 or* 85:7-13 *or Canticle 9; Zephaniah 3:14-20;Philippians 4:4-7(8-9); Luke 3:7-18Fourth Sunday of kjv@Advent: 80 or 80:1-7; Micah kjv@5:2-4; Hebrews 10:5-10; Luke 1:39-49(50-56)Christmas Day kjv@I: 96 or 96:1-4,11-12; Isaiah 9:2-3,6-7; Titus 2:11-14;Luke 2:1-14(15-20)Christmas Day kjv@II: 97 or 97:1-4,11-12; Isaiah 62:6-7,10-12; Titus 3:4-7;Luke 2:(1-14)15-20Christmas Day kjv@III: 98 or 98:1-6; Isaiah 52:7-10; Hebrews kjv@1:1-12; John 1:1-14First Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 147 or 147:13-21; Isaiah 61:10--62:3; Galatians kjv@3:23-25; 4:4-7;John 1:1-18Holy Name: =January 1= 8; Exodus 34:1-8, Romans kjv@1:1-7; Luke 2:15-21Second Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 84 or 84:1-8; Jeremiah 31:7-14; Ephesians 1:3-6,15-19a;Matthew 2:13-15,19-23 or* Luke 2:41-52 *or Matthew 2:1-12The Epiphany: =January 6= 72 or 72:1-2,10-17; Isaiah 60:1-6,9; Ephesians kjv@3:1-12; Matthew 2:1-12First Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 89:1-29 or 89:20-29; Isaiah 42:1-9; Acts 10:34-38; Luke 3:15-16,21-22Second Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 96 or 96:1-10; Isaiah 62:1-5; 1 Corinthians 12:1-11; John 2:1-11Third Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 113; Nehemiah kjv@8:2-10; 1 Corinthians 12:12-27; Luke 4:14-21Fourth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 71:1-17 or 71:1-6,15-17; Jeremiah kjv@1:4-10; 1 Corinthians 14:12b-20;Luke 4:21-32Fifth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 85 or 85:7-13; Judges 6:11-24a; 1 Corinthians 15:1-11; Luke 5:1-11Sixth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 1; Jeremiah 17:5-10; 1 Corinthians 15:12-20; Luke 6:17-26Seventh Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 37:1-18 or 37:3-10; Genesis 45:3-11,21-28;1 Corinthians 15:35-38,42-50; Luke 6:27-38Eighth Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 92 or 92:1-5,11-14; Jeremiah 7:1-7(8-15); 1 Corinthians 15:50-58;Luke 6:39-49Last Sunday after kjv@Epiphany: 99; Exodus 34:29-35; 1 Corinthians 12:27--13:13; Luke 9:28-36Ash kjv@Wednesday: 103 or 103:8-14; Joel 2:1-2,12-17 or Isaiah 58:1-12;2 Corinthians 5:20b--6:10; Matthew 6:1-6,16-21First Sunday in kjv@Lent: 91 or 91:9-15; Deuteronomy 26:(1-4)5-11; Romans 10:(5-8a)8b-13;Luke 4:1-13Second Sunday in kjv@Lent: 27 or 27:10-18; Genesis 15:1-12,17-18; Philippians 3:17--4:1Luke 13:(22-30)31-35Third Sunday in kjv@Lent: 103 or 103:1-11; Exodus kjv@3:1-15; 1 Corinthians 10:1-13; Luke 13:1-9Fourth Sunday in kjv@Lent: 34 or 34:1-8; Joshua (4:19-24); kjv@5:9-12; 2 Corinthians 5:17-21Luke 15:11-32Fifth Sunday in kjv@Lent: 126; Isaiah 43:16-21; Philippians kjv@3:8-14; Luke 20:9-19Palm kjv@Sunday: Liturgy of the kjv@Palms: 118:19-29; Luke 19:29-40 Liturgy of the kjv@Word: 22:1-21 or 22:1-11; Isaiah 45:21-25 or Isaiah 52:13--53:12;Philippians kjv@2:5-11; Luke (22:39-71) 23:1-49(50-56)Monday in Holy kjv@Week: 36:5-10; Isaiah 42:1-9; Hebrews 11:39--12:3; John 12:1-11 orMark 14:3-9Tuesday in Holy kjv@Week: 71:1-12; Isaiah 49:1-6; 1 Corinthians kjv@1:18-31; John 23:37-38,42-50 orMark 11:15-19Wednesday in Holy kjv@Week: 69:7-15,22-23; Isaiah 50:4-9a; Hebrews 9:11-15,24-28; John 13:21-35or Matthew 26:1-5,14-25Maundy kjv@Thursday: 78:14-20,23-25; Exodus 12:1-14a; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26(27-32);John 13:1-15 or Luke 22:14-30Good kjv@Friday: 22:1-21 or* 22:1-11 *or* 40:1-14 *or 69:1-23; Isaiah 52:13--53:12or* Genesis 22:1-18 *or Wisdom 2:1,12-24; Hebrews 10:1-25;John (18:1-40) 19:1-37Holy kjv@Saturday: 130 or 31:1-5; Job 14:1-14; 1 Peter kjv@4:1-8; Matthew 27:57-66 orJohn 19:38-42Easter kjv@Day: The Great kjv@Vigil: See pages 288-291 Early kjv@Service: Use one of the Old Testament Lessons from the Vigilwith 114; Romans kjv@6:3-11; Matthew 28:1-10 Principal kjv@Service: 118:14-29 or 118:14-17,22-24; Acts 10:34-43 or Isaiah 51:9-11;Colossians 3:1-4 or Acts 10:34-43; Luke 24:1-10 Evening kjv@Service: 114 or* 136 *or 118:14-17,22-24; Acts 5:29a,30-32 or Daniel 12:1-3;1 Corinthians 5:6b-8 or Acts 5:29a,30-32; Luke 24:13-35Monday in Easter kjv@Week: 16:8-11 or 118:19-24; Acts 2:14,22b-32; Matthew 28:9-15Tuesday in Easter kjv@Week: 33:18-22 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@2:36-41; John 20:11-18Wednesday in Easter kjv@Week: 105:1-8 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@3:1-10; Luke 24:13-35Thursday in Easter kjv@Week: 8 or* 114 *or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@3:11-26; Luke 24:36b-48Friday in Easter kjv@Week: 116:1-8 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@4:1-12; John 21:1-14Saturday in Easter kjv@Week: 118:14-18 or 118:19-24; Acts kjv@4:13-21; Mark 16:9-15,20Second Sunday of kjv@Easter: 111 or 118:19-24; Acts 5:12a,17-22,25-29 or Job 42:1-6;Revelation 1:(1-8)9-19 or Acts 5:12a,17-22,25-29; John 20:19-31Third Sunday of kjv@Easter: 33 or 33:1-11; Acts 9:1-19a or Jeremiah 32:36-41;Revelation 5:6-14 or Acts 9:1-19a; John 21:1-14Fourth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 100; Acts 13:15-16,26-33(34-39) or Numbers 27:12-23;Revelation 7:9-17 or Acts 13:15-16,26-33(34-39); John 10:22-30Fifth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 145 or 145:1-9; Acts 13:44-52 or Leviticus 19:1-2,9-18;Revelation 19:1,4-9 or Acts 13:44-52; John 13:31-35Sixth Sunday of kjv@Easter: 67; Acts 14:8-18 or Joel kjv@2:21-27; Revelation 21:22--22:5 orActs 14:8-18; John 14:23-29Ascension kjv@Day: 47 or 110:1-5; Acts 1:1-11 or 2 Kings kjv@2:1-15; Ephesians 1:15-23or Acts kjv@1:1-11; Luke 24:49-53 or Mark 16:9-15,19-20Seventh Sunday of kjv@Easter: 68:1-20 or 47; Acts 16:16-34 or 1 Samuel 12:19-24;Revelation 22:12-14,16-17,20 or Acts 16:16-34; John 17:20-26Day of kjv@Pentecost: Early or Vigil kjv@Service: 33:12-22, Canticle 2 or 13; Genesis 11:1-9or Exodus 19:1-9a,16-20a; 20:18-20 or* Ezekiel 37:1-14 *orJoel kjv@2:28-32; Acts 2:1-11 or Romans 8:14-17,22-27; John 7:37-39a Principal kjv@Service: 104:24-37 or* 104:25-32 *or 33:12-15,18-22; Acts 2:1-11 orJoel kjv@2:28-32; 1 Corinthians 12:4-13 or Acts kjv@2:1-11; John 20:19-23or* John 14:8-17*On the weekdays which follow, the numbered Proper which correspondsmost closely to the date of Pentecost in that year is used. See page158.Trinity kjv@Sunday: 29 or* Canticle 2 *or 13; Isaiah kjv@6:1-8; Revelation 4:1-11;John 16:(5-11)12-15On the weekdays which follow, the numbered Proper which correspondsmost closely to the date of Trinity Sunday in that year is used.Directions for the use of the Propers which follow are on page 158.Proper 1: =Closest to May 11= 1; Jeremiah 17:5-10; 1 Corinthians 15:12-20; Luke 6:17-26Proper 2: =Closest to May 18= 37:1-18 or 37:3-10; Genesis 45:3-11,21-28;1 Corinthians 15:35-38,42-50; Luke 6:27-38Proper 3: =Closest to May 25= 92 or 92:1-5,11-14; Jeremiah 7:1-7(8-15); 1 Corinthians 15:50-58;Luke 6:39-49Proper 4: =Closest to June 1= 96 or 96:1-9; 1 Kings 8:22-23,27-30,41-43; Galatians 1:1-10;Luke 7:1-10Proper 5: =Closest to June 8= 30 or 30:1-6,12-13; 1 Kings 17:17-24; Galatians kjv@1:11-24; Luke 7:11-17Proper 6: =Closest to June 15= 32 or 32:1-8; 2 Samuel 11:26--12:10,13-15; Galatians 2:11-21;Luke 7:36-50Proper 7: =Closest to June 22= 63:1-8; Zechariah 12:8-10; 13:1; Galatians kjv@3:23-29; Luke 9:18-24Proper 8: =Closest to June 29= 16 or 16:5-11; 1 Kings 19:15-16,19-21; Galatians 5:1,13-25;Luke 9:51-62Proper 9: =Closest to July 6= 66 or 66:1-8; Isaiah 66:10-16; Galatians 6:(1-10)14-18;Luke 10:1-12,16-20Proper 10: =Closest to July 13= 25 or 25:3-9; Deuteronomy 30:9-14; Colossians kjv@1:1-14; Luke 10:25-37Proper 11: =Closest to July 20= 15; Genesis 18:1-10a(10b-14); Colossians kjv@1:21-29; Luke 10:38-42Proper 12: =Closest to July 27= 138; Genesis 18:20-33; Colossians kjv@2:6-15; Luke 11:1-13Proper 13: =Closest to August 3= 49 or 49:1-11; Ecclesiastes kjv@1:12-14; 2:(1-7,11)18-23;Colossians 3:(5-11)12-17; Luke 12:13-21Proper 14: =Closest to August 10= 33 or 33:12-15,18-22; Genesis 15:1-6; Hebrews 11:1-3(4-7)8-16;Luke 12:32-40Proper 15: =Closest to August 17= 82; Jeremiah 23:23-29; Hebrews 12:1-7(8-10)11-14; Luke 12:49-56Proper 16: =Closest to August 24= 46; Isaiah 28:14-22; Hebrews 12:18-19,22-29; Luke 13:22-30Proper 17: =Closest to August 31= 112; Ecclesiasticus 10:(7-11)12-18; Hebrews 13:1-8; Luke 14:1,7-14Proper 18: =Closest to September 7= 1; Deuteronomy 30:15-20; Philemon 1-20; Luke 14:25-33Proper 19: =Closest to September 14= 51:1-18 or 51:1-11; Exodus 32:1,7-14; 1 Timothy kjv@1:12-17; Luke 15:1-10Proper 20: =Closest to September 21= 138; Amos 8:4-7(8-12); 1 Timothy kjv@2:1-8; Luke 16:1-13Proper 21: =Closest to September 28= 146 or 146:4-9; Amos kjv@6:1-7; 1 Timothy kjv@6:11-19; Luke 16:19-31Proper 22: =Closest to October 5= 37:1-18 or 37:3-10; Habakkuk 1:1-6(7-11)12-13;2:1-4;2 Timothy 1:(1-5)6-14; Luke 17:5-10Proper 23: =Closest to October 12= 113; Ruth 1:(1-7)8-19a; 2 Timothy 2:(3-7)8-15; Luke 17:11-19Proper 24: =Closest to October 19= 121; Genesis 32:3-8,22-30; 2 Timothy 3:14--4:5; Luke 18:1-8aProper 25: =Closest to October 26= 84 or 84:1-6; Jeremiah 14:(1-6)7-10,19-22; 2 Timothy 4:6-8,16-18;Luke 18:9-14Proper 26: =Closest to November 2= 32 or 32:1-8; Isaiah kjv@1:10-20; 2 Thessalonians 1:1-5(6-10)11-12;Luke 19:1-10Proper 27: =Closest to November 9= 17 or 17:1-8; Job 19:23-27a; 2 Thessalonians 2:13--3:5;Luke 20:27(28-33)34-38Proper 28: =Closest to November 16= 98 or 98:5-10; Malachi 3:13--4:2a,5-6; 2 Thessalonians 3:6-13;Luke 21:5-19Proper 29: =Closest to November 23= 46; Jeremiah 23:1-6; Colossians kjv@1:11-20; Luke 23:35-43 orLuke 19:29-38St. Andrew: =November 30= 19 or 19:1-6; Deuteronomy 30:11-14; Romans 10:8b-18; Matthew 4:18-22St. Thomas: =December 21= 126; Habakkuk kjv@2:1-4; Hebrews 10:35--11:1; John 20:24-29St. Stephen: =December 26= 31 or 31:1-5; Jeremiah 26:1-9,12-15; Acts 6:8--7:2a,51c-60;Matthew 23:34-39St. John: =December 27= 92 or 92:1-4,11-14; Exodus 33:18-23; 1 John kjv@1:1-9; John 21:9b-24Holy Innocents: =December 28= 124; Jeremiah 31:15-17; Revelation 21:1-7; Matthew 2:13-18Confession of St. Peter: =January 18= 23; Acts kjv@4:8-13; 1 Peter kjv@5:1-4; Matthew 16:13-19Conversion of St. Paul: =January 25= 67; Acts 26:9-21; Galatians kjv@1:11-24; Matthew 10:16-22The Presentation: =February 2= 84 or 84:1-6; Malachi kjv@3:1-4; Hebrews kjv@2:14-18; Luke 2:22-40St. Matthias: =February 24= 15; Acts kjv@1:15-26; Philippians 3:13b-21; John 15:1,6-16St. Joseph: =March 19= 89:1-29 or 89:1-4,26-29; 2 Samuel 7:4,8-16; Romans 4:13-18;Luke 2:41-52The Annunciation: =March 25= 40:1-11 or* 40:5-10 *or* Canticle 3 *or 15; Isaiah 7:10-14;Hebrews 10:5-10 ; Luke 1:26-38St. Mark: =April 25= 2 or kjv@2:7-10; Isaiah 52:7-10; Ephesians 4:7-8,11-16; Mark 1:1-15or Mark 16:15-20St. Philip & St. James: =May 1= 119:33-40; Isaiah 30:18-21; 2 Corinthians kjv@4:1-6; John 14:6-14The Visitation: =May 31= 113 or Canticle 9; Zephaniah 3:14-18a; Colossians 3:12-17;Luke 1:39-49St. Barnabas: =June 11= 112; Isaiah 42:5-12; Acts 11:19-30; 13:1-3; Matthew 10:7-16Nativity of St. John the Baptist: =June 24= 85 or 85:7-13; Isaiah 40:1-11; Acts 13:14b-26; Luke 1:57-80St. Peter & St. Paul: =June 29= 87; Ezekiel 34:11-16; 2 Timothy kjv@4:1-8; John 21:15-19Independence Day: =July 4= 145 or 145:1-9; Deuteronomy 10:17-21; Hebrews 11:8-16; Matthew 5:43-48The Psalm and Lessons "For the Nation," page 930, may be used instead.St. Mary Magdalene: =July 22= 42:1-7; Judith 9:1,11-14; 2 Corinthians kjv@5:14-18; John 20:11-18St. James: =July 25= kjv@7:1-10; Jeremiah 45:1-5; Acts 11:27--12:3; Matthew 20:20-28The Transfiguration: =August 6= 99 or 99:5-9; Exodus 34:29-35; 2 Peter kjv@1:13-21; Luke 9:28-36St. Mary the Virgin: =August 15= 34 or 34:1-9; Isaiah 61:10-11; Galatians kjv@4:4-7; Luke 1:46-55St. Bartholomew: =August 24= 91 or 91:1-4; Deuteronomy 18:15-18; 1 Corinthians 4:9-15;Luke 22:24-30Holy Cross Day: =September 14= 98 or 98:1-4; Isaiah 45:21-25; Philippians 2:5-11 orGalatians kjv@6:14-18; John 12:31-36aSt. Matthew: =September 21= 119:33-40; Proverbs kjv@3:1-6; 2 Timothy kjv@3:14-17; Matthew 9:9-13St. Michael & All Angels: =September 29= 103 or 103:19-22; Genesis 28:10-17; Revelation 12:7-12; John 1:47-51St. Luke: =October 18= 147 or 147:1-7; Ecclesiasticus 38:1-4,6-10,12-14; 2 Timothy 4:5-13;Luke 4:14-21St. James of Jerusalem: =October 23= 1; Acts 15:12-22a; 1 Corinthians 15:1-11; Matthew 13:54-58St. Simon & St. Jude: =October 28= 119:89-96; Deuteronomy 32:1-4; Ephesians kjv@2:13-22; John 15:17-27All Saints' Day: =November 1= 149; Ecclesiasticus 44:1-10,13-14; Revelation 7:2-4,9-17;Matthew kjv@5:1-12 or this 149; Ecclesiasticus 2:(1-6)7-11; Ephesians 1:(11-14)15-23;Luke 6:20-26(27-36)Thanksgiving kjv@Day: 65 or 65:9-14; Deuteronomy 8:1-3,6-10(17-20); James 1:17-18,21-27;Matthew 6:25-33Of a Martyr I 126 or 121; 2 Esdras kjv@2:42-48; 1 Peter 3:14-18,22; Matthew 10:16-22Of a Martyr II 116 or 116:1-8; Ecclesiasticus 51:1-12; Revelation 7:13-17;Luke 12:2-12Of a Martyr III 124 *or 31:1-5; Jeremiah 15:15-21; 1 Peter kjv@4:12-19; Mark 8:34-38Of a Missionary I 96 or 96:1-7; Isaiah 52:7-10; Acts kjv@1:1-9; Luke 10:1-9Of a Missionary kjv@II: 98 or 98:1-4; Isaiah 49:1-6; Acts 17:22-31; Matthew 28:16-20Of a Pastor kjv@I: 23: Ezekiel 34:11-16; 1 Peter kjv@5:1-4; John 21:15-17Of a Pastor kjv@II: 84 or 84:7-12; Acts 20:17-35; Ephesians kjv@3:14-21; Matthew 24:42-47Of a Theologian and Teacher kjv@I: 119:97-104; Wisdom kjv@7:7-14; 1 Corinthians 2:6-10,13-16; John 17:18-23Of a Theologian and Teacher kjv@II: 119:89-96; Proverbs kjv@3:1-7; 1 Corinthians kjv@3:5-11; Matthew 13:47-52Of a Monastic kjv@I: 34 or 34:1-8; Song of Songs kjv@8:6-7; Philippians 3:7-15;Luke 12:33-37 or Luke 9:57-62Of a Monastic kjv@II: 133 or 119:161-168; Acts 2:42-47a; 2 Corinthians 6:1-10;Matthew 6:24-33Of a Saint kjv@I: 15; Micah kjv@6:6-8; Hebrews 12:1-2; Matthew 25:31-40Of a Saint kjv@II: 34 or 34:15-22; Wisdom kjv@3:1-9; Philippians kjv@4:4-9; Luke 6:17-23Of a Saint kjv@III: 1; Ecclesiasticus kjv@2:7-11; 1 Corinthians kjv@1:26-31; Matthew 25:1-13l. Of the Holy kjv@Trinity: 29; Exodus kjv@3:11-15; Romans 11:33-36; Matthew 28:18-202. Of the Holy kjv@Spirit: 139:1-17 or 139:1-9; Isaiah 61:1-3; 1 Corinthians 12:4-14;Luke 11:9-133. Of the Holy kjv@Angels: 148 or 103:19-22; Daniel 7:9-10a or 2 Kings 6:8-17;Revelation kjv@5:11-14; John kjv@1:47-514. Of the kjv@Incarnation: 111 or 132:11-19; Isaiah 11:1-10 or Genesis 17:1-8;1 John 4:1-11 or 1 Timothy kjv@3:14-16; Luke 1:26-33(34-38) orLuke 11:27-285. Of the Holy kjv@Eucharist: 34 or 116:10-17; Deuteronomy kjv@8:2-3; Revelation 19:1-2a,4-9 or*1 Corinthians 10:1-4,16-17 *or 1 Corinthians 11:23-29; John 6:47-586. Of the Holy kjv@Cross: 40:1-11 or 40:5-11; Isaiah 52:13-15; 53:10-12;1 Corinthians kjv@1:18-24; John 12:23-337. For All Baptized kjv@Christians: 16:5-11; Jeremiah 17:7-8 or Ezekiel 36:24-28; Romans 6:3-11;Mark 10:35-458. For the kjv@Departed: 116 or* 103:13-22 *or 130; Isaiah 25:6-9 or Wisdom 3:1-9;1 Corinthians 15:50-58; John 5:24-27 or* John 6:37-40 *or* John 11:21-27*Any of the Psalms and Lessons appointed at the Burial of the Dead maybe used instead.9. Of the Reign of kjv@Christ: 93 or Canticle 18; Daniel kjv@7:9-14; Colossians 1:11-20;John 18:33-37Any of the Psalms and Lessons appointed in Proper 29 may be usedinstead.10. At kjv@Baptism: 15 or* 23 *or* 27 *or* 42:1-7 *or* 84 *or Canticle 9;Ezekiel 36:24-28[*]; Romans 6:3-5 or* Romans 8:14-17 *or2 Corinthians kjv@5:17-20; Mark 1:9-11 or* Mark 10:13-16 *or* John 3:1-6[*] Any of the other Old Testament Lessons for the Easter Vigil may besubstituted.*11. At kjv@Confirmation: 1 or 139:1-9; Isaiah 61:1-9 or* Jeremiah 31:31-34 *orEzekiel 37:1-10; Romans 8:18-27 or* Romans 12:1-8 *or* Galatians 5:16-25*or Ephesians 4:7,11-16; Matthew 5:1-12 or* Matthew 16:24-27 *or*Luke 4:16-22 *or John 14:15-2112. Anniversary of the Dedication of a kjv@Church: 84 or 84:1-6; 1 Kings 8:22-30 or Genesis 28:10-17;1 Peter 2:1-5,9-10; Matthew 21:12-1613. For a Church kjv@Convention: 19:7-14; Isaiah 55:1-13; 2 Corinthians kjv@4:1-10; John 15:1-1114. For the Unity of the kjv@Church: 122; Isaiah 35:1-10; Ephesians kjv@4:1-6; John 17:6a,15-2315. For the Ministry kjv@I: 99 or 27:1-9; Numbers 11:16-17,24-29; 1 Corinthians 3:5-11;John kjv@4:31-3815. For the Ministry kjv@II: 63:1-8; 1 Samuel kjv@3:1-10; Ephesians kjv@4:11-16; Matthew kjv@9:35-3815. For the Ministry kjv@III: 15; Exodus 19:3-8; 1 Peter kjv@4:7-11; Matthew 16:24-2716. For the Mission of the Church kjv@I: 96 or 96:1-7; Isaiah kjv@2:2-4; Ephesians kjv@2:13-22; Luke 10:1-916. For the Mission of the Church kjv@II: 67; Isaiah 49:5-13; Ephesians kjv@3:1-12; Matthew 28:16-2017. For the kjv@Nation: 47; Isaiah 26:1-8; Romans 13:1-10; Mark 12:13-17The Psalm and any of the Lessons appointed for Independence Day maybe used instead.18. For kjv@Peace: 85:7-13; Micah kjv@4:1-5; Ephesians 2:13-18 or Colossians 3:12-15;John 16:23-33 or Matthew kjv@5:43-4819. For Rogation Days kjv@I: 147 or 147:1-13; Deuteronomy 11:10-15 or* Ezekiel 47:6-12 *orJeremiah 14:1-9; Romans kjv@8:18-25; Mark kjv@4:26-3219. For Rogation Days kjv@II: 107:1-9; Ecclesiasticus 38:27-32; 1 Corinthians kjv@3:10-14; Matthew kjv@6:19-2419. For Rogation Days kjv@III: 104:25-37 or 104:1,13-15,25-32; Job 38:1-11,16-18;1 Timothy 6:7-10,17-19; Luke 12:13-2120. For the kjv@Sick: 13 or 86:1-7; 2 Kings 20:1-5; James kjv@5:13-16; Mark 2:1-12Any of the Psalms and Lessons appointed at the Ministration to theSick may be used instead.21. For Social kjv@Justice: 72 or 72:1-4,12-14; Isaiah 42:1-7; James 2:5-9,12-17; Matthew 10:32-4222. For Social kjv@Service: 146 or 22:22-27; Zechariah 8:3-12,16-17; 1 Peter kjv@4:7-11; Mark 10:42-5223. For kjv@Education: 78:1-7; Deuteronomy 6:4-9,20-25; 2 Timothy 3:14--4:5; Matthew 11:25-3024. For Vocation in Daily kjv@Work: 8; Ecclesiastes 3:1,9-13; 1 Peter kjv@2:11-17; Matthew kjv@5:19-2425. For Labor kjv@Day: 107:1-9 or 90:1-2,16-17; Ecclesiasticus 38:27-32;1 Corinthians kjv@3:10-14; Matthew 5:19-24Concerning the Daily Office Lectionary**The Daily Office Lectionary is arranged in a two-year cycle. Year Onebegins on the First Sunday of Advent preceding odd-numbered years, andYear Two begins on the First Sunday of Advent preceding even-numberedyears. (Thus, on the First Sunday of Advent, 1976, the Lectionary forYear One is begun.)*Three Readings are provided for each Sunday and weekday in each of thetwo years. Two of the Readings may be used in the morning and one inthe evening; or, if the Office is read only once in the day, all threeReadings may be used. When the Office is read twice in the day, it issuggested that the Gospel Reading be used in the evening in Year One,and in the morning in Year Two. If two Readings are desired at bothOffices, the Old Testament Reading for the alternate year is used as theFirst Reading at Evening Prayer.*When more than one Reading is used at an Office, the first is alwaysfrom the Old Testament (or the Apocrypha).**When a Major Feast interrupts the sequence of Readings, they may be re-ordered by lengthening, combining, or omitting some of them, to securecontinuity or avoid repitition.**Any Reading may be lengthened at discretion. Suggested lengtheningsare shown in parentheses.**In this Lectionary (except in the weeks from 4 Advent to 1 Epiphany,and Palm Sunday to 2 Easter), the Psalms are arranged in a seven-weekpattern which recurs throughout the year, except for appropriatevariations in Lent and Easter Season.**In the citation of the Psalms, those for the morning are given first,and then those for the evening. At the discretion of the officiant,however, any of the Psalms appointed for a given day may be used in themorning or in the evening. Likewise, Psalms appointed for any day maybe used on any other day in the same week, except on major Holy Days.Brackets and parentheses are used (brackets in the case of wholePsalms, parentheses in the case of verses) to indicate Psalms and versesof Psalms which may be omitted. In some instances, the entire portionof the Psalter assigned to a given Office has been bracketed, andalternative Psalmody provided. Those who desire to recite the Psalterin its entirety should, in each instance, use the bracketed Psalmsrather than the alternatives.**Antiphons drawn from the Psalms themselves, or from the openingsentences given in the Offices, or from other passages of Scripture, maybe used with the Psalms and biblical Canticles. The antiphons may besung or said at the beginning and end of each Psalm or Canticle, or maybe used as refrains after each verse or group of verses.**On Special Occasions, the officiant may select suitable Psalms andReadings.Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Isa. kjv@1:1-9; 2 Pet. kjv@3:1-10; Matt. 25:1-13Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Isa. kjv@1:10-20; 1 Thess. kjv@1:1-10; Luke 20:1-8Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Isa. kjv@1:21-31; 1 Thess. kjv@2:1-12; Luke 20:9-18Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Isa. kjv@2:1-11; 1 Thess. kjv@2:13-20; Luke 20:19-26Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Isa. kjv@2:12-22; 1 Thess. kjv@3:1-13; Luke 20:27-40Friday: 16, 17; 22 Isa. kjv@3:8-15; 1 Thess. kjv@4:1-12; Luke 20:41-21:4Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Isa. kjv@4:2-6; 1 Thess. kjv@4:13-18; Luke 21:5-19Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Isa. kjv@5:1-7; 2 Pet. kjv@3:11-18; Luke 7:28-35Monday: 25; 9, 15 Isa. 5:8-12,18-23; 1 Thess. kjv@5:1-11; Luke 21:20-28Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Isa. kjv@5:13-17, 24-25; 1 Thess. kjv@5:12-28; Luke 21:29-38Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Isa. kjv@6:1-13; 2 Thess. kjv@1:1-12; John 7:53-8:11Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Isa. kjv@7:1-9; 2 Thess. kjv@2:1-12; Luke 22:1-13Friday: 31; 35 Isa. kjv@7:10-25; 2 Thess. 2:13-3:5; Luke 22:14-30Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Isa. kjv@8:1-15; 2 Thess. kjv@3:6-18; Luke 22:31-38Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Isa. 13:6-13; Heb. 12:18-29; John 3:22-30Monday: 41,52; 44 Isa. 8:16-9:1; 2 Pet. kjv@1:1-11; Luke 22:39-53Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Isa. kjv@9:1-7; 2 Pet. kjv@1:12-21; Luke 22:54-69Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Isa. kjv@9:8-17; 2 Pet. 2:1-10a; Mark 1:1-8Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 33 Isa. 9:18-10:4; 2 Pet. 2:10b-16; Matt. 3:1-12Friday: 40,54; 51 Isa. 10:5-19; 2 Pet. kjv@2:17-22; Matt. 11:2-15Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Isa. 10:20-27; Jude 17-25; Luke 3:19Sunday: 24,29; 8,84 Isa. 42:1-12; Eph. kjv@6:10-20; John 3:16-21Monday: 61,62; 112,115 Isa. 11:1-9; Rev. 20:1-10; John 5:30-47Tuesday: 66,67; 116,117 Isa. 11:10-16; Rev. 20:11-21:8; Luke 1:5-25Wednesday: 72; 111,113 Isa. 28:9-22; Rev. 21:9-21; Luke 1:26-38Thursday: 80; 146,147 Isa. 29:13-24; Rev. 21:22-22:5; Luke 1:39-48a(48b-56)Friday: 93, 96; 148,150 Isa. 33:17-22; Rev. 22:6-11,18-20; Luke 1:57-66Dec. 24: 45,46; Isa. 35:1-10; Rev. 22:12-17,21; Luke 1:67-80Christmas kjv@Eve: ; 89:1-29 Isa. 59:15b-21; Phil. 2:5-11Christmas kjv@Day: 2,85; 110:1-1(6-7),132 Zech. kjv@2:10-13; 1 John kjv@4:7-16; John 3:31-26First Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 93,96; 34 Isa. 62:6-7,10-12; Heb 2: 10-18; Matt. 1:18-25Dec. 29: 18:1-20; 18:21-50[*] Isa. 12:1-6; Rev. kjv@1:1-8; John kjv@7:37-52 [*] If today is Saturday, use Psalms 23 and 27 at Evening PrayerDec. 30: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 23,27 Isa 25:1-9; Rev. kjv@1:9-20; John 7:53-8:11Dec. 31: 46,48; Isa. 26:1-9; 2 Cor. 5:16-6:2; John 8:12-19Eve of Holy Name: ; 90 Isa. 65:15b-25; Rev. 21:1-6Holy kjv@Name: 103; 148 Gen. 17:1-12a,15-16; Col. kjv@2:6-12; John 16:23b-30Second Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 66,67; 145 Ecclus. 3:3-9,14-17; 1 John kjv@2:12-17; John 6:41-47Jan. kjv@2: 34; 33 Gen. 12:1-7; Heb. 11:1-12; John 6:35-42,48-51Jan. kjv@3: 68; 72[*] Gen. 28:10-22; Heb. 11:13-22; John 10:7-17Jan. kjv@4: 85,87; 89:1-29 [] Exod. kjv@3:1-12; Heb. 11:23-31; John 14:6-14Jan. kjv@5: 2, 110:1-5(6-7); Joshua kjv@1:1-9; Heb. 11:32-12:2; John 15:1-16Eve of kjv@Epiphany: ; 29,98 Isa. 66:18-23; Rom. 15:7-13 [*] If today is Saturday, use Psalm 136 at Evening Prayer. [] If today is Saturday, use Psalm 136 at Evening Prayer.Epiphany: 46, 97 ; 96,100 Isa. 52:7-10; Rev. 21:22-27; Matt. 12:14-21Jan. 7 [*]: 103; 114, 115 Isa. 52:3-6; Rev. kjv@2:1-7; John 2:1-11Jan. 8: 117, 118; 112, 113 Isa. 59:15-21; Rev. kjv@2:8-17; John 4:46-54Jan. kjv@9: 121, 122, 123; 131, 132 Isa. 63:1-5; Rev. kjv@2:18-29; John 5:1-15Jan. 10: 138, 139:1-17(18-23); 147 Isa. 65:1-9; Rev. kjv@3:1-6; John 6:1-14Jan. 11: 148, 150; 91,92 Isa. 65:13-16; Rev. kjv@3:7-13; John 6:15-27Jan. 12: 98, 99, 100; Isa. 66:1-2,22-23; Rev. kjv@3:14-22; John 9:1-12,35-38Eve of 1 kjv@Epiphany: ; 104 Isa. 61:1-9; Gal. kjv@3:23-29, 4:4-7 [*] The Psalms and Readings for the dated days after the Epiphanyare used only until the following Saturday Evening.Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Isa. 40:1-11; Heb. kjv@1:1-12; John 1:1-7,19-20,29-34Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Isa. 40:12-23; Eph. kjv@1:1-14; Mark 1:1-13Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Isa. 40:25-31; Eph. kjv@1:15-23; Mark 1:14-28Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Isa. 41:1-16; Eph. kjv@2:1-10; Mark 1:29-45Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Isa. 41:17-29; Eph. kjv@2:11-22; Mark 2:1-12Friday: 16, 17; 22 Isa. 42:(1-9)10-17; Eph. kjv@3:1-13; Mark 2:13-22Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Isa. 43:1-13; Eph. kjv@3:14-21; Mark 2:23-3:6Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Isa. 43:14-44:5; Heb. 6:17-7:10; John 4:27-42Monday: 25; 9, 15 Isa. 44:6-8,21-23; Eph. kjv@4:1-16; Mark 3:7-19aTuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Isa. 44:9-20; Eph. kjv@4:17-32; Mark 3:19b-35Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Isa. 44:24-45:7; Eph. kjv@5:1-14; Mark 4:1-20Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Isa. 45:5-17; Eph. kjv@5:15-33; Mark 4:21-34Friday: 31; 35 Isa. 45:18-25; Eph. kjv@6:1-9; Mark 4:35-41Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Isa. 46:1-13; Eph. kjv@6:10-24; Mark 5:1-20Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Isa. 47:1-15; Heb. 10:19-31; John 5:2-18Monday: 41,52; 44 Isa. 48:1-11; Gal. kjv@1:1-17; Mark 5:21-43Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Isa. 48:12-21; Gal. 1:18-2:10; Mark 6:1-13Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Isa. 49:1-12; Gal. kjv@2:11-21; Mark 6:13-29Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 118 Isa. 49:13-23; Gal. kjv@3:1-14; Mark 6:30-46Friday: 40,54; 51 Isa. 50:1-11; Gal. kjv@3:15-22; Mark 6:47-56Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Isa. 51:1-8; Gal. kjv@3:23-29; Mark 7:1-23Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Isa. 51:9-16; Heb. 11:8-16; John 7:14-31Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Isa. 51:17-23; Gal. kjv@4:1-11; Mark 7:24-37Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Isa. 52:1-12; Gal. kjv@4:12-20; Mark 8:1-10Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Isa. 54:1-10(11-17); Gal. kjv@4:21-31; Mark 8:11-26Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Isa. 55:1-13; Gal. kjv@5:1-15; Mark 8:27-9:1Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Isa. 56:1-8; Gal. kjv@5:16-24; Mark 9:2-13Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Isa. 57:3-13; Gal. 5:25-6:10; Mark 9:14-29Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Isa. 57:14-21; Heb. 12:1-6; John 7:37-46Monday: 80; 77, 79 Isa. 58:1-12; Gal. kjv@6:11-18; Mark 9:30-41Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Isa. 59:1-15a; 2 Tim. kjv@1:1-14; Mark 9:42-50Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Isa. 59:15b-21; 2 Tim. 1:15-2:13; Mark 10:1-16Thursday: 83 or 146, 147; 85, 86 Isa. 60:1-17; 2 Tim. kjv@2:14-26; Mark 10:17-31Friday: 88; 91, 92 Isa. 61:1-9; 2 Tim. kjv@3:1-17; Mark 10:32-45Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Isa. 61:10-62:5; 2 Tim. kjv@4:1-8; Mark 10:46-52Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Isa. 62:6-12; 1 John kjv@2:3-11; John 8:12-19Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Isa. 63:1-6; 1 Tim. kjv@1:1-17; Mark 11:1-11Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Isa. 63:7-14; 1 Tim. 1:18-2:8; Mark 11:12-26Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Isa 63:15-64:9; 1 Tim. kjv@3:1-16; Mark 11:27-12:12Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Isa. 65:1-12; 1 Tim. kjv@4:1-16; Mark 12:13-27Friday: 102; 107:1-32 Isa. 65:17-25; 1 Tim 5:17-22(23-25); Mark 12:28-34Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Isa. 66:1-6; 1 Tim. kjv@6:6-21; Mark 12:35-44Sunday: 118; 145 Isa. 66:7-14; 1 John kjv@3:4-10; John 10:7-16Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Ruth kjv@1:1-14; 2 Cor. kjv@1:1-11; Matt. 5:1-12Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Ruth kjv@1:15-22; 2 Cor. kjv@1:12-22; Matt. 5:13-20Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Ruth kjv@2:1-13; 2 Cor. 1:23-2:17; Matt. 5:21-26Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Ruth kjv@2:14-23; 2 Cor. kjv@3:1-18; Matt. 5:27-37Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Ruth kjv@3:1-18; 2 Cor kjv@4:1-12; Matt. 5:38-48Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Ruth kjv@4:1-17; 2 Cor. 4:13-5:10; Matt. 6:1-16Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Deut. kjv@4:1-9; 2 Tim. kjv@4:1-8; John 12:1-8Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Deut. kjv@4:9-14; 2 Cor. 10:1-18; Matt. 6:7-15Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Deut. kjv@4:15-24; 2 Cor. 11:1-21a; Matt. 6:16-23Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Deut. kjv@4:25-31; 2 Cor. 11:21b-33; Matt. 6:24-34Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Deut. kjv@4:32-40; 2 Cor. 12:1-10; Matt. 7:1-12Friday: 16, 17; 22 Deut. kjv@5:1-22; 2 Cor. 12:11-21; Matt. 7:13-21Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Deut. kjv@5:22-33; 2 Cor. 13:1-14; Matt. 7:22-29Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Deut. kjv@6:1-9; Heb. 12:18-29; John 12:24-32Monday: 25; 9, 15 Deut. kjv@6:10-15; Heb kjv@1:1-14; John 1:1-18Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Deut. kjv@6:16-25; Heb kjv@2:1-10; John 1:19-28Ash kjv@Wednesday: 95[*] && 32,143; 102,130 Jonah 3:1-4:11; Heb. 12:1-14; Luke 18:9-14Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Deut kjv@7:6-11; Titus kjv@1:1-16; John 1:29-34Friday: 95[*] && 31; 35 Deut. kjv@7:12-16; Titus kjv@2:1-15; John 1:35-42Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Deut. kjv@7:17-26; Titus kjv@3:1-15; John kjv@1:43-51 [*] For the InvitatorySunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Deut. kjv@8:1-10; 1 Cor. kjv@1:17-31; Mark 2:18-22Monday: 41,52; 44 Deut. kjv@8:11-20; Heb. kjv@2:11-18; John 2:1-12Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Deut. kjv@9:4-12; Heb. kjv@3:1-11; John 2:13-22Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Deut. kjv@9:13-21; Heb. kjv@3:12-19; John 2:23-3:15Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 19, 46 Deut. 9:23-10:5; Heb: kjv@4:1-10; John 3:16-21Friday: 95[*] && 40,54; 51 Deut. 10:12-22; Heb. kjv@4:11-16; John 3:22-36Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Deut. 11:18-28; Heb. kjv@5:1-10; John kjv@4:1-26 [*] For the InvitatorySunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Jer. kjv@1:1-10; 1 Cor. kjv@3:11-23; Mark 3:31-4:9Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Jer. kjv@1:11-19; Rom. kjv@1:1-15; John 4:27-42Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Jer. kjv@2:1-13; Rom. kjv@1:16-25; John 4:43-54Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Jer. kjv@3:6-18; Rom. 1:28-2:11; John 5:1-18Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Jer. 4:9-10,19-28; Rom. kjv@2:12-24; John 5:19-29Friday: 95[*] && 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Jer. kjv@5:1-9; Rom. 2:25-3:18; John 5:30-47Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Jer. kjv@5:20-31; Rom. kjv@3:19-31; John kjv@7:1-13 [*] For the InvitatorySunday: 93, 96; 34 Jer. kjv@6:9-15; 1 Cor. kjv@6:12-20; Mark 5:1-20Monday: 80; 77, 79 Jer. kjv@7:1-15; Rom. kjv@4:1-12; John 7:14-36Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Jer. kjv@7:21-34; Rom. kjv@4:13-25; John 7:37-52Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Jer. 8:18-9:6; Rom. kjv@5:1-11; John 8:12-20Thursday: 83 or 42,43; 85, 86 Jer. 10:11-24; Rom. kjv@5:12-21; John 8:21-32Friday: 95[*] && 88; 91, 92 Jer. 11:1-8,14-20; Rom. kjv@6:1-11; John 8:33-47Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Jer. 13:1-11; Rom. kjv@6:12-23; John kjv@8:47-59 [*] For the InvitatorySunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Jer. 14:1-9,17-22; Gal. 4:21-5:1; Mark 8:11-21Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Jer. 16:10-21; Rom. kjv@7:1-12; John 6:1-15Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Jer. 17:19-27; Rom. kjv@7:13-25; John 6:16-27Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Jer. 18:1-11; Rom. kjv@8:1-11; John 6:27-40Thursday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Jer. 22:13-23; Rom. kjv@8:12-27; John 6:41-51Friday: 95[*] && 102; 107:1-32 Jer. 23:1-8; Rom. kjv@8:28-39; John 6:52-59Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Jer. 23:9-15; Rom. kjv@9:1-18; John kjv@6:60-71 [*] For the InventorySunday: 118; 145 Jer. 23:16-32; 1 Cor. kjv@9:19-27; Mark 8:31-9:1Monday: 31; 35 Jer. 24:1-10; Rom. kjv@9:19-23; John 9:1-17Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Jer. 25:8-17; Rom. 10:1-13; John 9:18-41Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Jer. 25:30-38; Rom. 10:14-21; John 10:1-18Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 140, 142 Jer. 26:1-16; Rom. 11:1-12; John 10:19-42Friday: 95[*] && 22; 141, 143:1-11(12) Jer. 29:1,4-13; Rom. 11:13-24; John 11:1-27 or 12:1-10Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 42, 43 Jer. 31:27-34; Rom. 11:25-36; John 11:28-44 or 12:37-50 [*] For the InvitatoryPalm kjv@Sunday: 24, 29; 103 Zech. 9:9-12[] or Zech. 12:9-11,13:1,7-9[*]; 1 Tim. 6:12-16[];Matt. 21:12-17[*]Monday: 51:1-18(19-20); 69:1-23 Jer. 12:1-16; Phil. kjv@3:1-14; John 12:9-19Tuesday: 6, 12; 94 Jer. 15:10-21; Phil. kjv@3:15-21; John 12:20-26Wednesday: 55; 74 Jer. 17:5-10, 14-17; Phil. kjv@4:1-13; John 12:27-26Maundy kjv@Thursday: 102; 142, 143 Jer. 20:7-11; 1 Cor. 10:14-17, 11:27-32; John 17:1-11(12-26)Good kjv@Friday: 95[*] && 22; 40:1-14(15-19),54 Wisdom 1:16-2:1,12-22 or Gen. 22:1-14; 1 Peter kjv@1:10-20; John 13:36-38[] or John 19:38-42[*]Holy kjv@Saturday: 95[] && 88; 27 Job 19:21-27a; Heb. 4:1-16[]; Rom. 8:1-11[*] [*] For the Invitatory [] Intended for use in the morning [*] Intended for use in the eveningEaster kjv@Day: 148, 149, 150; 113, 114, or 118 Exod. 12:1-14[] or Isa. 51:9-11[*]; ; John 1:1-18[] or Luke24:13-35[*], or John 20:19-23[*]Monday: 93, 98; 66 Jonah kjv@2:1-9; Acts 2:14,22-32[*]; John 14:1-14Tuesday: 103; 111, 114 Isa. 30:18-21; Acts 2:26-41(42-47)[*]; John 14:15-31Wednesday: 97, 99; 115 Micah kjv@7:7-15; Acts 3:1-10[*]; John 15:1-11Thursday: 146, 147; 148, 149 Ezek. 37:1-14; Acts 3:11-26[*]; John 15:12-27Friday: 136; 118 Dan. 12:1-4,13; Acts 4:1-12[*]; John 16:1-15Saturday: 145; 104 Isa. 25:1-9; Acts 4:13-21(22-31)[*]; John 16:16-33 [*] Duplicates the First Lesson at the Eucharist. Readings from YearTwo may be substituted. [] Intended for use in the morning [*] Intended for use in the eveningSunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Isa. 43:8-13; 1 Pet. kjv@2:2-10; John 14:1-7Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Dan. kjv@1:1-21; 1 John kjv@1:1-10; John 17:1-11Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Dan. kjv@2:1-16; 1 John kjv@2:1-11; John 17:12-19Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Dan. kjv@2:17-30; 1 John kjv@2:12-17; John 17:20-26Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Dan. kjv@2:31-49; 1 John kjv@2:18-29; Luke 3:1-14Friday: 16, 17; 134, 135 Dan kjv@3:1-18; 1 John kjv@3:1-10; Luke 3:15-22Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Dan. kjv@3:19-30; 1 John kjv@3:11-18; Luke 4:1-13Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Dan. kjv@4:1-18; 1 Pet. kjv@4:7-11; John 21:15-25Monday: 25; 9, 15 Dan.4:19-27; 1 John 3:19-4:6; Luke 4:14-30Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Dan. kjv@4:28-37; 1 John kjv@4:7-21; Luke 4:31-37Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Dan. kjv@5:1-12; 1 John kjv@5:1-12; Luke 4:38-44Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Dan. kjv@5:13-30; 1 John 5:13-20(21); Luke 5:1-11Friday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Dan. kjv@6:1-15; 2 John 1-13; Luke 5:12-26Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Dan. kjv@6:16-28; 3 John 1-15; Luke 5:27-39Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Wisdom kjv@1:1-15; 1 Pet. kjv@5:1-11; Matt. 7:15-29Monday: 41,52; 44 Wisdom 1:16-2:11,21-24; Col. kjv@1:1-14; Luke 6:1-11Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Wisdom kjv@3:1-9; Col kjv@1:15-23; Luke 6:12-26Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Wisdom 4:16-5:8; Col. 1:24-2:7; Luke 6:27-38Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 114, 115 Wisdom kjv@5:9-23; Col. kjv@2:8-23; Luke 6:39-49Friday: 40,54; 51 Wisdom kjv@6:12-23; Col kjv@3:1-11; Luke 7:1-17Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Wisdom kjv@7:1-14; Col. kjv@3:12-17; Luke 7:18-28(29-30)31-35Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Wisdom 7:22-8:1; 2 Thess. kjv@2:13-17; Matt. 7:7-14Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Wisdom 9:1,7-18; Col. (3:18-4:1)2-18; Luke 7:36-50Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Wisdom 10:1-4(5-12)13-21; Rom. 12:1-21; Luke 8:1-15Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Wisdom 13:1-9; Rom 13:1-14; Luke 8:16-25Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Wisdom 14:27-15:3; Rom. 14:1-12; Luke 8:26-39Friday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Wisdom 16:15-17:1; Rom. 14:13-23; Luke 8:40-56Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Wisdom 19:1-8,18-22; Rom. 15:1-13; Luke 9:1-17Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Ecclus. 43:1-12,27-32; 1 Tim. 3:14-4:5; Matt. 13:24-34aMonday: 80; 77, 79 Deut. kjv@8:1-10; James kjv@1:1-15; Luke 9:18-27Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Deut. kjv@8:11-20; James kjv@1:16-27; Luke 11:1-13Wednesday: 119:97-120; Baruch kjv@3:24-37; James kjv@5:13-18; Luke 12:22-31Eve of kjv@Ascension: ; 68:1-20 2 Kings kjv@2:1-15; Rev. 5:1-14Ascension kjv@Day: 8, 47; 24, 96 Ezek. 1:1-14,24-28b; Heb. kjv@2:5-18; Matt. 28:16-20Friday: 85, 86; 91, 92 Ezek. 1:28-3:3; Heb. 4:14-5:6; Luke 9:28-36Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Ezek. kjv@3:4-17; Heb. kjv@5:7-14; Luke 9:37-50Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Ezek. kjv@3:16-27; Eph. kjv@2:1-10; Matt. 10:24-33,40-42Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Ezek. kjv@4:1-17; Heb. kjv@6:1-12; Luke 9:51-62Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Ezek. 7:10-15,23b-27; Heb. kjv@6:13-20; Luke 10:1-17Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Ezek. 11:14-25; Heb. kjv@7:1-17; Luke 10:17-24Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Ezek. 18:1-4,19-32; Heb. kjv@7:18-28; Luke 10:25-37Friday: 102; 107:1-32 Ezek. 34:17-31; Heb. kjv@8:1-13; Luke 10:38-42Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); Ezek. 43:1-12; Heb. kjv@9:1-14; Luke 11:14-23Eve of kjv@Pentecost: ; 33 Exod. 19:3-8a,16-20; 1 Pet. 2:4-10The Day of kjv@Pentecost: 118; 145 Isa. 11:1-9; 1 Cor. kjv@2:1-13; John 14:21-29On the weekdays which follow, the Readings are taken fromthe numbered Proper (one through six) which correspondsmost closely to the date of Pentecost.Eve of Trinity kjv@Sunday: ; 104 Ecclus. 42:15-25; Eph. 3:14-21Trinity kjv@Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Ecclus. 43:1-12(27-33); Eph. kjv@4:1-16; John 1:1-18On the weekdays which follow, the Readings are taken fromthe numbered Proper (two through seven) which correspondsmost closely to the date of Trinity Sunday.Directions for the use of the Propers are on page 158. =Week of the Sunday closest to May 11=Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Isa. 63:7-14; 2 Tim. kjv@1:1-14; Luke 11:24-36Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Isa. 63:15-64:9; 2 Tim. 1:15-2:13; Luke 11:37-52Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Isa. 65:1-12; 2 Tim. kjv@2:14-26; Luke 11:53-12:12Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Isa. 65:17-25; 2 Tim. kjv@3:1-17; Luke 12:13-31Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Isa. 66:1-6; 2 Tim. kjv@4:1-8; Luke 12:32-48Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Isa. 66:7-14; 2 Tim. kjv@4:9-22; Luke 12:49-59 =Week of the Sunday closest to May 11=Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Ruth kjv@1:1-18; 1 Tim. kjv@1:1-17; Luke 13:1-9Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Ruth 1:19-2:13; 1 Tim. 1:18-2:8; Luke 13:10-17Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Ruth kjv@2:14-23; 1 Tim. kjv@3:1-16; Luke 13:18-30Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Ruth kjv@3:1-18; 1 Tim. kjv@4:1-16; Luke 13:31-35Friday: 16, 17; 22 Ruth kjv@4:1-17; 1 Tim. 5:17-22(23-25); Luke 14:1-11Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Deut. kjv@1:1-8; 1 Tim. kjv@6:6-21; Luke 14:12-24 =Week of the Sunday closest to May 25=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Deut. kjv@4:1-9; Rev. 7:1-4,9-17; Matt. 12:33-45Monday: 25; 9, 15 Deut. kjv@4:9-14; 2 Cor. kjv@1:1-11; Luke 14:25-35Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Deut. kjv@4:15-24; 2 Cor. kjv@1:12-22; Luke 15:1-10Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Deut. kjv@4:25-31; 2 Cor. 1:23-2:17; Luke 15:1-2,11-32Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Deut. kjv@4:32-40; 2 Cor. kjv@3:1-18; Luke 16:1-9Friday: 31; 35 Deut. kjv@5:1-22; 2 Cor. kjv@4:1-12; Luke 16:10-17(18)Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Deut. kjv@5:22-33; 2 Cor. 4:13-5:10; Luke 16:19-31 =Week of the Sunday closest to May 11=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Deut. 11:1-12; Rev. 10:1-11; Matt. 13:44-58Monday: 41,52; 44 Deut. 11:13-19; 2 Cor 5:11-6:2; Luke 17:1-10Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Deut. 12:1-12; 2 Cor. 6:3-13(14-7:1); Luke 17:11-19Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Deut. 13:1-11; 2 Cor. kjv@7:2-16; Luke 17:20-37Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 8, 84 Deut. 16:18-20, 17:14-20; 2 Cor. kjv@8:1-16; Luke 18:1-8Friday: 40, 54; 51 Deut. 26:1-11; 2 Cor. kjv@8:16-24; Luke 18:9-14Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Deut. 29:2-15; 2 Cor. kjv@9:1-15; Luke 18:15-30 =Week of the Sunday closest to June 8=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Deut. 29:16-29; Rev. 12:1-12; Matt. 15:29-39Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Deut. 30:1-10; 2 Cor. 10:1-18; Luke 18:31-43Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Deut. 30:11-20; 2 Cor. 11:1-21a; Luke 19:1-10Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Deut. 31:30-32:14; 2 Cor. 11:21b-33; Luke 19:11-27Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Ecclus. 44:19-45:5; 2 Cor. 12:1-10; Luke 19:28-40Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Ecclus. 45:6-16; 2 Cor. 12:11-21; Luke 19:41-48Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Ecclus. 46:1-10; 2 Cor. 13:1-14; Luke 20:1-8 =Week of the Sunday closest to June 15=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Ecclus. 46:11-20; Rev. 15:1-8; Matt. 18:1-14Monday: 80; 77, 79 1 Samuel kjv@1:1-20; Acts kjv@1:1-14; Luke 20:9-19Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 1 Samuel 1:21-2:11; Acts kjv@1:15-26; Luke 20:19-26Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 1 Samuel kjv@2:12-26; Acts kjv@2:1-21; Luke 20:27-40Thursday: 83 or 34; 85, 86 1 Samuel kjv@2:27-36; Acts kjv@2:22-36; Luke 20:41-21:4Friday: 88; 91, 92 1 Samuel kjv@3:1-21; Acts kjv@2:37-47; Luke 21:5-19Saturday: 87, 90; 136 1 Samuel 4:1b-11; Acts 4:32-5:11; Luke 21:20-28 =Week of the Sunday closest to June 22=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 1 Samuel kjv@4:12-22; James kjv@1:1-18; Matt. 19:23-30Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 1 Samuel kjv@5:1-12; Acts kjv@5:12-26; Luke 21:29-36Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 1 Samuel kjv@6:1-16; Acts kjv@5:27-42; Luke 21:37-22:13Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 1 Samuel kjv@7:2-17; Acts kjv@6:1-15; Luke 22:14-23Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 1 Samuel kjv@8:1-22; Acts 6:15-7:16; Luke 22:24-30Friday: 102; 107:1-32 1 Samuel kjv@9:1-14; Acts kjv@7:17-29; Luke 22:31-38Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 1 Samuel 9:15-10:1; Acts kjv@7:30-43; Luke 22:39-51 =Week of Sunday closest to June 29Sunday: 118; 145 1 Samuel 10:1-16; Rom. kjv@4:13-25; Matt. 21:23-32Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 1 Samuel 10:17-27; Acts 7:44-8:1a; Luke 22:52-62Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 1 Samuel 11:1-15; Acts kjv@8:1-13; Luke 22:63-71Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 1 Samuel 12:1-6,16-25; Acts kjv@8:14-25; Luke 23:1-12Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 1 Samuel 13:5-18; Acts kjv@8:26-40; Luke 23:13-25Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) 1 Samuel 13:19-14:15; Acts kjv@9:1-9; Luke 23:26-31Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 1 Samuel 14:16-30; Acts 9:10-19a; Luke 23:32-43 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 6=Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 1 Samuel 14:36-45; Rom. kjv@5:1-11; Matt. 22:1-14Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 1 Samuel 15:1-3,7-23; Acts 9:19b-31; Luke 23:44-56aTuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 1 Samuel 15:24-35; Acts kjv@9:32-43; Luke 23:56b-24:11Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 1 Samuel 16:1-13; Acts 10:1-16; Luke 24:12-35Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 1 Samuel 16:14-17:11; Acts 10:17-33; Luke 24:36-53Friday: 16, 17; 22 1 Samuel 17:17-30; Acts 10:34-48; Mark 1:1-13Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 1 Samuel 17:31-49; Acts 11:1-18; Mark 1:14-28 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 13=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 1 Samuel 17:50-18:4; Rom. 10:4-17; Matt. 23:29-39Monday: 25; 9, 15 1 Samuel 18:5-16,27b-30; Acts 11:19-30; Mark 1:29-45Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 1 Samuel 19:1-18; Acts 12:1-17; Mark 2:1-12Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 1 Samuel 20:1-23; Acts 12:18-25; Mark 2:13-22Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 1 Samuel 20:24-42; Acts 13:1-12; Mark 2:23-3:6Friday: 31; 35 1 Samuel 21:1-15; Acts 13:13-25; Mark 3:7-19aSaturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 1 Samuel 22:1-23; Acts 23:26-43; Mark 3:19b-35 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 20=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 1 Samuel 23:7-18; Rom. 11:33-12:2; Matt. 25:14-30Monday: 41,52; 44 1 Samuel 24:1-22; Acts 13:44-52; Mark 4:1-20Tuesday: 45; 47,48 1 Samuel 25:1-22; Acts 14:1-18; Mark 4:21-34Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 1 Samuel 25:23-44; Acts 14:19-28; Mark 4:35-41Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 66, 67 1 Samuel 28:3-20; Acts 15:1-11; Mark 5:1-20Friday: 40,54; 51 1 Samuel 31:1-13; Acts 15:12-21; Mark 5:21-43Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) 2 Samuel kjv@1:1-16; Acts 15:22-35; Mark 6:1-13 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 27=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 2 Samuel kjv@1:17-27; Rom. 12:9-21; Matt. 25:31-46Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 2 Samuel kjv@2:1-11; Acts 15:36-16:5; Mark 6:14-29Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 2 Samuel kjv@3:6-21; Acts 16:6-15; Mark 6:30-46Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 2 Samuel kjv@3:22-39; Acts 16:16-24; Mark 6:47-56Thursday: 70, 71; 74 2 Samuel kjv@4:1-12; Acts 16:25-40; Mark 7:1-23Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 2 Samuel kjv@5:1-12; Acts 17:1-15; Mark 7:24-37Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 2 Samuel 5:22-6:11; Acts 17:16-34; Mark 8:1-10 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 3=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 2 Samuel kjv@6:12-23; Rom. kjv@4:7-12; John 1:43-51Monday: 80; 77, 79 2 Samuel kjv@7:1-17; Acts 18:1-11; Mark 8:11-21Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 2 Samuel kjv@7:18-29; Acts 18:12-28; Mark 8:22-33Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 2 Samuel kjv@9:1-13; Acts 19:1-10; Mark 8:34-9:1Thursday: 83 or 145; 85, 86 2 Samuel 11:1-27; Acts 19:11-20; Mark 9:2-13Friday: 88; 91, 92 2 Samuel 12:1-14; Acts 19:21-41; Mark 9:14-29Saturday: 87, 90; 136 2 Samuel 12:15-31; Acts 20:1-16; Mark 9:30-41 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 10=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 2 Samuel 13:1-22; Rom. 15:1-13; John 3:22-36Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 2 Samuel 13:23-39; Acts 20:17-38; Mark 9:42-50Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 2 Samuel 14:1-20; Acts 21:1-14; Mark 10:1-16Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 2 Samuel 14:21-33; Acts 21:15-26; Mark 10:17-31Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 2 Samuel 15:1-18; Acts 21:27-36; Mark 10:32-45Friday: 102; 107:1-32 2 Samuel 15:19-37; Acts 21:37-22:16; Mark 10:46-52Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 2 Samuel 16:1-23; Acts 22:17-29; Mark 11:1-11 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 17=Sunday: 118; 145 2 Samuel 17:1-23; Gal. kjv@3:6-14; John 5:30-47Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 2 Samuel 17:24-18:8; Acts 22:30-23:11; Mark 11:12-26Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 2 Samuel 18:9-18; Acts 23:12-24; Mark 11:27-12:12Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 2 Samuel 18:19-23; Acts 23:23-35; Mark 12:13-27Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 2 Samuel 19:1-23; Acts 24:1-23; Mark 12:28-34Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) 2 Samuel 19:24-43; Acts 24:24-25:12; Mark 12:35-44Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 2 Samuel 23:1-17,13-17; Acts 25:13-27; Mark 13:1-13 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 24=Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 2 Samuel 24:1-2,10-25; Gal. 3:23-4:7; John 8:12-20Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 1 Kings kjv@1:5-31; Acts 26:1-23; Mark 13:14-27Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 1 Kings 1:38-2:4; Acts 26:24-27:8; Mark 13:28-37Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 1 Kings kjv@3:1-15; Acts 27:9-26; Mark 14:1-11Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 1 Kings kjv@3:16-28; Acts 27:27-44; Mark 14:12-26Friday: 16, 17; 22 1 Kings 5:1-6:1,7; Acts 28:1-16; Mark 14:27-42Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 1 Kings 7:51-8:21; Acts 28:17-31; Mark 14:43-52 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 31=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 1 Kings 8:22-30(31-40); 1 Tim. 4:7b-16; John 8:47-59Monday: 25; 9, 15 2 Chron. 6:32-7:7; James kjv@2:1-13; Mark 14:53-65Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 1 Kings 8:65-9:9; James kjv@2:14-26; Mark 14:66-72Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 1 Kings 9:24-10:13; James kjv@3:1-12; Mark 15:1-11Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 1 Kings 11:1-13; James 3:13-4:12; Mark 15:12-21Friday: 31; 35 1 Kings 11:26-43; James 4:13-5:6; Mark 15:22-32Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 1 Kings 12:1-20; James 5:7-12,19-20; Mark 15:33-39 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 7=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11), 98; 103 1 Kings 12:21-33; Acts kjv@4:18-31; John 10:31-42Monday: 41, 52; 44 1 Kings 13:1-10; Phil. kjv@1:1-11; Mark 15:40-47Tuesday: 45; 47, 48 1 Kings 16:23-34; Phil. kjv@1:12-30; Mark 16:1-8(9-20)Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 1 Kings 17:1-24; Phil. kjv@2:1-11; Matt. 2:1-12Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 93, 96 1 Kings 18:1-19; Phil. kjv@2:12-30; Matt. 2:13-23Friday: 40,54; 51 1 Kings 18:20-40; Phil. kjv@3:1-16; Matt. 3:1-12Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) 1 Kings 18:41-19:8; Phil. 3:17-4:7; Matt. 3:13-17 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 14=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 1 Kings 19:8-21; Acts kjv@5:34-42; John 11:45-47Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 1 Kings 21:1-16; 1 Cor. kjv@1:1-19; Matt. 4:1-11Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 1 Kings 21:17-29; 1 Cor. kjv@1:20-31; Matt. 4:12-17Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 1 Kings 22:1-28; 1 Cor. kjv@2:1-13; Matt. 4:18-25Thursday: 70, 71; 74 1 Kings 22:29-45; 1 Cor. 2:14-3:15; Matt. 5:1-10Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 2 Kings kjv@1:2-17; 1 Cor. kjv@3:16-23; Matt. 5:11-16Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 2 Kings kjv@2:1-18; 1 Cor. kjv@4:1-7; Matt. 5:17-20 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 21=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 2 Kings kjv@4:8-37; Acts kjv@9:10-31; Luke 3:7-18Monday: 80; 77, 79 2 Kings kjv@5:1-19; 1 Cor. kjv@4:8-21; Matt. 5:21-26Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 2 Kings kjv@5:19-27; 1 Cor. kjv@5:1-8; Matt. 5:27-37Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 2 Kings kjv@6:1-23; 1 Cor. 5:9-6:8; Matt. 5:38-48Thursday: 83 or 146, 147; 85, 86 2 Kings kjv@9:1-16; 1 Cor. kjv@6:12-20; Matt. 6:1-6,16-18Friday: 88; 91, 92 2 Kings kjv@9:17-37; 1 Cor. kjv@7:1-9; Matt. 6:7-15Saturday: 87, 90; 136 2 Kings 11:1-20a; 1 Cor. kjv@7:10-24; Matt. 6:19-24 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 28=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 2 Kings 17:1-18; Acts kjv@9:36-43; Luke 5:1-11Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 2 Kings 17:24-41; 1 Cor. kjv@7:25-31; Matt. 6:25-34Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 2 Chron. 29:1-3,30:1(2-9)10-27; 1 Cor. kjv@7:32-40; Matt. 7:1-12Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 2 Kings 18:9-25; 1 Cor. kjv@8:1-13; Matt. 7:13-21Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 2 Kings 18:28-37; 1 Cor. kjv@9:1-15; Matt. 7:22-29Friday: 102; 107:1-32 2 Kings 19:1-20; 1 Cor. kjv@9:16-27; Matt. 8:1-17Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 2 Kings 19:21-36; 1 Cor. 10:1-13; kjv@Matt:8:18-27 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 5=Sunday: 118; 145 2 Kings 20:1-21; Acts 12:1-17; Luke 7:11-17Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 2 Kings 21:1-18; 1 Cor. 10:14-11:1; Matt. 8:28-34Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 2 Kings 22:1-13; 1 Cor. 11:2,17-22; Matt. 9:1-8Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 2 Kings 22:14-23:3; 1 Cor. 11:23-34; Matt. 9:9-17Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 2 Kings 23:4-25; 1 Cor. 12:1-11; Matt. 9:18-26Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) 2 Kings 23:36-24:17; 1 Cor. 12:12-26; Matt. 9:27-34Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Jer. 35:1-19; 1 Cor. 12:27-13:3; Matt. 9:35-10:4 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 12=Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Jer. 36:1-10; Acts 14:8-18; Luke 7:36-50Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Jer. 36:11-26; 1 Cor. 13:(1-3)4-13; Matt. 10:5-15Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Jer. 36:27-37:2; 1 Cor. 14:1-12; Matt. 10:16-23Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Jer. 37:3-21; 1 Cor. 14:13-25; Matt. 10:24-33Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Jer. 38:1-13; 1 Cor. 14:26-33a,37-40; Matt. 10:34-42Friday: 16, 17; 22 Jer. 38:14-28; 1 Cor. 15:1-11; Matt. 11:1-6Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 2 Kings 25:8-12,22-26; 1 Cor. 15:12-29; Matt. 11:7-15 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 19=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Jer. 29:1,4-14; Acts 16:6-15; Luke 10:1-12,17-20Monday: 25; 9, 15 Jer. 44:1-14; 1 Cor. 15:30-41; Matt. 11:16-24Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Lam. 1:1-5(6-9)10-12; 1 Cor. 15:41-50; Matt. 11:25-30Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Lam. kjv@2:8-15; 1 Cor. 15:51-58; Matt. 12:1-14Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Ezra kjv@1:1-11; 1 Cor. 16:1-9; Matt. 12:15-21Friday: 31; 35 Ezra kjv@3:1-13; 1 Cor 16:10-24; Matt. 12:22-32Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Ezra 4:7,11-24; Philemon 1-25; Matt. 12:33-42 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 26=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Haggai 1:1-2:9; Acts 18:24-19:7; Luke 10:25-37Monday: 41,52; 44 Zech. kjv@1:7-17; Rev. kjv@1:4-20; Matt. 12:43-50Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Ezra kjv@5:1-17; Rev. kjv@4:1-11; Matt. 13:1-9Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Ezra kjv@6:1-22; Rev. kjv@5:1-10; Matt. 13:10-17Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 33 Neh. 1-1:11; Rev. 5:11-6:11; Matt. 13:18-23Friday: 40,54; 51 Neh. kjv@2:1-20; Rev. 6:12-7:4; Matt. 13:24-30Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Neh. kjv@4:1-23; Rev. 7:(4-8)9-17; Matt. 13:31-35 =Week of the Sunday closest to November 2=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Neh. kjv@5:1-19; Acts 20:7-12; Luke 12:22-31Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Neh. kjv@6:1-19; Rev. 10:1-11; Matt. 13:36-43Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Neh. 12:27-31a,42b-47; Rev. 11:1-19; Matt. 13:44-52Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Neh. 13:4-22; Rev. 12:1-12; Matt. 13:53-58Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Ezra 7:(1-10)11-26; Rev. 14:1-13; Matt. 14:1-12Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Ezra kjv@7:27-28, 8:21-36; Rev. 15:1-8; Matt. 14:13-21Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Ezra kjv@9:1-15; Rev. 17:1-14; Matt. 14:22-36 =Week of the Sunday closest to November 9=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Ezra 10:1-17; Acts 24:10-21; Luke 14:12-24Monday: 80; 77, 79 Neh. 9:1-15(16-25); Rev. 18:1-8; Matt. 15:1-20Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Neh. kjv@9:26-38; Rev. 18:9-20; Matt. 15:21-28Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Neh. 7:73b-8:3,5-18; Rev. 18:21-24; Matt. 15:29-39Thursday: 83 or 23,27; 85, 86 1 Macc. kjv@1:1-28; Rev. 19:1-10; Matt. 16:1-12Friday: 88; 91, 92 1 Macc. kjv@1:41-63; Rev. 19:11-16; Matt. 16:13-20Saturday: 87, 90; 136 1 Macc. kjv@2:1-28; Rev. 20:1-6; Mark 16:21-28 =Week of the Sunday closest to November 16=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 1 Macc. 2:29-43,49-50; Acts 28:14b-23; Luke 16:1-13Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 1 Macc. kjv@3:1-24; Rev. 20:7-15; Matt. 17:1-13Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 1 Macc. kjv@3:25-41; Rev. 21:1-8; Matt. 17:14-21Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 1 Macc. kjv@3:42-60; Rev. 21:9-21; Matt. 17:22-27Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 1 Macc. kjv@4:1-25; Rev. 21:22-22:5; Matt. 18:1-9Friday: 102; 107:1-32 1 Macc. kjv@4:36-59; Rev. 22:6-13; Matt. 18:10-20Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Isa. 65:17-25; Rev. 22:14-21; Matt. 18:21-35 =Week of the Sunday closest to November 23=Sunday: 118; 145 Isa. 19:19-25; Rom. 15:5-13; Luke 19:11-27Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Joel 3:1-2,9-17; 1 Pet. kjv@1:1-12; Matt. 19:1-12Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Nahum kjv@1:1-13; 1 Pet. kjv@1:13-25; Matt. 19:13-22Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Obadiah 15-21; 1 Pet. kjv@2:1-10; Matt. 19:23-30Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Zeph. kjv@3:1-13; 1 Pet. kjv@2:11-25; Matt. 20:1-16Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Isa. 24:14-23; 1 Pet. 3:13-4:6; Matt. 20:17-28Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Micah kjv@7:11-20; 1 Pet. kjv@4:7-19; Matt. 20:29-34Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Amos 1:1-5,13-2:8; 1 Thess. kjv@5:1-11; Luke 21:5-19Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Amos kjv@2:6-16; 2 Pet. kjv@1:1-11; Matt. 21:1-11Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Amos kjv@3:1-11; 2 Pet. kjv@1:12-21; Matt. 21:12-22Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Amos 3:12-4:5; 2 Pet. kjv@3:1-10; Matt. 21:23-32Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Amos kjv@4:6-13; 2 Pet. kjv@3:11-18; Matt. 21:33-46Friday: 16, 17; 22 Amos kjv@5:1-17; Jude 1-16; Matt. 22:1-14Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Amos kjv@5:18-27; Jude 17-25; Matt. 22:15-22Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Amos kjv@6:1-14; 1 Thess. kjv@5:1-11; Luke 1:57-68Monday: 25; 9, 15 Amos kjv@7:1-9; Rev. kjv@1:1-8; Matt. 22:23-33Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Amos kjv@7:10-17, 24-25; Rev. kjv@1:9-16; Matt. 22:34-46Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Amos kjv@8:1-14; Rev. 1:17-2:7; Matt. 23:1-12Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Amos kjv@9:1-10; Rev. kjv@2:8-17; Matt. 23:13-26Friday: 31; 35 Haggai kjv@1:1-15; Rev. kjv@2:18-29; Matt. 23:27-39Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Haggai kjv@2:1-19; Rev. kjv@3:1-6; Matt. 24:1-14Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Amos kjv@9:11-15; 2 Thess. 2:1-3,13-17; John 5:30-47Monday: 41,52; 44 Zech. kjv@1:7-17; Rev. kjv@3:7-13; Matt. 24:15-31Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Zech. kjv@2:1-13; Rev. kjv@3:14-22; Matt. 24:32-44Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Zech. kjv@3:1-10; Rev. kjv@4:1-8; Matt. 24:45-51Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 33 Zech. kjv@4:1-14; Rev. 4:9-5:5; Matt. 25:1-13Friday: 40,54; 51 Zech. 7:8-8:8; Rev. kjv@5:6-14; Matt. 25:14-30Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Zech. kjv@8:9-17; Rev. kjv@6:1-17; Matt. 25:31-46Sunday: 24,29; 8,84 Gen kjv@3:18-15; Rev. 12:1-10; John 3:16-21Monday: 61,62; 112,115 Zeph. kjv@3:14-20; Titus kjv@1:1-16; Luke 1:1-25Tuesday: 66,67; 116,117 1 Samuel 2:1b-10; Titus kjv@2:1-10; Luke 1:26-38Wednesday: 72; 111,113 2 Samuel kjv@7:1-17; Titus 2:11-3:8a; Luke 1:39-48a(48b-56)Thursday: 80; 146,147 2 Samuel kjv@7:18-29; Gal. kjv@3:1-14; Luke 1:57-66Friday: 93, 96; 148,150 Baruch kjv@4:21-29; Gal. kjv@3:15-22; Luke 1:67-80 or Matt. 1:1-17Dec. 24: 45,46; Baruch 4:36-5:9; Gal. 3:23-4:7; Matt. 1:18-25Christmas kjv@Eve: ; 89:1-29 Isa. 59:15b-21; Phil. 2:5-11Christmas kjv@Day: 2,85; 110:1-1(6-7),132 Micah 4:1-5,5:2-4; 1 John kjv@4:7-16; John 3:31-26First Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 93,96; 34 1 Samuel 1:1-2,7b-28; Heb 2: 10-18; Matt. 1:18-25Dec. 29: 18:1-20; 18:21-50[*] 2 Samuel 23:13-17b; Rev. kjv@1:1-8; John kjv@7:37-52 [*] If today is Saturday, use Psalms 23 and 27 at Evening PrayerDec. 30: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 23,27 1 Kings 17:17-24; Rev. kjv@1:9-20; John 7:53-8:11Dec. 31: 46,48; 1 Kings kjv@3:5-14; 2 Cor. 5:16-6:2; John 8:12-19Eve of Holy Name: ; 90 Isa. 65:15b-25; Rev. 21:1-6Holy kjv@Name: 103; 148 Isa. 62:1-5,10-12; Col. kjv@2:6-12; John 16:23b-30Second Sunday after kjv@Christmas: 66,67; 145 Wisdom kjv@7:3-14; Col. kjv@3:12-17; John 6:41-47Jan. kjv@2: 34; 33 1 Kings 19:1-8; Eph. kjv@4:1-16; John 6:1-14Jan. kjv@3: 68; 72[] 1 Kings 19:9-18; Eph. kjv@4:17-32; John kjv@6:15-27 [] If today is Saturday, use Psalm 136 at Evening Prayer.Jan. kjv@4: 85,87; 89:1-29 [] Joshua 3:14-4:7; Eph. kjv@5:1-20; John 9:1-12,35-38 [] If today is Saturday, use Psalm 136 at Evening Prayer.Jan. kjv@5: 2, 110:1-5(6-7); Jonah kjv@2:2-9; Eph. kjv@6:10-20; John 11:17-27,38-44Eve of kjv@Epiphany: ; 29,98 Isa. 66: 18-23; Rom. 15:7-13Epiphany: 46, 97 ; 96,100 Isa. 49:1-7; Rev. 21:22-27; Matt. 12:14-21Jan. 7 [*]: 103; 114, 115 Deut. kjv@8:1-3; Col. kjv@1:1-14; John 6:30-33,48-51Jan. 8: 117, 118; 112, 113 Exod. 17:1-7; Col. kjv@1:15-23; John 7:37-52Jan. kjv@9: 121, 122, 123; 131, 132 Isa. 45:14-19; Col. 1:24-2:7; John 8:12-19Jan. 10: 138, 139:1-17(18-23); 147 Jer. 23:1-8; Col. kjv@2:8-23; John 10:7-17Jan. 11: 148, 150; 91,92 Isa. 55:3-9; Col kjv@3:1-17; John 14:6-14Jan. 12: 98, 99, 100; Gen. 49:1-2,8-12; Col 3:18-4:6; John 15:1-16Eve of 1 kjv@Epiphany: ; 104 Isa. 61:1-9; Gal. kjv@3:23-29, 4:4-7 [*] The Psalms and Readings for the dated days after Epiphanyare used only until the following Saturday EveningSunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Gen. 1:1-2:3; Eph. kjv@1:3-14; John 1:29-34Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Gen. 2:4-9(10-15)16-25; Heb. kjv@1:1-14; John 1:1-18Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Gen. kjv@3:1-24; Heb. kjv@2:1-10; John 1:19-28Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Gen. kjv@4:1-16; Heb. kjv@2:11-18; John 1:(29-34)35-42Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Gen. kjv@4:17-26; Heb. kjv@3:1-11; John 1:43-51Friday: 16, 17; 22 Gen. kjv@6:1-8; Heb. kjv@3:12-19; John 2:1-12Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Gen. kjv@6:9-22; Heb. kjv@4:1-13; John 2:13-22Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Gen. 7:1-10,17-23; Eph. kjv@4:1-16; Mark 3:7-19Monday: 25; 9, 15 Gen. kjv@8:6-22; Heb. 4:14-5:6; John 2:23-3:15Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Gen. kjv@9:1-17; Heb. kjv@5:7-14; John 3:16-21Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Gen. kjv@9:18-29; Heb. kjv@6:1-12; John 3:22-36Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Gen. 11:1-9; Heb. kjv@6:13-20; John 4:1-15Friday: 31; 35 Gen. 11:27-12:8; Heb. kjv@7:1-17; John 4:16-26Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Gen. 12:9-13:1; Heb. kjv@7:18-28; John 4:27-42Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Gen. 13:2-18; Gal. kjv@2:1-10; Mark 7:31-37Monday: 41,52; 44 Gen. 14:(1-7)8-24; Heb. kjv@8:1-13; John 4:43-54Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Gen. 15:1-11,17-21; Heb. kjv@9:1-14; John 5:1-18Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Gen. 16:1-14; Heb. kjv@9:15-28; John 5:19-29Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 118 Gen. 16:15-17:14; Heb. 10:1-10; John 5:30-47Friday: 40,54; 51 Gen. 17:15-27; Heb. 10:11-25; John 6:1-15Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Gen. 18:1-16; Heb. 10:26-39; John 6:16-27Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Gen. 18:16-33; Gal. kjv@5:13-25; Mark 8:22-30Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Gen. 19:1-17(18-23)24-29; Heb. 11:1-12; John 6:27-40Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Gen. 21:1-21; Heb. 11:13-22; John 6:41-51Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Gen. 22:1-18; Heb. 11:23-31; John 6:52-59Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Gen. 23:1-20; Heb. 11:32-12:2; John 6:60-71Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Gen. 24:1-27; Heb. 12:3-11; John 7:1-13Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Gen. 24:28-38,49-51; Heb. 12:12-29; John 7:14-36Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Gen. 24:50-67; 2 Tim. kjv@2:14-21; Mark 10:13-22Monday: 80; 77, 79 Gen. 25:19-34; Heb. 13:1-16; John 7:37-52Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Gen. 26:1-6,12-33; Heb. 13:17-25; John 7:53-8:11Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Gen. 27:1-29; Rom. 12:1-8; John 8:12-20Thursday: 83 or 146, 147; 85, 86 Gen. 27:30-45; Rom. 12:9-21; John 8:21-32Friday: 88; 91, 92 Gen. 27:46-28:4,10-22; Rom. 13:1-14; John 8:33-47Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Gen. 29:1-20; Rom. 14:1-23; John 8:47-59Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Gen. 29:20-35; 1 Tim. 3:14-4:10; Mark 10:23-31Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Gen. 30:1-24; 1 John kjv@1:1-10; John 9:1-17Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Gen. 31:1-24; 1 John kjv@2:1-11; John 9:18-41Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Gen. 31:25-50; 1 John kjv@2:12-17; John 10:1-18Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Gen. 32:3-21; 1 John kjv@2:18-29; John 10:19-30Friday: 102; 107:1-32 32:22-33:17; 1 John kjv@3:1-10; John 10:31-42Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Gen. 35:1-20; 1 John kjv@3:11-18; John 11:1-16Sunday: 118; 145 Prov. kjv@1:20-33; 2 Cor. 5:11-21 Mark 10:35-45Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Prov. kjv@3:11-20; 1 John 3:18-4:6; John 11:17-29Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Rov. kjv@4:1-27; 1 Joh kjv@4:7-21; John 11:30-44Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Prov. kjv@6:1-19; 1 Joh kjv@5:1-12; John 11:45-54Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Prov. kjv@7:1-27; 1 John kjv@5:13-21; John 11:55-12:8Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Prov. kjv@8:1-21; Philemon 1-25; John 12:9-19Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Prov. kjv@8:22-36; 2 Tim. kjv@1:1-14; John 12:20-26Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Prov. kjv@9:1-12; 2 Cor. 9.6b-15; Mark 10:46-52Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Prov. 10:1-12; 2 Tim. 1:15-2:13; John 12:27-36aTuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Prov. 15:16-33; 2 Tim. kjv@2:14-26; John 12:36b-50Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Prov. 17:1-20; 2 Tim. kjv@3:1-17; John 13:1-20Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Prov. 21:30-22:6; 2 Tim. kjv@4:1-8; John 13:21-30Friday: 16, 17; 22 Prov. 23:19-21,29-24:2; 2 TIm. kjv@4:9-22; John 13:31-38Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Prov. 25:15-28; Phil. kjv@1:1-11; John 18:1-14Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Ecclus. 48:1-11; 2 Cor. kjv@3:7-18; Luke 9:18-27Monday: 25; 9, 15 Prov. 27:1-6,10-12; Phil. kjv@2:1-13; John 18:15-18,25-27Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Prov. 30:1-4,24-33; Phil. kjv@3:1-11; John 18:28-38Ash kjv@Wednesday: 95[*] && 32,143; 102,130 Amos kjv@5:6-15; Heb. 12:1-14; Luke 18:9-14Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Hab. 3:1-10(11-15)16-18; Phil. kjv@3:12-21; John 17:1-8Friday: 95[*] && 31; 35 Ezek. 18:1-4,25-32; Phil. kjv@4:1-9; John 17:9-19Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Exek. 39:21-29; Phil. kjv@4:10-20; John 17:20-26 [*] For the InvitatorySunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Dan kjv@9:3-10; Heb. kjv@2:10-18; John 12:44-50Monday: 41,52; 44 Gen. 37:1-11; 1 Cor. kjv@1:1-19; Mark 1:1-13Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Gen. 37:12-24; 1 Cor. kjv@1:20-31; Mark 1:14-28Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Gen. 37:25-36; 1 Cor. kjv@2:1-13; Mark 1:29-45Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 19, 46 Gen. 39:1-23; 1 Cor. 2:14-3:15; Mark 2:1-12Friday: 95[*] && 40,54; 51 Gen. 40:1-23; 1 Cor. kjv@3:16-23; Mark 2:13-22Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Gen. 41:1-13; 1 Cor. kjv@4:1-7; Mark 2:23-3:6 [*] For the InvitatorySunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Gen. 41:14-45; Rom. kjv@6:3-14; John 5:19-24Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Gen. 41:46-57; 1 Cor. 4:8-20(21); Mark 3:7-19aTuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Gen. 42:1-17; 1 Cor. kjv@5:1-8; Mark 3:19b-35Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Gen. 42:18-28; 1 Cor. 5:9-6:8; Mark 4:1-20Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Gen. 42:29-38; 1 Cor. kjv@6:12-30; Mark 4:21-34Friday: 95[*] && 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Gen. 43:1-15; 1 Cor. kjv@7:1-9; Mark 4:35-41Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Gen. 43:16-34; 1 Cor. kjv@7:10-24; Mark kjv@5:1-20 [*] For the InvitatorySunday: 93, 96; 34 Gen. 44:1-17; Rom. kjv@8:1-10; John 5:25-29Monday: 80; 77, 79 Gen. 44:18-34; 1 Cor. kjv@7:25-31; Mark 5:21-43Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Gen. 45:1-15; 1 Cor. kjv@7:32-40; Mark 6:1-13Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Gen. 45:16-28; 1 Cor. kjv@8:1-13; Mark 6:13-29Thursday: 83 or 42,43; 85, 86 Gen. 46:1-7,28-34; 1 Cor. kjv@9:1-15; Mark 6:30-46Friday: 95[*] && 88; 91, 92 Gen. 47:1-26; 1 Cor. kjv@9:16-27; Mark 6:47-56Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Gen. 47:27-48:7; 1 Cor. 10:1-13; Mark 7:1-23Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Gen. 48:8-22; Rom. kjv@8:11-25; John 6:27-40Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Gen. 49:1-28; 1 Cor. 10:14-11:1; Mark 7:24-37Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Gen. 49:29-50:14; 1 Cor. 11:17-34; Mark 8:1-10Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Gen. 50:15-26; 1 Cor. 12:1-11; Mark 8:11-26Thursday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Exod. kjv@1:6-22; 1 Cor. 12:12-26; Mark 8:27-9:1Friday: 95[*] && 102; 107:1-32 Exod. kjv@2:1-22; 1 Cor. 12:27-13:3; Mark 9:2-13Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Exod. 2:23-3:15; 1 Cor. 13:1-13; Mark kjv@9:14-29 [*] For the InventorySunday: 118; 145 Exod. 3:16-4:12; Rom. 12:1-21; John 8:46-59Monday: 31; 35 Exod. 4:10-20(21-26)27-31; 1 Cor. 14:1-19; Mark 9:30-41Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Exod. 5:1-6:1; 1 Cor. 14:20-33a,39-40; Mark 9:42-50Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Exod. kjv@7:8-24; 2 Cor. 2:14-3:6; Mark 10:1-16Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 140, 142 Exod. 7:25-8:19; 2 Cor. kjv@3:7-18; Mark 10:17-31Friday: 95[*] && 22; 141, 143:1-11(12) Exod. kjv@9:13-35; 2 Cor. kjv@4:1-12; Mark 10:32-45Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 42, 43 Exod. 10:21-11:8; 2 Cor. kjv@4:13-18; Mark 10:46-52Palm kjv@Sunday: 24, 29; 103 Zech. 9:9-12[] or Zech. 12:9-11,13:1,7-9[*]; 1 Tim. 6:12-16[];Luke 19:41-48[*]Monday: 51:1-18(19-20); 69:1-23 Lam. 1:1-2,6-12; 2 Cor. kjv@1:1-7; Mark 11:12-25Tuesday: 6, 12; 94 Lam. kjv@1:17-22; 2 Cor. kjv@1:8-22; Mark 11:27-33Wednesday: 55; 74 Lam. kjv@2:1-9, 14-17; 2 Cor. 1:23-2:11; Mark 12:1-11Maundy kjv@Thursday: 102; 142, 143 Lam. kjv@2:10-18; 1 Cor. 10:14-17, 11:27-32; Mark 14:12-25Good kjv@Friday: 95[*] && 22; 40:1-14(15-19),54 Lam. 3:1-9,19-33; 1 Peter kjv@1:10-20; John 13:36-38[] or John 19:38-42[*]Holy kjv@Saturday: 95[*] && 88; 27 Lam. kjv@3:37-58; Heb. 4:1-16[]; Rom. 8:1-11[*] [*] For the Invitatory [] Intended for use in the morning [*] Intended for use in the eveningEaster kjv@Day: 148, 149, 150; 113, 114, or 118 Exod. 12:1-14[] or Isa. 51:9-11[*]; ; John 1:1-18[] or Luke24:13-35[*], or John 20:19-23[*]Monday: 93, 98; 66 Exod. 12:14-27; 1 Cor. 15:1-11; Mark 16:1-8Tuesday: 103; 111, 114 Exod. 12:28-39; 1 Cor. 15:12-28; Mark 16:9-20Wednesday: 97, 99; 115 Exod. 12:40-51; 1 Cor. 15:(29)30-41; Matt. 28:1-16Thursday: 146, 147; 148, 149 Exod. 13:3-10; 1 Cor. 15:41-50; Martt. 28:16-20Friday: 136; 118 Exod. 13:1-2,11-16; 1 Cor. 15:51-58; Luke 24:1-12Saturday: 145; 104 Exod. 13:17-14:4; 2 Cor. 4:16-5:10; Mark 12:18-27Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Exod. 14:5-22; 1 Joh kjv@1:1-7; John 14:1-7Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Exod. 14:21-31; 1 Pet. kjv@1:1-12; John 14:(1-7)8-17Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Exod. 15:1-21; 1 Pet. kjv@1:13-25; John 14:18-31Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Exod. 15:22-16:10; 1 Pet. kjv@2:1-10; John 15:1-11Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Exod. 16:10-22; 1 Pet. kjv@2:11-25; John 15:12-27Friday: 16, 17; 134, 135 Exod. 16:23-36; 1 Pet. 3:13-4:6; John 16:1-15Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Exod. 17:1-16; 1 Pet. kjv@4:7-19; John 16:16-33Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Exod. 18:1-12; 1 John kjv@2:7-17; Mark 16:9-20Monday: 25; 9, 15 Exod. 18:13-27; 1 Pet. kjv@5:1-14; Matt. (1:1-17),3:1-6Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Exod. 19:1-16; Col. kjv@1:1-14; Matt. 3:7-12Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Exod. 19:16-25; Col. kjv@1:15-23; Matt. 3:13-17Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Exod. 20:1-21; Col. 1:24-2:7; Matt. 4:1-11Friday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Exod. 24:1-18; Col kjv@2:8-23; Matt. 4:12-17Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Exod. 25:1-22; Col. kjv@3:1-17; Matt. 4:18-25Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Exod. 28:1-4,30-38; 1 John kjv@2:18-29; Mark 6:30-44Monday: 41,52; 44 Exod. 32:1-20; Col 3:18-4:6(7-18); Matt. 5:1-10Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Exod. 32:21-34; 1 Thess. kjv@1:1-10; Matt. 5:11-16Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Exod. 33:1-23; 1 Thess. kjv@2:1-12; Matt. 5:17-20Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 114, 115 Exod. 34:1-17; 1 Thess. kjv@2:13-20; Matt. 5:21-26Friday: 40,54; 51 Exod. 34:18-35; 1 Thess. kjv@3:1-13; Matt. 5:27-37Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Exod. 40:18-38; 1 Thess. kjv@4:1-12; Matt. 5:38-48Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Lev. 8:1-13,30-36; Heb. 12:1-14; Luke 4:16-30Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Lev. 16:1-19; 1 Thess. kjv@4:13-18; Matt. 6:1-6,16-18Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Lev. 16:20-34; 1 Thess. kjv@5:1-11; Matt. 6:7-15Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Lev. 19:1-18; 1 Thess. kjv@5:12-28; Matt. 6:19-24Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Lev. 19:26-37; 2 Thess. kjv@1:1-12; Matt. 6:25-34Friday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Lev. 23:1-22; 2 Thess. kjv@2:1-17; Matt. 7:1-12Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Lev. 23:23-44; 2 Thess. kjv@3:1-18; Matt. 7:13-21Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Lev. 25:1-17; James 1:2-8,16-18; Luke 12:13-21Monday: 80; 77, 79 Lev. 25:35-55; Col. kjv@1:9-14; Matt. 13:1-16Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Lev. 26:1-20; 1 Tim. kjv@2:1-6; Matt. 13:18-23Wednesday: 119:97-120; Lev. 26:27-42; Eph. kjv@1:1-10; Matt. 22:41-46Eve of kjv@Ascension: ; 68:1-20 2 Kings kjv@2:1-15; Rev. 5:1-14Ascension kjv@Day: 8, 47; 24, 96 Dan. kjv@7:9-14; Heb. kjv@2:5-18; Matt. 28:16-20Friday: 85, 86; 91, 92 1 Sam. kjv@2:1-10; Eph. kjv@2:1-10; Matt. 7:22-27Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Num. 11:16-17,24-29; Eph. kjv@2:11-22; Matt. 7:28-8:4Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Exod. kjv@3:1-12; Heb. 12:18-29; Matt. Luke 10:17-24Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Joshua kjv@1:1-9; Eph. kjv@3:1-13; Matt. 8:5-17Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 1 Sam. 16:1-13a; Eph. kjv@3:14-21; Matt. 8:18-27Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Isa. kjv@4:2-6; Eph. kjv@4:1-16; Matt. 8:28-34Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Zech. kjv@4:1-14; Eph.4:17-32; Matt. 9:1-8Friday: 102; 107:1-32 Jer. 31:27-34; Eph. kjv@5:1-20; Matt. 9:9-17Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); Ezek. 36:22-27; Eph. kjv@6:10-24; Matt. 9:18-26Eve of kjv@Pentecost: ; 33 Exod. 19:3-8a,16-20; 1 Pet. 2:4-10The Day of kjv@Pentecost: 118; 145 Deut. 16:9-12; Acts 4:18-21,23-33; John 4:19-26On the weekdays which follow, the Readings are taken fromthe numbered Proper (one through six) which correspondsmost closely to the date of Pentecost.Eve of Trinity kjv@Sunday: ; 104 Ecclus. 42:15-25; Eph. 3:14-21Trinity kjv@Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Job 38:1-11,42:1-5; Rev. 19:4-16; John 1:29-34On the weekdays which follow, the Readings are taken fromthe numbered Proper (two through seven) which correspondsmost closely to the date of Trinity Sunday.Directions for the use of the Propers are on page 158. =Week of the Sunday closest to May 11=Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Ezek. 33:1-11; 1 John kjv@1:1-10; Matt. 9:27-34Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Ezek. 33:21-33; 1 John kjv@2:1-11; Matt. 9:35-10:4Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Ezek. 34:1-16; 1 John kjv@2:12-17; Matt. 10:5-15Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Ezek. 37:21b-28; 1 John kjv@2:18-29; Matt. 10:16-23Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Ezek. 39:21-29; 1 John kjv@3:1-10; Matt. 10:24-33Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Ezek. 47:1-12; 1 John kjv@3:11-18; Matt. 10:34-42 =Week of the Sunday closest to May 11=Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Prov. kjv@3:11-20; 1 John 3:18-4:6; Matt. 11:1-6Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Prov. kjv@4:1-27; 1 John kjv@4:7-21; Matt. 11:7-15Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Prov. kjv@6:1-19; 1 John kjv@5:1-12; Matt. 11:16-24Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Prov. kjv@7:1-27; 1 John kjv@5:13-21; Matt. 11:25-30Friday: 16, 17; 22 Prov. kjv@8:1-21; 2 John 1-13; Matt. 12:1-14Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Prov. kjv@8:22-36; 3 John 1-15; Matt. 12:15-21 =Week of the Sunday closest to May 25=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Prov. kjv@9:1-12; Acts kjv@8:14-25; Luke 10:25-28,38-42Monday: 25; 9, 15 Prov. 10:1-12; 1 Tim. kjv@1:1-17; Matt. 12:22-32Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Prov. 15:16-33; 1 Tim. 1:18-2:8; Matt. 12:33-42Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Prov. 17:1-20; 1 Tim. kjv@3:1-16; Matt. 12:43-50Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Prov. 21:30-22:6; 1 Tim. kjv@4:1-16; Matt. 13:24-30Friday: 31; 35 Prov. 23:19-21,29-24:2; 1 Tim. 5:17-22(23-25); Matt. 13:31-35Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Prov. 25:15-28; 1 Tim. kjv@6:6-21; Matt. 13:36-43 =Week of the Sunday closest to May 11=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Eccles. kjv@1:1-11; Acts kjv@8:26-40; Luke 11:1-13Monday: 41,52; 44 Eccles. kjv@2:1-15; Gal. kjv@1:1-17; Matt. 13:44-52Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Ecles. kjv@2:16-26; Gal. 1:18-2:10; Matt. 13:53-58Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Eccles. kjv@3:1-15; Gal. kjv@2:11-21; Matt. 14:1-12Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 8, 84 Eccles. 3:16-4:3; Gal. kjv@3:1-14; Mat. 14:13-21Friday: 40, 54; 51 Eccles. kjv@5:1-7; Gal. kjv@3:15-22; Matt. 14:22-36Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Eccles. kjv@5:8-20; Gal. 3:23-4:11; Matt. 15:1-20 =Week of the Sunday closest to June 8=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Eccles. kjv@6:1-12; Acts 10:9-23; Luke 12:32-40Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Eccles. kjv@7:1-14; Gal. kjv@4:12-20; Matt. 15:21-28Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Eccles. 8:14-9:10; Gal. kjv@4:21-31; Matt. 15:29-39Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Eccles. kjv@9:11-18; Gal. kjv@5:1-15; Matt. 16:1-12Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Eccles. 11:1-8; Gal. kjv@5:16-24; Matt. 16:13-20Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Eccles. 11:9-12:14; Gal. 5:25-6:10; Matt. 16:21-28Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Num. kjv@3:1-13; Gal. kjv@6:11-18; Matt. 17:1-13 =Week of the Sunday closest to June 15=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Num. kjv@6:22-27; Acts 13:1-12; Luke 12:41-48Monday: 80; 77, 79 Num. 9:15-23,10:29-36; Rom. kjv@1:1-15; Matt. 17:14-21Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Num. 11:1-23; Rom. kjv@1:16-25; Matt. 17:22-27Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Num. 11:24-33(34-35); Rom. 1:28-2:11; Matt. 18:1-9Thursday: 83 or 34; 85, 86 Num. 12:1-16; Rom. kjv@2:12-24; Matt. 18:10-20Friday: 88; 91, 92 Num. 13:1-3,21-30; Rom. 2:25-3:8; Matt. 18:21-35Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Num. 13:31-14:25; Rom. kjv@3:9-20; Matt. 19:1-12 =Week of the Sunday closest to June 22=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Num. 14:26-45; Acts 15:1-12; Luke 12:49-56Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Num. 16:1-19; Rom. kjv@3:21-31; Matt. 19:13-22Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Num. 16:20-35; Rom. kjv@4:1-12; Matt. 19:23-30Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Num. 16:36-50; Rom. kjv@4:13-25; Matt. 20:1-16Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Num. 17:1-11; Rom. kjv@5:1-11; Matt. 20:17-28Friday: 102; 107:1-32 Num. 20:1-13; Rom. kjv@5:12-21; Matt. 20:29-34Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Num. 20:14-29; Rom. kjv@6:1-11; Matt. 21:1-11 =Week of Sunday closest to June 29Sunday: 118; 145 Num. 21:4-9,21-35; Acts 17:(12-21)22-34; Luke 13:10-17Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Num. 22:1-21; Rom. kjv@6:12-23; Matt. 21:12-22Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Num. 22:21-38; Rom. kjv@7:1-12; Matt. 21:23-32Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Num. 22:41-23:12; Rom. kjv@7:13-25; Matt. 21:33-46Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Num. 23:11-26; Rom. kjv@8:1-11; Matt. 22:1-14Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Num. 24:1-13; Rom. kjv@8:12-17; Matt. 22:15-22Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Num. 24:12-25; Rom. kjv@8:18-25; Matt. 22:23-40 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 6=Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Num. 27:12-23; Acts 19:11-20; Mark 1:14-20Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Num. 32:1-6,16-27; Rom. kjv@8:26-30; Matt. 23:1-12Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Num. 35:1-3,9-15,30-34; Rom. kjv@8:31-39; Matt. 23:13-26Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Deut. kjv@1:1-18; Rom. kjv@9:1-18; Matt. 23:27-39Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Deut. kjv@3:18-28; Rom. kjv@9:19-33; Matt. 24:1-14Friday: 16, 17; 22 Deut. 31:7-13,24-32:4; Rom 10:1-13; Matt. 24:15-31Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Deut. 34:1-12; Rom. 10:14-21; Matt. 24:32-51 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 13=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Joshua kjv@1:1-18; Acts 21:3-15; Mark 1:21-27Monday: 25; 9, 15 Joshua kjv@2:1-14; Rom. 11:1-12 Matt. 25:1-13Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Joshua kjv@2:15-24; Rom. 11:13-24; Matt. 25:14-30Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Joshua kjv@3:1-13; Rom. 11:25-36; Matt. 25:31-46Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Joshua 3:14-4:7; Rom. 12:1-8; Matt. 26:1-16Friday: 31; 35 Joshua 4:19-5:1,10-15; Rom. 12:9-21; Matt. 26:17-25Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Joshua kjv@6:1-14; Rom. 13:1-7; Matt. 26:26-35 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 20=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Joshua kjv@6:15-27; Acts 22:30-23:11; Mark 2:1-12Monday: 41,52; 44 Joshua kjv@7:1-13; Rom. 13:8-14; Matt. 26:36-46Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Joshua kjv@8:1-22; Rom. 14:1-12; Matt. 26:47-56Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Joshua kjv@8:30-35; Rom. 14:13-23; Matt. 26:57-68Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 66, 67 Joshua kjv@9:3-21; Rom. 15:1-13; Matt. 26:69-75Friday: 40,54; 51 Joshua 9:22-10:15; Rom. 15:14-24; Matt. 27:1-10Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Joshua 23:1-16; Rom. 15:25-33; Matt. 27:11-23 =Week of the Sunday closest to July 27=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Joshua 24:1-15; Acts 28:23-31; Mark 2:23-28Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Joshua 24:16-33; Rom. 16:1-16; Matt. 27:24-31Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Judges 2:1-5,11-23; Rom. 16:17-27; Matt. 27:32-44Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Judges kjv@3:12-30; Acts kjv@1:1-14; Matt. 27:45-54Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Judges kjv@4:4-23; Acts kjv@1:15-26; Matt. 27:55-66Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Judges kjv@5:1-18; Acts kjv@2:1-21; Matt. 28:1-10Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Judges kjv@5:19-31; Acts kjv@2:22-36; Matt. 28:11-20 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 3=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Judges kjv@6:1-24; 2 Cor. kjv@9:6-15; Mark 3:20-30Monday: 80; 77, 79 Judges kjv@6:25-40; Acts kjv@2:37-47; John 1:1-18Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Judges kjv@7:1-18; Acts kjv@3:1-11; John 1:19-28Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Judges 7:19-8:12; Acts kjv@3:12-26; John 1:29-42Thursday: 83 or 145; 85, 86 Judges kjv@8:22-35; Acts kjv@4:1-12; John 1:43-51Friday: 88; 91, 92 Judges 9:1-16,19-21; Acts kjv@4:13-31; John 2:2-12Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Judges 9:22-25,50-57; Acts 4:32-5:11; John 2:13-25 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 10=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Judges 11:1-11,29-40; 2 Cor. 11:21b-31; Mark 4:35-41Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Judges 12:1-7; Acts kjv@5:12-26; John 3:1-21Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Judges 13:1-15; Acts kjv@5:27-42; John 3:22-36Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Judges 13:15-24; Acts kjv@6:1-15; John 4:1-26Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Judges 14:1-19; Acts 6:15-7:16; John 4:27-42Friday: 102; 107:1-32 Judges 14:20-15:20; Acts kjv@7:17-29; John 4:43-54Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Judges 16:1-14; Acts kjv@7:30-43; John 5:1-18 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 17=Sunday: 118; 145 Judges 16:15-31; 2 Cor. 13:1-11; Mark 5:25-34Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Judges 17:1-13; Acts 7:44-8:1a; John 5:19-29Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Judges 18:1-15; Acts kjv@8:1-13; John 5:30-47Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Judges 18:16-31; Acts kjv@8:14-25; John 6:1-15Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Job kjv@1:1-22; Acts kjv@8:26-40; John 6:16-27Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Job kjv@2:1-13; Acts kjv@9:1-9; John 6:27-40Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Job kjv@3:1-26; Acts 9:10-19a; JOhn 6:41-51 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 24=Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Job 4:1-6,12-21; Rev. kjv@4:1-11; Mark 6:1-6aMonday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Job 4:1,5:1-11,17-21,26-27; Acts 9:19b-31; John 6:52-59Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Job 6:1-4,8-15,21; Acts kjv@9:32-43; John 6:60-71Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Job 6:1,7:1-21; Acts 10:1-16; John 7:1-13Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Job 6:1,7:1-21; Acts 10:17-33; John 7:14-36Friday: 16, 17; 22 Job 9:1-15,32-35; Acts 10:34-48; John 7:37-52Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Job 9:1,10:1-9,16-22; Acts 11:1-18; John 8:12-20 =Week of the Sunday closest to August 31=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Job 11:1-9,13-20; Rev. kjv@5:1-14; Matt. 5:1-12Monday: 25; 9, 15 Job 12:1-6,13-25; Acts 11:19-30; John 8:21-32Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Job 12:1,13:3-17,21-27; Acts 12:1-17; John 8:33-47Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Job 12:1,14:1-22; Acts 12:18-25; John 8:47-59Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Job 16:16-22,17:1,13-16; Acts 13:1-12; John 9:1-17Friday: 31; 35 Job 19:1-7,14-27; Acts 13:13-25; John 9:18-41Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Job 22:1-4,21-23:7; Acts 13:26-43; John 10:1-18 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 7=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11), 98; 103 Job 25:1-6,27:1-6; Rev. 14:1-7,13; Matt. 5:13-20Monday: 41, 52; 44 Job 32:1-10,19-33:1,19-28; Acts 13:44-52; John 10:19-30Tuesday: 45; 47, 48 Job 29:1-20; Acts 14:1-18; John 10:31-42Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Job 29:1,30:1-2,16-31; Acts 14:19-28; John 11:1-16Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 93, 96 Job 29:1,31:1-23; Acts 15:1-11; John 11:17-29Friday: 40,54; 51 Job 29:1,31:24-40; Acts 15:12-21; John 11:30-44Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Job 38:1-17; Acts 15:22-35; John 11:45-54 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 14=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Job 38:1,18-41; Rev. 18:1-8; Matt. 5:21-26Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Job 40:1-24; Acts 15:36-16:5; John 11:55-12:8Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Job 40:1,41:1-11; Acts 16:6-15; John 12:9-19Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Job 42:1-17; Acts 16:16-24; John 12:20-26Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Job 28:1-28; Acts 16:25-40; John 12:27-36aFriday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Esther 1:1-4,10-19[*]; Acts 17:1-15; John 12:36b-43Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Esther 2:5-8,15-23[*]; Acts 17:16-34; John 12:44-50 [*] In place of Esther may be read kjv@Judith: F kjv@4:1-15, Sa 5:1-21 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 21=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Esther 3:1-4:3[*]; James kjv@1:19-27; Matt. 6:1-6,16-18Monday: 80; 77, 79 Esther 4:4-17[*]; Acts 18:1-11; Luke (1:1-4),3:1-14Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Esther 5:1-14[*]; Acts 18:12-28; Luke 3:15-22Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Esther 6:1-14[*]; Acts 19:1-10; Luke 4:1-13Thursday: 83 or 146, 147; 85, 86 Esther 7:1-10[*]; Acts 19:11-20; Luke 4:14-30Friday: 88; 91, 92 Esther 8:1-8,15-17[*]; Acts 19:21-41; Luke 4:31-37Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Hosea 1:1-2:1; Acts 20:1-16; Luke 4:38-44 =Week of the Sunday closest to September 28=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Hosea kjv@2:2-14; James kjv@3:1-13; Matt. 13:44-52Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Hosea kjv@2:14-23; Acts 20:17-38; Luke 5:1-11Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Hosea kjv@4:1-10; Acts 21:1-14; Luke 5:12-26Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Hosea kjv@4:11-19; Acts 21:15-26; Luke 5:27-39Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Hosea 5:8-6:6; Acts 21:27-36; Luke 6:1-11Friday: 102; 107:1-32 Hosea 10:1-15; Acts 21:37-22:16; Luke 6:12-26Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Hosea 11:1-9; Acts 22:17-29; Luke 6:27-38 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 5=Sunday: 118; 145 Hosea 13:4-14; 1 Cor. kjv@2:6-16; Matt. 14:1-12Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Hosea 14:1-9; Acts 22:30-23:11; Luke 6:39-49Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Micah kjv@1:1-9; Acts 23:12-24; Luke 7:1-17Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Micah kjv@2:1-13; Acts 23:23-35; Luke 7:18-35Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Micah kjv@3:1-8; Acts 24:1-23; Luke 7:36-50Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Micah 3:9-4:5; Acts 24:24-25:12; Luke 8:1-15Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Micah 5:1-4,10-15; Acts 25:13-27; Luke 8:16-25 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 12=Sunday: 146, 147; 111, 112, 113 Micah kjv@6:1-8; 1 Cor. kjv@4:9-16; Matt. 15:21-28Monday: 1, 2, 3; 4, 7 Micah kjv@7:1-7; Acts 26:1-23; Luke 8:26-39Tuesday: 5, 6; 10, 11 Jonah 1:1-17a; Acts 26:24-27:8; Luke 8:40-56Wednesday: 119:1-24; 12, 13, 14 Jonah 1:17-2:10; Acts 27:9-26; Luke 9:1-17Thursday: 18:1-20; 18:21-50 Jonah 3:1-4:11; Acts 27:27-44; Luke 9:18-27Friday: 16, 17; 22 Ecclus. 1:1-10,18-27; Acts 28:1-16; Luke 9:28-36Saturday: 20, 21:1-7(8-14); 110:1-5(6-7), 116, 117 Ecclus. kjv@3:17-31; Acts 28:17-31; Luke 9:37-50 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 19=Sunday: 148, 149, 150; 114, 115 Ecclus. kjv@4:1-10; 1 Cor. 10:1-13; Matt. 16:13-20Monday: 25; 9, 15 Ecclus. 4:20-5:7; Rev. kjv@7:1-8; Luke 9:51-62Tuesday: 26, 28; 36, 39 Ecclus. kjv@6:5-17; Rev. kjv@7:9-17; Luke 10:1-16Wednesday: 38; 119:25-48 Ecclus. kjv@7:4-14; Rev. kjv@8:1-13; Luke 10:17-24Thursday: 37:1-18; 37:19-42 Ecclus. 10:1-18; Rev. kjv@9:1-12; Luke 10:25-37Friday: 31; 35 Ecclus. 11:2-20; Rev. kjv@9:13-21; Luke 10:38-42Saturday: 30, 32; 42, 43 Ecclus. 15:9-20; Rev. 10:1-11; Luke 11:1-13 =Week of the Sunday closest to October 26=Sunday: 63:1-8(9-11),98; 103 Ecclus. 18:19-33; 1 Cor. 10:15-24; Matt. 18:15-20Monday: 41,52; 44 Ecclus. 19:4-17; Rev. 11:1-14; Luke 11:14-26Tuesday: 45; 47,48 Ecclus. 24:1-12; Rev. 11:14-19; Luke 11:27-36Wednesday: 119:49-72; 49,53 Ecclus. 28:14-26; Rev. 12:1-6; Luke 11:37-52Thursday: 50; 59,60 or 33 Ecclus. 31:12-18,25-32:2; Rev. 12:7-17; Luke 11:53-12:12Friday: 40,54; 51 Ecclus. 34:1-8,18-22; Rev. 13:1-10; Luke 12:13-31Saturday: 55; 138,139:1-17(18-23) Ecclus. 35:1-17; Rev. 13:11-18; Luke 12:32-48 =Week of the Sunday closest to November 2=Sunday: 24, 29; 8, 84 Ecclus. 36:1-17; 1 Cor. 12:27-13:13; Matt. 18:21-35Monday: 56, 57, 58; 64, 65 Ecclus. 38:24-34; Rev. 14:1-13; Luke 12:49-59Tuesday: 61, 62; 68:1-20(21-23)24-36 Ecclus. 43:1-22; Rev. 14:14-15:8; Luke 13:1-9Wednesday: 72; 119:73-96 Ecclus. 43:23-33; Rev. 16:1-11; Luke 13:10-17Thursday: 70, 71; 74 Ecclus. 44:1-15; Rev. 16:12-21; Luke 14:18-30Friday: 69:1-23(24-30)31-38; 73 Ecclus. 50:1,11-24; Rev. 17:1-18; Luke 13:31-35Saturday: 75, 76; 23, 27 Ecclus. 51:1-12; Rev. 18:1-14; Luke 14:1-11 =Week of the Sunday closest to November 9=Sunday: 93, 96; 34 Ecclus. 51:13-22; 1 Cor. 14:1-12; Matt. 20:1-16Monday: 80; 77, 79 Joel kjv@1:1-13; Rev. 18:15-24; Luke 14:12-24Tuesday: 78:1-39; 78:40-72 Joel 1:15-2:2(3-11); Rev. 19:1-10; Luke 14:25-35Wednesday: 119:97-120; 81, 82 Joel kjv@2:12-19; Rev. 19:11-21; Luke 15:1-10Thursday: 83 or 23,27; 85, 86 Joel kjv@2:21-27; James kjv@1:1-15; Luke 15:1-2,11-32Friday: 88; 91, 92 Joel 2:28-3:8; James kjv@1:16-27; Luke 16:1-9Saturday: 87, 90; 136 Joel kjv@3:9-17; James kjv@2:1-13; Luke 16:10-17(18) =Week of the Sunday closest to November 16=Sunday: 66, 67; 19, 46 Hab. 1:1-4(5-11)12-2:1; Phil. 3:13-4:1; Matt. 23:13-24Monday: 89:1-18; 89:19-52 Hab. 2:1-4,9-20; James kjv@2:14-26; Luke 16:19-31Tuesday: 97, 99, 100; 94, 95 Hab. 3:1-10(11-15)16-18; James kjv@3:1-12; Luke 17:1-10Wednesday: 101, 109:1-4(5-19)20-30; 119:121-144 Mal. 1:1,6-14; James 3:13-4:12; Luke 17:11-19Thursday: 105:1-22; 105:23-45 Mal. kjv@2:1-16; James 4:13-5:6; Luke 17:20-37Friday: 102; 107:1-32 Mal. kjv@3:1-12; James kjv@5:7-12; Luke 18:1-8Saturday: 107:33-43, 108:1-6(7-13); 33 Mal. 3:13-4:6; James kjv@5:13-20; Luke 18:9-14 =Week of the Sunday closest to November 23=Sunday: 118; 145 Zech. kjv@9:9-16; 1 Pet. kjv@3:13-22; Matt. 21:1-13Monday: 106:1-18; 106:19-48 Zech. 10:1-12; Gal. kjv@6:1-10; Luke 18:15-30Tuesday: 120, 121, 122, 123; 124, 125, 126, 127 Zech. 11:4-17; 1 Cor. kjv@3:10-23; Luke 18:31-43Wednesday: 119:145-176; 128, 129, 130 Zech. 12:1-10; Eph. kjv@1:3-14; Luke 19:1-10Thursday: 131, 132, 133; 134, 135 Zech. 13:1-9; Eph. kjv@1:15-23; Luke 19:11-27Friday: 140, 142; 141, 143:1-11(12) Zech. 14:1-11; Rom. 15:7-13; Luke 19:28-40Saturday: 137:1-6(7-9), 144; 104 Zech. 14:12-21; Phil. kjv@2:1-11; Luke 19:41-48St. Andrew; November 30: 34; Isaiah 49:1-6; 1 Corinthians kjv@4:1-16 96,100; Isaiah 55:1-5; John 1:35-42St. Thomas; December 21: 23,121; Job 42:1-6; 1 Peter kjv@1:3-9 27; Isaiah 43: 8-13; John 14:1-7St. Stephen; December 26: 28,30; 2 Chronicles 24:17-22; Acts kjv@6:1-7 118; Wisdom kjv@4:7-15; Acts 7:59-8:8St. John; December 27: 97,98; Proverbs kjv@8:22-30; John 13:20-35 145; Isaiah 44:1-8; 1 John 5:1-12Holy Innocents; December 28: 2,26; Isaiah 49:13-23; Matthew 18:1-14 19,126; Isaiah 54:1-13; Mark 10:13-16Confession of St. Peter; January 18: 66,67; Ezekiel kjv@3:4-11; Acts 10:34-44 118; Ezekiel 34:11-16; John 21:15-22Conversion of St. Paul; January 25: 19; Isaiah 45:18-25; Philippians 3:4b-11 119:89-112; Ecclesiasticus 39:1-10; Acts 9:1-22Eve of the kjv@Presentation: ; ; 113,122; 1 Samuel 1:20-28a; Romans 8:14-21The Presentation; February kjv@2: 42, 43; 1 Samuel kjv@2:1-10; John kjv@8:31-36 48,87; Haggai kjv@2:1-9; 1 John 3:1-8St. Matthias; February 24: 80; 1 Samuel 16:1-13; 1 John kjv@2:18-25 33; 1 Samuel 12:1-5; Acts 20:17-35St. Joseph; March 19: 132; Isaiah 63:7-16; Matthew kjv@1:18-25 34; 2 Chronicles kjv@6:12-17; Ephesians 3:14-21Eve of the Annunciation ;; 8, 138; Genesis kjv@3:1-15; Romans 5:12-21 or Galatians 4:1-7The Annunciation; March 25: 85, 87; Isaiah 52:7-12; Hebrews kjv@2:5-10 110:1-5(6-7),132; Wisdom kjv@9:1-12; John 1:9-14St. Mark; April 25: 145; Ecclesiasticus kjv@2:1-11; Acts 12:25-13:3 67, 96; Isaiah 62:6-12; 2 Timothy 4:1-11SS. Philip & James; May kjv@1: 119:137-160; Job 23:1-12; John kjv@1:43-51 139; Proverbs kjv@4:7-18; John 12:20-26Eve of the kjv@Visitation: ;; 132; Isaiah 11:1-10; Hebrews 2:11-18The Visitation; May 31: 72; 1 Samuel kjv@1:1-20; Hebrews kjv@3:1-6 146,147; Zechariah kjv@2:10-13; John 3:25-30St. Barnabas; June 11: 15,67; Ecclesiasticus 31:3-11; Acts kjv@4:32-37 19, 146; Job 29:1-16; Acts 9:26-31Eve of St. John the kjv@Baptist: ;; 103; Ecclesiasticus 48:1-11; Luke 1:5-23Nativity of St. John the Baptist; June 24: 82, 98; Malachi kjv@3:1-5; John kjv@3:22-30 80; Malachi kjv@4:1-6; Matthew 11:2-19SS. Peter & Paul; June 29: 66; Ezekiel kjv@2:1-7; Acts 11:1-18 97, 138; Isaiah 49:1-6; Galatians 2:1-9Independence Day; July kjv@4: 33; Ecclesiasticus 10:1-8,12-18; James kjv@5:7-10 107:1-32; Micah kjv@4:1-5; Revelation 21:1-7St. Mary Magdalene; July 22: 116; Zephaniah kjv@3:14-20; Mark 15:14-20 30, 149; Exodus 15:19-21; 2 Corinthians 1:3-7St. James; July 25: 34; Jeremiah 16:14-21; Mark kjv@1:14-20 33; Jeremiah 26:1-15; Matthew 10:16-32Eve of the kjv@Tranfiguration: ;; 84; 1 Kings 19:1-12; 2 Corinthians 3:1-9,18The Transfiguration; August 6; 2,24; Exodus 24:12-18; 2 Corinthians kjv@4:1-6 72; Daniel 7:9-10,13-14; John 12:27-36aSt. Mary the Virgin; August 15: 113, 115; 1 Samuel kjv@2:1-10; John kjv@2:1-12 45, or 138, 149; Jeremiah 31:1-14 or Zechariah kjv@2:10-13; John19:23-27 or Acts 1:6-14St. Bartholomew; August 24: 86; Genesis 28:10-17; John kjv@1:43-51 15, 67; Isaiah 66:1-2,18-23; 1 Peter 5:1-11Eve of Holy kjv@Cross: ;; 46, 87; 1 Kings kjv@8:22-30; Ephesians 2:11-22Holy Cross Day; September 14: 66; Numbers 21:4-9; John kjv@3:11-17 118; Genesis kjv@3:1-15; 1 Peter 3:17-22St. Matthew; September 21: 119:41-64; Isaiah kjv@8:11-20; Romans 10:1-15 19, 112; Job 28:12-28; Matthew 13:44-52St. Michael & All Angels; September 29: 8, 148; Job 38:1-7; Hebrews kjv@1:1-14 34, 150, or 104; Daniel 12:1-3 or 2 Kings kjv@6:8-17; Mark 13:21-27or Revelation 5:1-14St. Luke; October 18: 103; Ezekiel 47:1-12; Luke kjv@1:1-4 67, 96; Isaiah 52:7-10; Acts 1:1-8St. James of Jerusalem; October 23: 119:145-168; Jeremiah 11:18-23; Matthew 10:16-22 122,125; Isaiah 65:17-25; Hebrews 12:12-24SS. Simon & Jude; October 28: 66; Isaiah 28:9-16; Ephesians kjv@4:1-16 116,117; Isaiah kjv@4:2-6; John 14:15-31Eve of All kjv@Saints: ;; 34; Wisdom kjv@3:1-9; Revelation 19:1,4-10All Saints' Day; November kjv@1: 111,112; 2 Esdras kjv@2:42-47; Hebrews 11:32-12:2 148,150; Wisdom 5:1-5,14-16; Revelation 21:1-4,22--22:5Thanksgiving kjv@Day: 147; Deuteronomy 26:1-11; John kjv@6:26-35 145; Joel kjv@2:21-27; 1 Thessalonians 5:12-24Eve of the kjv@Dedication: ;; 48,122; Haggai kjv@2:1-9; 1 Corinthians 3:9-17Anniversary of the Dedication of a kjv@Church: 132; 1 Kings kjv@8:1-13; John 10:22-30 29, 46; 1 Kings kjv@8:54-62; Hebrews 10:19-25Eve of the Patronal kjv@Feast: ;; 27, or 116,117; Isaiah 49:1-13 or Ecclesiasticus 51:6b-12;Ephesians 4:1-13 or* Revelation 7:9-17 *or Luke 10:38-42The Patronal kjv@Feast: 92,93, or 148, 149; Isaiah 52:7-10 or Job kjv@5:8-21; Acts 4:5-13 or*Luke 12:1-12 96,97 *or 111,112; Jeremiah 31:10-14 or Ecclesiasticus 2:7-18;Romans 12:1-21 or Luke 21:10-19Eves of Apostles and kjv@Evangelists: ;; 48, 122, or 84, 150; Isaiah 43:10-15[*] or Isaiah 52:7-10[];Revelation 21:1-4,9-14 or Matthew 9:35-10:4 [*] Except on the Eve of St. Thomas [] Except on the Eves of St. Mark and St. Luke


                                                                          CharisGrace
                                                                          Found: kjv@Ephesians:2:7 @ That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.


                                                                          RealGod
                                                                          Found: RealLife - This pBiblx2 thread uses wonderful passages of scripture as spring boards for user discussion testifying to God's mighty workings through their real and personal life issues and situations, victories and defeats.


                                                                          TorreySin
                                                                          Found:

                                                                          Aggravated by neglecting advantages



                                                                          TorreySin
                                                                          Found:

                                                                          Death, the wages of



                                                                          TorreySin
                                                                          Found: kjv@Romans:6:23 @ For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


                                                                          UserGuide
                                                                          Found: Pages are written in plain text. Simple text formatting syntax can be added. The Wiki takes care of the formatting and general overhead.


                                                                          UserGuide
                                                                          Found: Contributed pages are automatically cross linked and referenced to other relative pages and all are easily searched.


                                                                          UserGuide
                                                                          Found:
                                                                        • Translation into other languages.


                                                                        • UserGuide
                                                                          Found:
                                                                            Each pBiblx wiki attempts to organise multiple pages into specific threads or focuses.


                                                                            JesusDeathScientific
                                                                            Found: Jesus endured this Reality for over 3 hours. Yes, Over 3 hours! Can you imagine this kind of Suffering? A few minutes before He died, Jesus stopped bleeding. He was simply pouring water From his wounds. From common images We see wounds to His hands and feet and even the spear wound To His side... But do we realize His wounds Were actually made in his body.


                                                                            ChalcedonianCreed
                                                                            Found: We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable rational soul and body; consubstantial [co-essential] with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ; as the prophets from the beginning have declared concerning Him, and the Lord Jesus Christ Himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.


                                                                            BirchConfessionalPrayers
                                                                            Found: God of all ages,


                                                                            SolaFide
                                                                            Found: Question: So then how can we best think of these two separate passages melded together to describe one complementary idea?


                                                                            ConfessionOfFaithOfTheCalvinisticMethodists1823
                                                                            Found: All the Scriptures - that is to say, the books of the Old and New Testaments - are the word of God. From him they came; they were spoken by holy men of God; they contain a full, sufficient, and perfect revelation of the mind and will of God, concerninGalatians:things that are necessary to be know for our salvation (a); and they are the only infallible rule of faith and obedience. The truths which they contain respecting God and the perfections of his nature are so exceedingly broad and deep, that no one could have revealed them, except him who has a perfect knowledge of himself (b); the godliness and self denial of the writers, the purity and holiness of all the truths contained in the Scriptures, the consistency of all the parts, though written by various persons and in various ages of the world (c), the continued preservation of the Scriptures, though the strongest authorities on earth have assailed and sought to destroy them, the fact that it is their main design to manifest God's greatness and glory (d), their authority and influence over the hearts and lives of men, and the superiority of those nations which have had the Scriptures, in every age of the world, over other nations, in morals, knowledge, and all else that adorns humanity, - all these things prove beyond a doubt that the infinite God is their author (e).


                                                                            ConfessionOfFaithOfTheCalvinisticMethodists1823
                                                                            Found: God from eternity made a gracious covenant or plan, ordered in all things and sure, for the salvation of men (a). The parties to this covenant are the blessed Persons of the Trinity - the Father, Son, and the Holy Ghost (b). The Father represents the honour and the glory of God's attributes and government, contemned and dishonoured by man (c); the Son, as their covenant Head and mighty Surety, represents and stands in the stead of all those of the human race who are elected and believe in him unto salvation (d); the Holy Ghost engages to work in the elect as the Spirit of Christ, as Sanctifier and Comforter (e). The conditions of this covenant on the part of Christ, the Surety of his people, were that he should perform on their behalf all that was owing from them to God and his law (f). Exceeding great and precious promises have been given by the Father in the covenant to Christ and his seed; the entire sum of all the promises which were given to the Surety, and will be fulfilled to his covenant seed, is eternal life (g).


                                                                            ConfessionOfFaithOfTheCalvinisticMethodists1823
                                                                            Found: God has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he has ordained (a). The justice of God demands the appointment of such a day; the accusations of natural conscience witness to it; the relation subsisting between God and his creatures shows its necessity; the ascension of Christ and the positive testimonies of Scripture certainly prove it and place the doctrine beyond all doubt or question (b). God appointed a day of judgment to manifest the glory of his love and grace in the salvation of his church (c), the glory of his justice and power in the condemnation of impenitent sinners (d), and the equity of his government over all men, in all things, throughout all ages (e). God has appointed Jesus Christ to be the Judge of the world in order that he, who, at his first appearance, humbled himself, obscured his glory, and endured the shame, may appear to all in infinite greatness and glory (f). Christ, therefore, will be the Judge, and men and fallen angels will be judged (g). The rule of the judgment will be the books that shall be opened; and the time of the judgment will be the day appointed for that purpose. This judgment will, it is certain, be a general, righteous, and final judgment on all things for ever and ever.


                                                                            RealLife
                                                                            Found: In this thread we are using particular passages of scriptures that spark larger discussions, that provide spring boards of testimony.


                                                                            FoundationsOfTheLikePreciousFaithEssentials
                                                                            Found: Let's cut to the chase.. each of us as Christian's need to be fruitful in the knowledge of Jesus our Christ. Our knowledge of Christ in other words needs to produce something in us that no other religious faith or moral persuasion can produce in anyone other. This knowledge will certainly produce something real and tangible in the judgment and glory to come at the end of ages: eternal salvation, but what about such a abundant and uncommon fruit in the here and now?


                                                                            HeidelbergCatechismAll
                                                                            Found: That we in no wise represent God by images (271); nor worship him in any other way than he has commanded in his word (272);


                                                                            HeidelbergCatechismAll
                                                                            Found:

                                                                            Question 97: Are images then not at all to be made?



                                                                            HeidelbergCatechismAll
                                                                            Found:

                                                                            Question 98: But may not images be tolerated in the churches, as books to the laity?



                                                                            HeidelbergCatechismAll
                                                                            Found: No:for we must not pretend to be wiser than God, who will have his people taught, not by dump images (275); but by the lively preaching of his word (276);


                                                                            HeidelbergCatechismAll
                                                                            Found: >Question 97 Are images then not at all to be made?


                                                                            HeidelbergCatechismAll
                                                                            Found: >Question 98 But may not images be tolerated in the churches, as books to the laity?


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 75 kjv@STRING:villages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 72 kjv@STRING:images


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 18 kjv@STRING:wages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 7 kjv@STRING:languages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 5 kjv@STRING:passages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 4 kjv@STRING:ages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 3 kjv@STRING:marriages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 3 kjv@STRING:carriages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 2 kjv@STRING:hostages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 1 kjv@STRING:heritages


                                                                            WordCount
                                                                            Found: 1 kjv@STRING:cottages


                                                                            TorreyFearGodly
                                                                            Found:

                                                                            Advantages of



                                                                            RealPeople
                                                                            Found: We encourage anyone who wishes to post comments to our wiki pages to register at PbiblxCommentRegister.html so that you can receive a discussion board password.


                                                                            ReprobateMind
                                                                            Found: kjv@Genesis:3:5 the serpent introduces the idea that God is withholding/suppressing the god-like potential they'd otherwise achieve. The Bible is filled with descriptions of man' corruption filter:NONE corrupt and the many many images that we've created. kjv@Titus:1:15 presents a mindset where truths are held at best as only relative and at worst as defiled, nothing is held as pure or absolute.


                                                                            ReprobateMind
                                                                            Found: kjv@Jeremiah:9:3 our tongues bent like a bow proceeding from evil to evil, kjv@Jeremiah:9:5 our tongue being "taught" to decieve (taught by whom?). kjv@STRING:false False teachers, false christs, false gods and images, false prophets, false brethren, false apostles, false witnesses, false accusers, false balances, false science.


                                                                            TorreyChristCharacter
                                                                            Found: kjv@Daniel:7:14 @ And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.